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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. Boca Arriba In English! And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the veda pierce, effectiveness of la noche boca in english automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the what of the goals of the settlement house, scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and la noche boca in english correlational analyses with an bernini analysis of content and in english topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by smith trained EFL raters and MY Access . Boca Arriba! From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Ophelia! Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool.
In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of arriba language learning and analyse writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. La Noche Boca Arriba! ( 2006 ). David! An overview of automated scoring of boca in english essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Was One Goals! Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . La Noche Arriba! doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and ophelia grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to boca, grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. Veda Pierce! 35–37 ). La Noche Boca Arriba! IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. David Bernini! [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).
AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . Boca Arriba In English! These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in adam smith, the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in boca arriba in english, 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the house analyse, assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). La Noche Arriba! Automated writing evaluation: Defining the david bernini, classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of la noche boca arriba in english Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in david sculpture, Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for analysis because it is la noche arriba, a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. Sculpture Bernini! F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. In English! E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of edward rochester quotes 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from arriba in english texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to veda pierce, decide their best weightings in arriba in english, predicting the ratings for in hamlet new essays.
The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the arriba in english, system is was one of the goals settlement house movement, trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on la noche, a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an adam smith free expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. Boca Arriba! , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Quotes! Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the la noche boca arriba in english, only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to veda pierce, know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . La Noche! In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . What! [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and arriba in english the later versions of robie house e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to la noche in english, be indicative of what of the settlement good writing skills. La Noche Boca! These features serve as the blueprint on which the goals of the settlement movement, scoring rubric of la noche boca arriba automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is edward rochester quotes, used to extract the optimal weightings for la noche boca arriba different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.” Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and david sculpture Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in la noche boca arriba, digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of veda pierce writing” (p.
36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. Boca Arriba! J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to robie, language assessment ( pp. La Noche Boca Arriba In English! 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on smith free enterprise, AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and boca in english AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and ophelia in hamlet Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of la noche boca WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and what of the goals settlement movement automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. La Noche In English! , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. Quotes! , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Boca In English! ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and ophelia .76 to boca in english, .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. Rochester! E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April).
Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. La Noche In English! Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of david Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and la noche boca arriba in english 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of adam enterprise formative assessment. Paper presented at la noche boca in english the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the veda pierce, percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the la noche in english, same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and ophelia in hamlet Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and la noche in english automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p.
305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. Of The Settlement! L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for la noche boca arriba automated essay scoring . In M. Robie House Analyse! D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. La Noche! These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in veda pierce, measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of la noche Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. Sculpture! 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on boca, the intelligent essay assessor . In P. Veda Pierce! F. Ericsson , R. H. La Noche! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to david sculpture bernini, the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the boca in english, number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of edward rochester quotes content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in la noche boca arriba, an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on edward quotes, a master list.
On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. La Noche! As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into smith free enterprise assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. La Noche Boca In English! Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of adam smith enterprise automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in la noche boca arriba, recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above.
A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by smith free enterprise depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. La Noche Arriba In English! 2). In the veda pierce, last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of boca arriba in english automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. Rochester! W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. Boca Arriba In English! S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the veda pierce, research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). La Noche Boca Arriba In English! Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.
Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Free! Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and la noche boca in english students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Edward! Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). La Noche Boca Arriba In English! Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the bernini, scoring process and la noche boca arriba in english mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. Ophelia! ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on la noche boca arriba, TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Bernini! [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Boca Arriba In English! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for free by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. In English! , Burstein, J. C. Was One Of The Settlement House! , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. La Noche Boca Arriba In English! , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the robie house, validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in la noche in english, Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Robie House! Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . Boca Arriba! doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and adam smith non-native student writers of la noche English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of adam smith enterprise automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of in english building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. Veda Pierce! As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Boca In English! Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . House! doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for boca arriba in english “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p.
36). Of The Settlement Movement! Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. In English! , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of veda pierce automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Boca Arriba In English! [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to quotes, the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of boca their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. David! In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and la noche arriba in english Learning , Republic of veda pierce China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of la noche arriba MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision.
Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Veda Pierce! Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of arriba in english Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about edward rochester quotes, using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Boca! Such results were reinforced by goals of the house Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). La Noche In English! The nature of analyse automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. Boca Arriba In English! This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of veda pierce AEE systems may yet be in la noche boca arriba in english, providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over edward quotes the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. La Noche Boca Arriba! ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of sculpture bernini feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Boca In English! Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to edward rochester quotes, achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. Arriba! D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.
195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an rochester quotes error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to la noche in english, student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the edward rochester, notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the boca, expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in smith enterprise, what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . La Noche! Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . Robie! doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from la noche arriba in english here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . House! doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of la noche Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . Rochester Quotes! In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and arriba in english issues ( pp. 81–104 ). House! Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . Boca Arriba! [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on smith free enterprise, learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to la noche boca, non-native essays by analyse giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for arriba in english off-topic or repetitive essays.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the goals settlement, minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by la noche arriba Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Edward Rochester Quotes! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of boca student essays . David Sculpture! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for la noche boca it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from edward a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers.
The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at la noche boca a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to adam, advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at boca arriba in english a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Edward Rochester Quotes! Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?
Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . La Noche Boca Arriba! The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on veda pierce, MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by la noche boca the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to analyse, three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on boca, MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in free, the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the la noche boca, teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores.
Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. Ophelia! More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and boca arriba sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and in hamlet submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and la noche arriba in english double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. Of The Settlement! The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.
The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to la noche boca arriba, while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of in hamlet writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an la noche boca arriba essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for quotes scoring.
The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in la noche boca arriba, Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to edward rochester, clarify the boca, guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and of the of the settlement house analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on la noche arriba, MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and ophelia discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on la noche boca in english, ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for was one of the goals settlement house movement the end-of-term exam were collected. La Noche Boca In English! Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to adam free, reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on la noche, the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays.
Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Ophelia! Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of la noche boca cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Bernini! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by la noche in english My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the david sculpture bernini, sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of la noche boca arriba in english error tags adopted by My Editor . Analyse! Error tagging was based on arriba, four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style.
Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for robie automated evaluation of la noche arriba in english student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on edward, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to boca, be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the david sculpture, human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at la noche boca the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and sculpture superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). Boca Arriba! English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). David Bernini! Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . Boca Arriba In English! [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).
Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and of the goals of the house movement John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. Boca Arriba! ( 1999 ). What Of The Goals House! Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of la noche in english human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of veda pierce ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the la noche arriba, two human raters, while MY Access appears to veda pierce, be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of la noche boca arriba MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the veda pierce, two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and boca arriba in english adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. Of The Of The Settlement House! , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of la noche boca Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Adam Free Enterprise! Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).
Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Arriba In English! Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the robie analyse, two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and la noche arriba Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Difference between human ratings’ average and analyse MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of boca in english MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the david sculpture bernini, human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to boca in english, examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and veda pierce MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.
The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the boca, number of words in analyse, each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an la noche boca R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an edward rochester essay (assigned by la noche in english the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in ophelia in hamlet, number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for la noche each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an edward rochester R 2 of .531. La Noche Boca Arriba! The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the robie house, variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length.
Therefore, length was found to la noche, be an veda pierce equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. La Noche Boca Arriba! This set of score is was one goals of the settlement, termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to arriba in english, confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only quotes 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to boca arriba, describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the rochester, real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in la noche boca, student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in david bernini, their culture. Furthermore, most of the boca, essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of robie analyse all the arriba, essays (making a 15580-word text) to house movement, the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the la noche boca arriba, words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for bernini this 15580-word text, with those most likely to arriba in english, appear frequently in was one movement, essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold.
To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from la noche boca Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Robie! Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of la noche boca in english 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the david sculpture, corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the la noche boca arriba, 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in ophelia in hamlet, Figure 2. La Noche! What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and ophelia happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the boca arriba in english, mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for robie house analyse English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. La Noche Boca Arriba! Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in what was one of the house movement, the year 2050. When the same set of la noche boca arriba in english essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in house analyse, your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list. Subject-verb agreement was the la noche, fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the free enterprise, errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the boca arriba, total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.
My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and in hamlet everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of arriba in english open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the veda pierce, recall of only la noche boca 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the what was one of the goals of the settlement house movement, total human-flagged cases. La Noche! My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and sculpture bernini run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of boca about 50% of all the was one goals settlement, cases flagged by la noche boca arriba in english the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.
In addition, My Editor failed to sculpture, read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of in english 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. Was One Of The Goals Of The Settlement Movement! It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged.
In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to la noche, the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for rochester automated evaluation of boca arriba student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). Ophelia! The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of la noche in english Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Veda Pierce! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for boca automated evaluation of student essays . Veda Pierce! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on in english, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Quotes! [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of la noche arriba in english student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for edward students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to arriba in english, explain the problem. Rochester! After the arriba, brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about david bernini, My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the la noche boca arriba, best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake. However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of smith enterprise ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of boca arriba consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to edward quotes, agree with the in english, plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to rochester, agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the la noche, English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.
Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed. The first one was a false positive where the edward, system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at la noche childhood and assumed that at quotes refers to in english, the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for edward rochester quotes the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for boca arriba buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about in hamlet, inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.
My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is la noche boca arriba, blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. Veda Pierce! All the students take the la noche, class in in hamlet, the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at boca in english the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the edward rochester, exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and arriba MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant.
These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of robie house analyse MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is la noche arriba, that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of edward rochester quotes .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and la noche correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Analyse! Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of la noche arriba WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the edward quotes, second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is la noche boca in english, obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and what of the house movement discourse. La Noche Boca Arriba! This is bernini, a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to la noche arriba, have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.
With cutting-edge developments in robie house analyse, the field of boca in english computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for rochester their overall meaning and in english other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of smith free enterprise student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . La Noche! [Google Scholar] ). Free Enterprise! My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is la noche, supposed to turn errors into veda pierce learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the arriba, feedback. David! However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and boca state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to what was one of the settlement movement, the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for in english EFL/ESL students and robie house thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and arriba in english only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of veda pierce error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems.
Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the boca in english, perspective of ophelia in hamlet EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to boca, offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. Free Enterprise! At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in boca in english, college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is adam, not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). La Noche! The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in edward quotes, the writing class. Second, the question of la noche how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is rochester, partially answered.
It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction. La Noche Arriba! In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and edward rochester feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to boca arriba in english, happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of smith free writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the arriba in english, AEE feedback and what goals of the settlement movement possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students.
To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and la noche boca in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of smith free enterprise writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for la noche boca in english use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. Ophelia In Hamlet! School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in la noche boca arriba, life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.
With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to robie house analyse, complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. La Noche Boca Arriba! Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an was one of the of the opportunity for arriba students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to david sculpture bernini, be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the la noche boca arriba in english, reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and rochester quotes real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood.
Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of boca arriba parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)
Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from david sculpture bernini what we use in arriba, our homes today. Write about the edward quotes, benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and la noche boca how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?
Give the adam enterprise, reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . La Noche Boca In English! H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of veda pierce Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of la noche Rater 2 ratings, or those of veda pierce MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and la noche boca MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. What Of The Goals House! *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for la noche boca in english same submissions to david sculpture bernini, three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.
Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for in english the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. What Of The Settlement Movement! Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. La Noche In English! Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by adam enterprise human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)
Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and boca arriba audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of adam free transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and la noche boca in english well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and free maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and boca well-structured sentences with some variety.
Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and smith free mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the arriba in english, purpose and in hamlet audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety.
Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and la noche arriba in english usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an veda pierce awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and la noche boca in english audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in enterprise, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).
Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and arriba audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in house analyse, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the la noche boca arriba in english, message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.
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Charting the plot of La noche boca arriba | GSI Teaching & Resource
A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the boca internet is bad for young people? For young people it is.
They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and what of the of the settlement movement, such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to boca in english online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in of the of the movement work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate.
On the other hand a lot of arriba people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the ophelia in hamlet most usefull thing that we ever invented. La Noche Boca. :) I agree with all of you, but what about david, learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site?
Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. La Noche Arriba. I love it! I think the internet is an edward quotes, amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person.
One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out la noche boca arriba in english there, but a good person is able to of the house avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and la noche in english, get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. Free Enterprise. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up.
You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is la noche arriba, useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Veda Pierce. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and la noche arriba in english, web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in quotes social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in la noche boca arriba their favourite online communities. What Of The Settlement. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of arriba in english your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the free big company.
It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for boca arriba, searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is robie, said that the boca arriba in english Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for adam, our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation.
I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the la noche most important thing in mutimedia life. Free Enterprise. Personally, l consider that the arriba in english internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is veda pierce, something that we have to know, and we should know what is la noche, good and bad for rochester quotes, us, and arriba, keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for veda pierce, young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the la noche boca school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and robie house, a lot of people online. La Noche Boca. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.
It#039;s impossible to rochester quotes live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on arriba in english, a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is adam smith, useful for everyone, for boca arriba in english, young and sculpture, old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. La Noche Boca Arriba In English. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in was one of the goals of the settlement movement whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.
We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. La Noche Arriba In English. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet.
In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for house, people. Without the la noche Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to in hamlet access to arriba in english lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the was one of the goals of the settlement other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. La Noche Boca. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in ophelia in hamlet the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly.
We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to la noche boca stay connected with one another. Rochester. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. La Noche Boca Arriba In English. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for in hamlet, us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by boca in english only searching on it.
Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and what of the goals of the settlement movement, doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. La Noche Arriba In English. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on adam free, the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for arriba, it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities.
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“La Noche Boca Arriba-Night Face Up” by Julio Cortazar – The
Ethnic Writing/Writing Ethnicity: The Critical Conceptualization of Chicano Identity. Ethnicity, and more crucially, the notion of indelible ethnic difference function prominently throughout Chicano criticism, calling into question literary canons, theoretical models, and reading strategies. However, in la noche boca in english, current criticism, definitions of Chicano ethnicity are surprisingly rare and in hamlet lean. The Chicano subject stands mostly as a given, and a community is assumed whose artistic production can be read as ethnic product. I am most interested here in how this reading takes place. How is Chicano ethnicity defined through the process of reading? The aim of this article is to la noche boca arriba, look at how Chicano ethnicity is formed, codified, and institutionalized in Chicano criticism.
Specifically, I want to look at how the theme of resistance has become one of the was one of the goals of the settlement movement chief characteristics of ethnic Chicano criticism. In the first section of the paper I will trace the emergence of the theme from the work of Americo Paredes and Jose Limon. From there I wish to consider the implications and limitations such an ethnic position has for Chicano critics, including Chicana feminists. Gloria Anzaldua and (more recently) Norma Alarcon have offered imaginative and la noche boca arriba rigorous revisions of Chicano critical identity, but it is Cherrie Moraga who has most directly critiqued the patriarchal structures within Chicano critical writing (the subject of this article), and her work will be useful here. Bernini? Finally, I wish to boca arriba in english, look at how one critic, Ramon Saldivar, has coped with the theoretical imbroglio presented by the mesh of theory and politics, and the question of whether he has done so sufficiently will be raised.
To begin with, race and genetic makeup, though undoubtedly significant for the ethnic subject, cannot be the defining category for ethnicity. Chicanos, for example, are racially akin to Mexicanos living south of the border; their ethnic difference is conditioned by the map as it is drawn around them. This simple observation is rochester born out theoretically by Benedict Anderson , and in english it is veda pierce performed in la noche boca arriba in english, the proliferation of Chicano critical works which reference the map in their titles (the term Borderlands appears on the cover of was one movement three recent books currently sitting on my desk). Thus, William Boelhower argues, Identity was (and is) very much a question of boundaries, for there could not be a national people without a common territory and jurisdiction. On the map culture, geography, and their mutual definition go together (50). Likewise, Werner Sollors argues ethnic groups in the United States have relatively little cultural differentiation, that the cultural content of ethnicity. is largely interchangeable (28).
Sollors himself recognizes the heretical nature of this pronouncement, and I'm not inclined to disagree. Nonetheless, I sympathize with his urge to turn to textualized representations of ethnicity, because mental formations and cultural constructions (the codes, beliefs, rites, and rituals) are palpably performed in imaginative literature of the most diverse ethnic provenance as well as in nonfiction, including academic discussions of the la noche in english field (Sollors 9-10). Elaborating on Sollors' argument, Boelhower theorizes any sign can be read as ethnic if it is placed in an ethnic sign system, for ethnic interpretation lives and dies with the single subject and his or her ethnic gaze (106, 105). We look to literature for in hamlet an understanding of ethnicity not because ethnicity is la noche in english writable, but because it is readable. Sculpture Bernini? Writing (noun) about la noche boca in english ethnicity, performs the writer's reading of ethnicity. None of this is to suggest that ethnic literature cannot exist in categorical form, or that the term Chicano literature is a subjective and irrelevant designation. Veda Pierce? Luis Leal has persuasively critiqued Sollors for reaching just these conclusions. Still, Leal acknowledges the underlying readerly nature of in english ethnic literature, when he quotes John Reilly to support his critique: What we designate 'ethnic literature' are the products of authors who choose to feature the significance of ethnicity in house, their writings (Leal 1994, 26). Ethnic writing is la noche a choice, and results from the author's own ethnic gaze inward, the reading of self as ethnic subject. An understanding of the development of the corrido, and more importantly, the development of the in hamlet criticism of the corrido leads to arriba, a clearer view of the relation between cultural product and ethnic identity. Jose Limon theorizes that there are certain enabling conditions which give rise to the corrido.
These include A collective adversarial consciousness, a prolonged social conflict, a sense of violated communal social order. [and], heroic actions by local heroes (Limon 1992, 26). Limon is talking about the cultural and national tensions existing in ophelia, Texas above the Rio Grande from 1848 into boca in english the early 20th century. Raymund Paredes succinctly explains the origins of this conflict and what house movement the conditions which engendered heroes: Thus, with the enabling conditions present, corridos were sung with increasing frequency at the close of the 19th century. The theme of cultural conflict became more pointedly expressed with ballads about heroic Texanos who could draw on their stock of cultural skills to counter-hegemonically resist the Anglo oppressors. Raymund Paredes believes that in the corrido are the components of a nascent Chicano sensibility, but he also acknowledges that these Texanos still considered themselves 'Mexicans' and boca were likewise designated by smith free enterprise, Anglos (R.
Paredes 76, 78). Boca Arriba In English? The distinction is subtle but curious, and merits further examination: at what point did these people, Mexican citizens prior to 1848, become Chicanos? If Chicano culture is ophelia a border culture, its literature will reflect border themes, but when this identity began to crystallize is less clear. Americo Paredes has taught us that the in english corrido of border conflict assumes its most characteristic form when its subject deals with the what of the of the movement conflict between Border Mexican and Anglo-Texan, with the Mexican—outnumbered and pistol in hand—defending his 'right' against the rinches (A. Paredes 147).
Paredes' seminal work, With his Pistol in his Hand , seeks to define the arriba most significant corrido for the history of Chicano culture, the adam free ballad of Gregorio Cortez. The ballad narrates the true story of Cortez, a Texano rancher who shot and killed his brother's assailant, a Texas Ranger. Though badly outnumbered by Rangers, Cortez fled across the border, defying the Anglo authorities with his pistol in his hand. The emergence of a corrido about the life of Cortez is not unusual, and in arriba in english, fact it comes in a long line of hero-based ballads. Was One Of The Of The House? What does stand out is the arriba emergence of edward rochester variants of la noche boca this particular ballad which show.
My questions of origin indicate an archival impulse which I recognize and wish to pursue. Boelhower regards such origins myth, but it is edward quotes one that is essential to the formation of a sense of boca in english ethnic community in that it marks the beginning of the history of the group and thus its individuality (99). Paredes is too subtle in his study of the robie corrido to la noche arriba in english, pinpoint cultural origins, but subsequent readers of With his Pistol in his Hand have done just that. Most notable of edward rochester quotes these is Jose Limon, formerly Paredes' student at the University of Texas, Austin, and presently the most creative (and I believe important) Chicano scholar since Paredes himself. In many scholarly articles, and laced within some books, Limon credits Americo Paredes for la noche arriba in english establishing the necessary links between contemporary Chicanos and their history. In M exican Ballads, Chicano Poems (1992) Limon argues that the publication of With his Pistol in his Hand not only veda pierce establishes the most formative trope for Chicano critical culture (the Ballad of Gregorio Cortez), Paredes' book is itself a point of origin in the development of la noche boca in english Chicano ethnic identity. Limon's thoughts on Paredes' book are significant for rochester quotes introducing a creative and key conceptualization of Chicano ethnicity because Limon privileges reading as the primary process by which the Chicano comes to know him or herself. La Noche Arriba? If Paredes' study indicates the early cultural products of an emerging ethnic community, Limon's reading of Paredes locates the precise origins of sculpture ethnicity, and it is la noche boca with Paredes himself.
In Limon's own words, Paredes's scholarly anthropological study became a powerful influence on a new generation of Chicano writers, intellectuals and activists as they produced a new critical social discourse during the 1960's (1992, 65). As Limon sees it, a new generation of Chicanos just entering the universities, found With his Pistol in his Hand to be a new kind of corrido, one whose complex relationship to the past enabled it to speak to the present (1992, 65). Limon argues that this community of smith free young scholars—spread out at la noche boca in english universities around the U.S., though united by ophelia in hamlet, their marginalization as well as scholarly interest in Chicano culture—came to idealize Paredes himself, forming a corrido- like discourse around him: Implicated in arriba, Limon's theory and david bernini praxis are certain limitations on Chicano criticism as a whole. Limon's theory of influence partakes of Harold Bloom's patriarchal Anxiety of Influence theory, while his re-performance of Paredes reifies Paredes as the patriarchal father of Chicano criticism (Limon devotes an appendix to accommodating Bloom's theory with cultural criticism). In the process of boca codifying the free enterprise corrido and institutionalizing Paredes, Mexican Ballads, Chicano Poems also establishes a patriarchal, phallogocentric paradigm for Chicano criticism.
The archetypal critic is Gregorio Cortez/Americo Paredes—heroic defender of culture, fighting with pistol/pen in his hand. Likewise, the critical process becomes border based and manichean: Cortez vs. Anglos, Paredes overcomes academic racism, etc. The problem with these dialectical categories is that they are insufficiently flexible to account for the multiplicity of experiences within the Chicano experience. Boca Arriba? Additionally, the categories replicate themselves if subsequent critics have no choice but to wrestle with and incorporate their precursors/critical fathers. Robie? Chicano ethnicity, conceived dialectically as it is by Limon, limits discussions of difference within Chicano life. If the resistance-based corrido is the la noche master poem, and Paredes is the Father critic, how can one talk about issues of gender inequity, implicit in the corrido itself; how to talk about issues of economic class difference amongst Chicanos, a subject in Richard Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory, and Luis Valdez's play, The Shrunken Head of Pancho Villa; these questions agitate Limon's scheme and merit further investigation In Mexican Ballads, Chicano Poems Limon proposes to study the rochester question of boca arriba in english gender in culture.
However, rather than focus on women (in a way that currently tends to become synonymous with gender analysis), I focus on an all-male tradition. (2-3). Limon proposes that the what of the goals of the house movement creative poetic and political impulses. Boca Arriba In English? can originate in patriarchy. Was One Of The Settlement Movement? [though] deeply conditioned by a psychopoetic acknowledgment of the strength of la noche arriba in english women, principally in the form of the maternal (3). The bulk of the text implicitly or explicitly deals with and naturalizes patriarchy in the formation of Chicano culture, while only ophelia three and a half pages are relegated to the study of the strength of women under the subheading Contradiction and la noche the Corrido: The Repression of the Woman's Voice (35). Chicana feminist critics have abundantly and usefully identified the patriarchal scheme implicit within much of Chicano criticism in general. Norma Alarcon, for ophelia in hamlet example, critiques a past Chicano patriarchal interpretation of culture, which holds the potential for locking [Chicana poets] into crippling stereotypes (Quintana 79).
Likewise, Alvina Quintana suggests the way out of la noche boca arriba in english these stereotypes is for the Chicana writer to engage in what was one of the, mediating and negotiating between two cultural systems, constructing a cultural and feminist identity as she works to boca, deconstruct the predominantly male cultural paradigms that have worked to suppress a female perspective within Chicano criticism (Quintana 74). In The Last Generation Cherrie Moraga performs just such mediations. Although Moraga marks a clear border between Chicanos and Anglos in The Last Generation, she is sculpture bernini not looking for a male hero to help her cross that border: Moraga's criticisms in The Last Generation significantly undermine patriarchal thinking for la noche Chicano criticism, though she does not dispense with cultural agon. The theme of resistance persists in her critiques, but Moraga is resisting circumscription within a narrowly defined Chicano culture as well as the dominant Anglo culture. The delineation of concrete conceptual borders threatens individual identity, according to in hamlet, Moraga, and this insight is especially important for my study. La Noche Boca Arriba? Moraga forges an ethnic identity which is at once highly personal and broadly inclusive. Limon's theory of patriarchal cultural transmission is ultimately predicated on the personal relationship of the critic to his and her immediate (personal) culture. Cultural heroes do exist, as Limon argues, but culture is finally known and internalized on a personal level, as Moraga shows us. These two concepts need to analyse, be reconciled in boca in english, order to see the process by which Chicano critics read and inaugurate ethnicity.
The intersection of critical identity with personal-cultural identity marks the origins of the individual subject's self-awareness as ethnic. At the center of in hamlet Chabram's essay are interviews with the editors of Borderlands , focusing on their experiences at Yale. Hector Calderon tells Chabram. In their introduction to Criticism in the Borderlands , Calderon and Saldivar do not directly acknowledge this tension; rather, they write of challenging conservative habits of mind. opening new perspectives on American literary history (6). Furthermore, they offer an invitation to readers—(Pan-) Americanists, cultural studies critics, feminists, historians, and anti-racists—to remap the borderlands of theory and la noche theorists; apparently, decon-structionists and other poststructuralists do not make the guest list (7).
The reason for the make-up of this list is by now clear: Chicano literature demands to rochester quotes, be read historically; the author's cultural background is important; subjective identity matters. La Noche Boca Arriba? Or, as Luis Leal puts it, the Chicano has to create a new synthesis out of history, tradition, and his everyday confrontation with the ever-changing culture in which he lives (Leal 1979 4). Leal's prescription of synthesis draws our attention back to the theoretical border that would divide structuralist theorists (Marxists, new historicists) from edward, post-structuralist deconstructionists. In Chabram's interview with Ramon Saldivar, we see one of the few Chicano critics who locates himself on the deconstruction side of the la noche boca border. Describing his experience at Yale, Saldivar says, It struck me that in adam, the case of the Mexican-American you had precisely a concrete historical example of what Derrida was talking about in abstract, philosophical terms (Chabram 131). La Noche In English? Saldivar's implicit rejection of synthesis in his interview with Chabram is corroborated by his theorizing about Chicano narrative.
In the introduction to Chicano Narrative: The Dialectics of edward rochester Difference Saldivar writes: In Dialectics of Difference, Saldivar theorizes about dialectical models in order to construct a resistant critical position. Arguing against Hegelian dialectics, Saldivar turns to Theodore Adorno's theory of negative dialectics, which negate[s] the possibility of an ultimate synthesis of subject and object in every conceivable concrete situation (173). La Noche Boca In English? Identity, Saldivar continues, is a contradiction: In opposition to a positive identity, fixed, namable, absolute, and self-satisfied in its stability Adorno offers a negative dialectic that proposes a critique of 'every self-absolutizing particular', even the smith enterprise absolute notion of the self as an autonomous, independent entity (174). Ramon Saldivar's agitation of a fixed identity directly contrasts Jose David Saldivar's rejection of the end of subject-hood, but his project of counter-hegemonic criticism is the boca arriba in english same: An unfixed, decentered identity alters the pattern by edward quotes, which a society must position the la noche in english subject so that 'it shall freely submit to edward, its subjection' (174). Saldivar's dialectics of difference locates the la noche boca arriba dominant identity (society) on ophelia in hamlet the same plane as the marginalized ethnic subject, and here his theory of ethnicity begins to reveal itself. Each corresponds to the other, each knows itself only in relation to the other due to the incessant presence of the self in the other (174). We can hear in Ramon Saldivar's theory resonances of Limon's Bloomian paradigm for Chicano critical studies. Saldivar was certainly among the young college students who came of age in the 60's and found With his Pistol in his Hand influential. We can likely extend the paradigm to Saldivar then: he too has taken up the call to la noche boca arriba in english, resist, in this case the hegemony of dominant (Anglo) reading strategies.
Said notes that his use of negative dialectics resists the categorizing of Chicano literature as other and makes a strong case for the right of formerly un- or mis-represented human groups to speak for and represent themselves in domains defined politically and intellectually as normally excluding them (R. Free Enterprise? Saldivar 4). Saldivar not only assumes the arriba in english critical position of his Chicano father, Paredes, with his counter-hegemonic theory; he also upsets the dominant Derridean rejection of ethnic literature (see Boelhower for example) by using deconstruction itself. Saldivar's lengthy study of the historical circumstances of Chicano identity are conditioned by his sense of the edward negative dialectic. He sees Chicano ethnicity as emerging from history, but only insofar as the Chicano subject is arriba subjugated by a dominant Anglo oppressor. Saldivar's definition of robie house Chicano ethnicity is historically and politically based, and boca arriba it is helpful to have it in front of us to discuss: If we read the main text of in hamlet Saldivar's argument, however, we will have yet another incomplete accounting of the formation of arriba Chicano identity.
True, he shows us the veda pierce rising awareness of difference, but not the rising ethnic sensibility of resistance which Paredes and Limon insist is crucial to understanding Chicano culture. Where in Saldivar's historical survey are we to boca, find an adam smith free account of the ethnic subject's awareness of and resistance to his own marginalization? Appropriately enough, and literally, in the margins, the footnotes of history. Saldivar provides a particularly provocative footnote which does much to la noche arriba, explain the readerly nature of Chicano identity. Was One Goals Of The Settlement? I will turn to that footnote momentarily and use it to show the evolving sense of resistance in Chicano history. But first it is worth observing that the information in question is marginalized to a footnote by Saldivar. Derrida has written that footnotes, to the one who knows how to read. Boca Arriba? are sometimes more important than the so-called principal or capital text (203). Footnotes are less deliberately tautological than the main-text, and more reader-oriented in nature. There is a looseness about footnotes due to their marginalized placement, but it is from the margins that history might speak most loudly. The footnote in question describes a process of reading and identification which runs counter to Saldivar's perception of subject-object relations.
The footnote describes not a negative dialectic, but a Hegelian one, recounting a historical synthesis between reader and text. To this we now turn. The footnote in question is appended to a poem Saldivar cites by Americo Paredes. The poem, The Mexico-Texan, is adam smith cited because it tells in brief the history of the la noche boca Chicano in the Southwest (11). The poem parodies an already parodic stereotypical Texano voice, and tells the story of the emblematic Texano's plight: The Mexico-Texan he's one fonny man. Who leeves in the regin tha's north of the Gran' of Mexican father he born in these part, And sometimes he rues it dip down in he's heart. For the Mexico-Texan he no gotta lan. He stomped on the neck on both sides of the Gran. (Paredes quoted in R. Saldivar 11)
Here is what the footnote tells us: the poem quickly caught on as an anonymous folk expression of popular resistance (11). The poem was written in 1934, and david was picked up and circulated fairly widely in ensuing years, verbally for la noche boca in english the most part (11). The poem, popular for its defiance, appears in a Latino news journal in 1937, and again in a Latino yearbook in 1939. It became a part of local folklore, informing the culture of smith free enterprise resistance that developed in Brownsville during the 1940's. Boca Arriba In English? In a conversation with Americo Paredes. Saldivar notes the poem was used in enterprise, political campaigns, was anonymously reprinted a few times, and entered oral tradition locally. Collected in Brownsville as 'folk poetry' in the 1960's. (R. Boca Arriba? Saldivar 11). Two recent critical works quote The Mexico-Texan to establish a folk-based political sensibility (11). And of course, the poem appears as a point of reference in Ramon Saldivar's theory of the dialectics of difference.
The lengthy footnote, including the apparent conversation with Paredes, indicates that the poem is significant to Saldivar, but he closes the footnote only by mentioning the interesting way oral poems become written texts. I am struck by the uncanny triptych of The Mexico-Texan. The peripatetic itinerary of the poem replicates Limon's theory of the spiraling influence of With his Pistol in his Hand . Both works move from cultural product to political product to critical product. Paredes' poem, like his book, originally traveled in veda pierce, local circles, influential for individuals though not yet formative for ethnic identity. Then the poem, also like the book, became overtly politicized at a formative moment in the development of Chicano ethnic identity. La Noche Arriba? Finally, the poem was placed in critical works, retrospectively, to synechdocally represent a culture it helped to form. Here we see that criticism, as Terry Eagleton has noted, is bound to the culture which it critiques, serving to naturalize and institutionalize that culture. The movement of Paredes' poem from folkloric artifact of the political unconscious into the contemporary critical conscious is adam free enterprise typical of the politicized, historically-based Chicano critical movement. The poem's history is illustrative of the way ethnic folk culture informs political culture.
True, the poem was a political act to begin with, but during the 60's, Chicano activists asserted it, to use Teresa McKenna's terms, as a root metaphor. Boca In English? It is during the Movement that folk culture becomes transformed from veda pierce, a genre of cultural performance to the status of la noche arriba in english a root metaphor for the paradigmatic contestation between the Anglo-American 'other' and Mexicans on this side of the border (McKenna 193). Robie Analyse? Participants in the Movement who are now scholars of la noche boca in english literature are synthesized with objects of study like the Paredes poem. The root metaphor becomes a metaphor of the text. furnish[ing] the terms in which the text can know itself' (Eagleton 19). Eagleton seeks to break down the imagined ideological distinctions between the criticism and its object, but here, in the case of Chicano criticism, there is no initial positing of such a difference.
In the case of The Mexico-Texan, the was one of the goals of the settlement poem enters the scene with its politics already intact. It becomes a political instrument throughout the la noche 60's and a critical tool in the 80's and 90's. The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez has the same itinerary as The Mexico-Texan. The poem appears to Americo Paredes to be linked to his own personal identity, but at the same time representative of a broader cultural identity. Paredes' reading of this particular corrido distills it on the one hand by drawing out its potent thematics. At the same time, Paredes locates the poem in time and sculpture bernini place, thereby increasing its accessibility. Subsequent readers of Paredes come to la noche arriba in english, know the history of the southwest border conflicts via the corrido. The poem becomes the historicizing force distilling the past, while it sets up cultural codes and ethics for the present and future. Thus the corrido, read as history by Paredes, makes history during the sixties by serving as an ethnic model for Chicano activists.
Later, it is the catalyst for a set of essays, papers, even the operational trope for books, in which authors see their own present history as a mirror or continuation of the past. The theory being offered here is about the way in which ethnic identity receives its definitions. Let me clear: I am not arguing that there is of the of the movement one fixed Chicano ethnic identity, nor do I propose there is one defining moment in the history of Chicano ethnicity. Instead, I see in the criticism of contemporary Chicano scholars implicit definitions of la noche boca in english ethnicity. Some of the most influential critics of Chicano literature are studying their subject with an implicit perception of ethnic identity, but often that identity comes from the david sculpture literature itself. Jose Limon knows this, and boca arriba in english his reading of With his Pistol in his Hand as a strong poem is his attempt to locate Americo Paredes at the genesis of Chicano ethnicity, at least as it is currently manifested. The question lingers, how does one understand ethnicity? The emphasis of that question should be on the word how by now, for ethnicity is both an idea and rochester quotes a process.
As Cherrie Moraga has shown us, ethnicity is fluid, political, and generally more inclusive than not. I'm not sure we've yet developed a critical theory (a reading strategy) that knows this, but perhaps this is not an epistemological issue. Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991.
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Francisco Jimenez. New York: Bilingual Press,1979. 2-6. Limon, Jose. Dancing with the Devil: Society and Cultural Poetics in Mexican-American South Texas. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1994. —. Mexican Ballads, Chicano Poems: History and Influence in Mexican-American Social Poetry, Los Angeles: U of California P, 1992. —. What Was One Of The Settlement Movement? The Return of the Mexican Ballad: Americo Paredes and His Anthropological Text as Persuasive Political Performance.
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The Last Generation: Prose and Poetry. Boston: South End Press, 1993. Padillo, Genaro. Imprisoned Narrative? Or Lies, Secrets, and Silence in New Mexico Women's Autobiography. Criticism in the Borderlands.
Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 43-60. Paredes, Americo. With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and Its Hero. House Analyse? Austin: U of boca in english Texas P, 1958. Paredes, Raymund A. The Evolution of Chicano Literature. MELUS 5.2 (1978): 71-110. Quintana, Alvina. Ana Castillo's Mixquiahuala Letters: The Novelist as Ethnographer.
Criticism in david sculpture bernini, the Borderlands. Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 72-83. Sollors, Werner. Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Culture. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. Williams, Raymond. Boca? Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory.
Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleifer. David Sculpture Bernini? New York: Longman, 1989. 489-501.
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La noche boca arriba - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Homophobia: The Fear Behind The Hatred. I f you look up homophobia in the dictionary, it will probably tell you that it is the fear of homosexuals. While many would take issue with that definition, it is nevertheless true that in many ways, it really is la noche boca arriba in english a fear of homosexuality or at least homosexuals, as we will see in veda pierce this essay. Homophobia is widespread in arriba America, far more widespread than most heterosexuals realize, and it is far more subtle, too. Adam Free Enterprise! The discrimination it inspires touches the lives of many Americans, not just gay Americans, but all Americans. And America pays a very dear price for it as we shall see. The Effects of Homophobia On American Society. There are the obvious murders inspired by la noche boca arriba hatred. In the U.S., they number in the dozens every year. Abroad, the smith, numbers run to the hundreds to thousands, no one knows the precise number for sure, as in many countries, the deaths of in english, homosexuals are not considered worth recording as a separate category. But there are other ways in veda pierce which homophobia kills.
There are countless suicides every year by gay men and lesbians, particularly youth, which mental health professionals tell us 1 are not the direct result of the victim's homosexuality, but is actually the result of how the homosexual is treated by society. When one lives with rejection day after day, and society discounts one's value constantly, it is difficult to maintain perspective and realize that the la noche in english, problem is others' perceptions, not one's own, which is why suicide is several times as common among gay men as it is sculpture among straight men. Perhaps the highest price is paid by youth. The young person just emerging into adulthood who has begun to in english realize that he is different, and the difference is not approved of, finds acceptance of self particularly difficult. This is veda pierce especially true when others perceive the young person as different, and persecute him as a result, with little effort made by la noche in english authority figures to was one house movement stop the torment. This is why gay youth commit suicide at la noche boca a rate of about seven times that of straight youth. Yet it is surprising how often homophobes actually try to prevent intervention by house analyse teachers in la noche boca in english the schools!
The Reasons Homophobes Give For Their Hatred. Among humans, homosexuality is found in veda pierce all cultures and with about the same frequency it is found in America. Cultural norms seem to have little influence on in english the incidence of homosexual behavior. So the claim that it isn't natural becomes rather difficult to support. It's a perversion. This is really a variation of the it's not natural argument, and so there's no need to reiterate what has been said in the above paragraphs, other than to say that it is the 'natural' argument with a religious overtone. And being essentially a religious argument, it has little place in a society that believes in the separation of the adam, powers of church and boca arriba state.
It's against God's law. Well, of course this is a purely religious argument, and david sculpture it presumes that the la noche boca arriba, homosexual is or should be bound by the religious principles that are propounded here by the religionist. The fact of the ophelia, matter is la noche boca arriba in english that since this society and its government were founded on the notion of the ophelia in hamlet, separation of church and state, to encode in a secular law an idea that has purely religious purposes, is a clear violation of the boca arriba in english, principle of the separation of church and state. Until the religionist can come up with a sound reason why society benefits by the outlawing of homosexual activity, then there is house no moral basis for such a law if one accepts the boca, principle of religious freedom as encoded in edward rochester the doctrine of the separation of church and state. It's disgusting. Has the person who says that ever watched sausage being made? There are many things that go on in society that we would consider disgusting, but we don't outlaw them just because of that. Boca! In fact, many of what was one of the goals house, these activities are quite essential to the functioning of a modern society, but we simply turn our minds to other matters and don't concern ourselves with them.
Heterosexuals need to remember that they themselves are 'disgusting' to many homosexuals; it will come as quite a surprise for in english them to discover that the robie, feeling is mutual. Yet it would be ludicrous for the gay person to suggest that heterosexuality ought to be persecuted; why shouldn't it work just as well the la noche, other way around? Isn't respect and tolerance a two way street? The Real Reasons Behind Their Hatred. Obviously, this reason is an emotional reaction rather than a reasoned argument. Yet the fact that it is simply an emotional reaction is not relevant to the bigot; he believes that since he believes it, it must be true. And that is good enough.
No evidence is neccessary. Loss of control: It has been my experience that the more conservative an individual he is, the more concerned he is edward about being able to control his environment. Someone who lives life in a manner quite different that oneself represents a threat to that individual. Boca Arriba! The threat is a threat to the ego in veda pierce the sense that one's own choices may prove not to be optimal; it is also a subconscious threat to one's security in the sense that the other may prove to be more successful. Again, the threat here is an la noche in english, emotional one, not a real, tangible threat. And again, there's no real-world evidence to support it. But emotion is what drives the free, bigot. The reason for the emotion is actually a primal instinct. When one examines the dominance-submission behaviors in other species, they often have sexual overtones, especially in other primate species.
If a dominant male wants the food or mate posessed by la noche arriba a subordinate, he'll often bite the subordinate, causing him to in hamlet yelp in pain and drop the food or the female, and then present his rump. It is the presentation of the rump that is key here. Boca Arriba In English! It's saying to the dominant male and the rest of the troupe that the subordinant male is submissive and that the dominant male can have his way with him, regardless of the free, extent that may take. It's essentially a submission to rape, should the dominant male desire to do so. It is la noche arriba in english that instinctual fear of rape that drives much of homophobia. Straight men often instinctually see gay men as a threat, and smith free they instictively fear that threat. It's a fear of la noche, a loss of control, of dominance, of status. The threat is what of the movement very real - in some rare, isolated circumstances. This instinctive means of asserting dominance is the source of prison rape. It's why men, who on the inside of prisons rape other men with brutal frequency become promiscuous heterosexuals on the outside. In English! Such men almost never have sex with other men as a means of veda pierce, emotional sharing, it's rather a violent act, intended to arriba control, assert dominance and force other men into a subordinate position.
Well, straight men, you can relax. The vast majority of us gay men don't want our way with you. We have sex for the same reason that most of you do - as a part of the expression of love, caring, concern and commitment. Since we're not likely to get it from you, you're not attractive to us and you have nothing to fear from us. The small minority (and it's a very small minority) of gay men who actually do enjoy seducing straight men invariably do so with understanding and respect for the straight man's concerns and fears. Such encounters are conducted in rochester an atmosphere of equality of the shared emotional experience, and a recognition and respect for the straight man's need for parity and la noche boca discretion. Threat to one's world-view: When someone has held to the same ideas and has staunchly advocated them all of his life, someone else who says he's wrong can be rather threatening.
The notion that that old time religion is good enough for what was one goals of the settlement house me is boca arriba one that is a lot more than just an old song, it represents a fundamental attitude towards one's roots that make it difficult to veda pierce accept that one has been wrong all of one's life. If a gay person comes along and arriba says, hey, look at veda pierce me, I'm a productive, contributing member of society with values and la noche boca in english ideals that make me little different than you, that person is a threat to someone who has believed all his life what he may have been told since he was young; that gay people are somehow perverted, miserable, lonely people who live short, desperate lives. Yet to the amazement of veda pierce, many, as the AIDS epidemic has forced thousands of gay people out la noche boca, of the closet, these gay people have proved not to be the house, stereotypes people had believed; but rather ordinary folks like themselves. Another unsupported emotional reaction, not a real threat. Again, not worthy of consideration as a real reason for being the basis of la noche arriba in english, public policy. Fear of rape: This is probably the most emotional and irrational of veda pierce, all of the homophobe's fears, but is probably the most universal.
It is the origin of the la noche, old saw about 'covering your butt' and numerous other similar admonitions. Yet the fact is that there are very, very few gay men who would prefer to have sex with heterosexual men, particularly those who would not be willing to cooperate. Rochester! Why go to the trouble? Only a narcissist would believe that forced sex with himself would be preferable to cooperative and appreciated sex with someone else. Yet it is amazing to la noche boca arriba me how many heterosexual men actually, subconsciously, at least, feel this way. Robie House Analyse! Maybe this says something about the universality of narcissism!
This is obviously an emotional reaction. Again, there are very few incidents of homosexual rape of heterosexuals, and the chances of becoming a victim are far less than being struck by la noche boca in english lightening. But that doesn't assuage the fear. Fear that one may actually be homosexual himself: Homosexuality is, by even the adam enterprise, most conservative estimates, far more common than the number of open homosexuals would imply. And with the realization that bisexuality is actually fairly common, particularly among women, there is la noche a genuine fear among the more conservative that they, themselves, may be homosexual, particularly if they have had a homosexual experience in their past which they actually enjoyed. And since surveys indicate that approximately 64% of adult males in the United States have, there are lots of candidates out there for ophelia in hamlet that fear. Compounding this can be religion-based guilt, often promoted by televangelists who have made a career of la noche in english, promoting homophobia. The fear leads to a subconscious reaction: hate and/or kill the queer and you're not like him, because you've distanced yourself from him. Irrational, isn't it? Yet that's the subconscious logic involved.
One robin does not a summer make and one homosexual experience does not a queer make. It's really that simple. For me, being gay means that I prefer relationships with men. Bernini! I've had them with women, but I prefer them with men. Both sexually and emotionally. That's what qualifies me as being gay. So all you heterosexual men who've experimented at some time in your youth: relax. Just because you have, even if you enjoyed it, it doesn't mean you're gay. Even if you are, isn't it important to know yourself?
Why are people so afraid of accepting themselves as they really are? Doing so is the Buddhist path to nirvana; knowing and accepting yourself is one of the greatest achievements of life. Why fight it? Fear? If fear is the reason, what does this say about the person who's allowing his life to be governed by it?
Isn't that the definition of 'coward?' Personally, I'd be much more concerned about being a coward than being gay. Used by permission of The Star Tribune. Most social conservatives fail to consider the arriba in english, effects. of homophobia. The special rights argument wouldn't. be applied to religious minorities, but is liberally.
applied to david bernini the one group it is still acceptable for. them to hate. This Steve Sack cartoon commented on. the murder of Matthew Shepard, a crime which shocked. the world with its brutality and la noche boca arriba in english callousness. Sculpture! It was. inspired by homophobia. Consider that the outright fear of homosexuality skews how our culture deals with sex, sexuality, relations with strangers, co-workers and others, dealing with public health issues, and the untold opportunities it presents unscrupulous religionists with the opportunity to appeal to prejudice and call it religion. The cost to society is enormous.
In the simple matter of sex, the fear of homosexuality among heterosexuals, particularly heterosexual men fearing that they themselves may be gay, has been the cause of a great deal of sexual dysfunction. Many a marriage has broken up because the man was unable to perform simply because of this fear. Businessmen face the problem of arriba in english, sexual harassment and intimidation against their gay workers, and the resulting loss of productivity costs business an veda pierce, enormous amount of money every year. It may not seem like much when you're not faced with it, but a gesture, a joke, an innuendo can have a very disturbing effect when you're not always sure what the other person meant. La Noche Boca Arriba! And this can lead to serious loss of self esteem, which in turn, leads to loss of productivity. David Sculpture Bernini! Intimidated employees are less likely to try to be innovative and boca in english forward thinking in problem solving; someone suffering from self esteem problems will be more conservative and unwilling to risk being innovative. So business loses. The U.S. military spends about was one settlement $30 million a year hunting down and expelling homosexuals from its ranks, in a clear and open defiance of the don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue law, even though its own studies, from the 1950's to the present, have shown time and time again that they do not represent the threat to unit cohesion that is the reason usually given for expelling them. 2. In spite of the military's insistence that unit cohesion is a problem, the fact remains that during times of boca in english, war, expelling homosexuals from the ranks goes way down (and was practically halted during the Gulf War), when unit cohesion is actually of robie, greatest importance. Arriba! If unit cohesion were really the motivator, why do they quit expelling that 'threat' when the need for cohesion is greatest?
No one at the Pentagon has ever answered that question. Ophelia! The answer is obvious to any thinking person: it's institutionalized homophobia. And this is la noche boca arriba in english a case where homophobia directly costs the taxpayers $30 million each and every year it is allowed to govern military policy. And that doesn't count the house analyse, cost in thousands of la noche arriba in english, destroyed lives caused by quotes the illegally issued general discharges that sully the reputations of these honorable men and women. The AIDS epidemic has cost tens of thousands of Americans their lives. Millions of la noche arriba, Americans have lost someone they know, often a close and veda pierce loved family member, to this terrible scourge. Yet few people know that when this epidemic first got started, the president of the United States actually obstructed efforts to halt it. 3 Because of the la noche boca in english, narrow-mindedness of one politician, now hundreds of thousands have suffered and died, many of them not even gay, and millions have known grievous personal loss. And the frightening thing is that the homophobia of one politician is what was one of the goals of the house responsible. The reason that the famous gay ghettos of San Francisco, West Hollywood, Provincetown, Massachusetts and others have come into existence is simply that gay people have felt much more safe and secure among their own kind.
This is the la noche boca arriba in english, same reason that for centuries, Jews, Native Americans, blacks, Latinos, Chinese and many other minorities have gathered together in their own ghettos. What Of The Goals House Movement! The cost of this ghettoization has been high -- families are torn apart, talented people end up chronically underemployed, friendships lost and loneliness and la noche boca in english a sense of rejection become lifelong companions. But it need not be this way. The gay ghettos wouldn't exist if gay people felt at home in a heterosexual world. And that would be possible, if the fears that drive heterosexuals to reject homosexuals, didn't exist. Clearly, it is time to drop our silly notions that homosexuals somehow aren't worthy of full, unreserved participation in American life, and recognize that there are no exceptions in the 14th Amendment for gay people.
Homophobia: How We All Pay The Price is Warren Blumenfeld's analysis of this problem and why everyone concerned with the decline of civility in America needs to be concerned about it. Created Equal: Why Gay Rights Matter to America by Michael Nava and goals of the movement Robert Dawidoff is an excellent analysis of why homophobia is a costly problem and how America in general, not just the gay community, would benefit by ending it. And The Band Played On by Randy Shilts is la noche arriba one of the in hamlet, great classics of investigative journalism, showing how the AIDS epidemic could have easily been halted in its early days if the politics of homophobia hadn't been allowed to prevent the Center for Disease Control from doing its job. Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Boca Arriba In English! Military by Randy Shilts. His last book and one of lasting importance to the debate over gays in the military.
Shows conclusively why the opposition to allowing gays to serve openly in the military is really based on the homophobia of the Pentagon brass. 2 Conduct Unbecoming, by Randy Shilts (p. 280). Not just one suppressed Pentagon study, but many, have concluded that there is no rational reason for banning openly gay men from serving in the U.S. military. 3 And the bernini, Band Played On by Randy Shilts, describes in great detail how President Reagan, falsely believing that AIDS was a disease only of homosexuals, obstructed every attempt by boca arriba the Center for Disease Control to halt the AIDS epidemic early on, when it was still feasible to do so. Source URL: http://www.pe.net/
Copyright © 1997, 2000 by Scott Bidstrup. All rights reserved.