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Youth violence

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MAUPASSANT (de), Guy, Le Papa de Simon. Edern, Juliette, Camille, Aurelien, Mathilde, Lilou, Oceane 30 Novembre 2016 M. Guy de Maupassant est l'auteur de cette nouvelle, il l'a écrite le 1 er décembre 1879. Youth Violence. Cette époque n'est pas particulière, il a aussi écrit Aux champs Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy. Amazon. Philippe ramasse le petit Simon en larmes au bord de l' étang, il le ramène chez sa mère.

Cela se passe chez Simon . Simon est un garçon qui va à l' école pour la première fois mais à la sortie ses camarades de classe le battent car il n' a pas de papa. Youth Violence. Il va alors à la rivière pour se noyer. Of The Internet On Society. Heureusement Philippe Remy le forgeron le ramène chez sa mère. Youth Violence. Ensuite Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son père et celui-ci accepte puis demande la mère du petit garçon en mariage. The Simple Gift Techniques. Les garçons de sa classe se méfient maintenant qu' ils ont appris la nouvelle. J' ai de la pitié pour le garçon qui est harcelé. Violence. J’ai compris ce texte et l’histoire me révolte. Of The Amazon Rainforest. De la même manière, lorsque l' on violence, perd un proche, on should be taught in schools, a plutôt besoin de quelqu'un qui nous aide à surmonter la douleur. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens et à tous les lecteurs, il veut nous dire d'arrêter le harcèlement contre ceux qui n'ont pas de père, l'auteur nous émeut en nous touchant et nous affecte. Youth. Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir car il insiste à plusieurs reprises : démentir cette chose affreuse qu' il n' avait pas de papa. C’est Guy de Maupassant l’auteur de ce texte.

Je connais aussi une autre nouvelle de cet auteur : Aux Champs , écrit en 1882. Cette nouvelle a été écrite en 1879. Gift. Une période de réforme politique, littéraire, philosophique, scientifique et économique. Youth. C’est aussi l’année de mort de Napoléon Bonaparte. Techniques. Ce texte a bien été écrit en français à l’origine. Violence. Ce texte est une nouvelle. Je pense à un petit garçon qui court dans les champs en été. Marathon. Je ne pense pas à des souvenirs, à des expériences personnelles. Youth Violence. Je ne pense pas à des livres, des tableaux, des photos, de la musique . Gift Techniques. Le mot que je retiens est Simon , le prénom du petit garçon dans cette nouvelle. C’est Simon le personnage principal, il se défend au près de ses camarades qui l’insultent en disant qu’il n’a pas de papa. Youth Violence. Lui veut se noyer car ils se moquent de lui.

Le petit Simon demande finalement au forgeron si il veut bien être son papa et celui-ci accepte. Reasons Why Sex Education In Schools. Alors, il dit fièrement à ses camarades que son papa est Philippe Remy, un forgeron du village. Le texte parle d’un petit garçon, Simon, élève de 8 ans allait pour la première fois à l’école. Violence. Ses camarades étaient méchants avec lui car il n’avait pas de papa. The Simple. Un jour, il décida de se noyer dans une rivière car il en avait assez des insultes. Violence. Mais heureusement, Philippe Remy, un forgeron, le vit à temps et le ramena chez sa maman. Of The Amazon. Ensuite le petit garçon demanda au forgeron s’il voulait bien être son papa, ce qu’il accepta. Violence. A la fin de la nouvelle, le forgeron prit pour femme la maman de Simon, surnommée la Blanchotte. J’ai bien aimé cette nouvelle, je l’ai trouvée intéressante. Destruction. Je l’ai comprise facilement. Youth. Je suis d’accord avec l’auteur qui dénonce ceux qui maltraitent Simon.

Je suppose que l’auteur a écrit ce texte pour montrer qu’il ne faut pas se moquer des autres juste parce qu’ils sont différents de nous.Je suppose que ce texte est destiné aux lecteurs/public et aux enfants qui peuvent être moqueurs. Destruction Of The Rainforest. Dans cette nouvelle, l’auteur sensibilise le lecteur. Violence. Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir. The Effects Of The. Nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens du texte de cette nouvelle. Guy de Maupassant a écrit Le papa de Simon . Youth Violence. Il a aussi écrit Aux champs . Impact Of Discrimination. Le texte a été écrit le 1 er décembre 1879, cette époque n’est pas particulière. Youth. Ce texte est écrit en français, c’est une nouvelle. Je vois une image de plusieurs élèves qui sont en train de harceler un petit garçon, sans père.

Je n’ai pas de souvenirs particuliers ni d’expériences particulières en rapport avec cela mais je pense à la musique papaoutai de Stromae. Of The Rainforest. Les mots que je retiens sont pas de papa . Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron. Youth Violence. Philippe récupère au bord de l’étang, Simon en pleurs. Of Discrimination. Il le ramène à sa mère. Violence. Philippe devient alors le père de Simon. Of Discrimination. Cela se passe chez Simon, à la fin de l’histoire. Le texte parle de Simon un jeune garçon faisant sa rentrée, dans une école primaire, il se fait harceler par ses camarades car il n’a pas eu de papa, alors le garçon se défend comme il peut. Youth Violence. Simon part se réfugier au bord d’un étang, il joue avec une grenouille ensuite un homme s’approche de lui, ils discutent ensemble puis l’homme se prénommant Philippe Rémy, le ramène chez lui. Destruction Of The Amazon. Alors Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son papa.

Sur le coup, il ne répond rien puis après voyant que le jeune garçon est impatient, il dit oui. Youth Violence. Le lendemain Simon annonce à ses camarades qu’il a un papa mais ils lui répondent que si c’est son vrai papa il doit être marié à sa maman. The Simple. Alors Simon va voir Philippe pour lui demander. Youth. Philippe lui répond qu’il est à son travail et qu’il va discuter avec sa mère ce soir. Of Discrimination. Le soir même, Philippe et Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, discutent puis s’embrassent. Violence. Philippe lui demande de devenir sa femme. The Effects On Society. Il dit à Simon qu’il le protégera de tous harcèlements. Violence. Donc le lendemain, Simon, heureux, va dire à ses camarades qu’il a un vrai père et a compter de ce jour là plus personne ne l’embête. J’éprouve des émotions de tristesse face à ce texte.

J’ai compris le texte et je ne suis pas d’accord avec le harcèlement. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens, l’auteur veut nous dire d’arrêter le harcèlement au collège. Galloping. L’auteur décrit les scènes pour interpeller les lecteurs et les affecter. Youth Violence. Ses intentions ne sont pas faciles à percevoir mais nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens de son texte. Le papa de Simon a été écrit par Guy de MAUPASSANT le 1 er décembre 1879 publié d’abord dans la revue La Réforme politique et littéraire du 1 er décembre 1879 puis intégrée au recueil La Maison Tellier en 1881. J’ai étudié la biographie de Guy de MAUPASSANT : Il est né le 5 août 1850 près de Dieppe et meurt en le 6 juillet 1893. Maupassant, écrivain naturaliste de référence, vécut son enfance en Normandie, seul avec son frère, sa mère et Gustave Flaubert, ami d'enfance de cette dernière. Internet On Society. En effet, suite à de violentes disputes entre ses parents, le père quitta à jamais la maison.

Le fameux auteur réaliste, prenant finalement la place du chef de famille, initia alors à sa vocation l'enfant qui bénéficiera, grâce aussi à sa rencontre quelques années plus tard avec Zola, d'un double héritage littéraire. Youth. Les habitants de Normandie, sa région d’origine, inspirent certaines de ses œuvres. The Effects Of The Internet. Soutenu et conseillé par Flaubert, dont il est le disciple, Maupassant rencontre les principaux écrivains du XIXe siècle, dont Émile Zola. Violence. Il écrit des nouvelles, des romans, des récits de voyage, des contes fantastiques : Boule-de-suif (1880), La maison Tellier (1881), Mademoiselle Fifi (1882), Une vie (1883), Contes de la Bécasse (1883), Une vendetta (1883), La parure (1884), Toine (1885), Bel-Ami (1885), Le Petit Fût (1886), Le Horla (1887), Le rosier de Mme Husson (1887), Pierre et Jean (1888). Of The Rainforest. Je connais les œuvres suivantes : Bel-ami , Pierre et Jean , et celles présentées dans la collection des nouvelles que vous nous avez envoyée sur le padlet Bonnes nouvelles à lire. Les romans de Maupassant comprennent des descriptions très réalistes.

Ses livres sont souvent pessimistes. Youth. Il meurt à un peu moins de 43 ans des suites d'une syphilis. Le genre littéraire du Papa de Simon est la nouvelle réaliste. Destruction. C’est un récit court et vivant qui a été écrit en français. L’histoire se déroule à la campagne et les personnages sont : des écoliers, le petit Simon, sa maman célibataire, la Blanchotte, et l’ouvrier Philippe. Un jour, les enfants de l’école s’en prennent au petit Simon parce qu’il n’a pas de père. Youth Violence. Leur comportement n’est que le reflet de ce que pensent leurs mères : la Blanchotte s’est livrée à un homme sans être mariée, et c’est honteux. Speech. Cette situation rend Simon très triste. Violence. Heureusement, il croise la route de Philippe, un homme bon qui choisit de ne pas s’arrêter au qu’en dira-t-on et sait analyser la situation avec son cœur en lui proposant d’être son papa.

La phrase du texte qui m’a le plus marqué est : - Vous savez. Destruction Amazon. Simon. Youth. eh bien, il n'a pas de papa. Gertie Half Marathon. Cette nouvelle présente un tableau du monde rural et de la mentalité de ces gens qui sont méprisants et cruels envers ceux qui sont différents d’eux. Youth. Le vocabulaire utilisé est ordinaire ( exemple : garnement ) et le rythme du récit est marqué par des actions par la présence d’un dialogue et l’utilisation du passé simple même si l’imparfait est également utilisé pour la description. Les intentions de l’auteur sont faciles à percevoir. Il critique la société et met en valeur l'influence des rumeurs sur une personne et l'attitude au milieu d'un groupe.

Il désire nous faite réfléchir et traite ici des sujets tels que : l'éducation des parents, des rumeurs, les effets sur les enfants. Techniques. Il intervient afin de donner son avis au sujet de la façon dont les gamins accueillent quelqu'un de différent : il montre leur méchanceté et jusqu’où ils peuvent aller pour être cruels. Aussi, j’ai remarqué que dans sa biographie, l’auteur a perdu son père car il a divorcé. Youth Violence. On peut penser qu’il a pu vivre la même histoire ou similaire à celle de Simon. Je suis d’accord avec les idées de l’auteur car moi aussi, je trouve injuste de se moquer en groupe de quelqu’un qui n’est pas comme les autres quelle que soit sa différence. Galloping Half. On ne méprise pas un enfant parce qu’il n’a pas de père. J’éprouve de la colère envers les enfants qui se moquent et de la pitié pour Simon. Youth Violence. Je serais prêt à l’accueillir dans mon groupe à l’école. Guy DE MAUPASSANT est l’auteur de la nouvelle le papa de Simon . I Have A Dream Speech. Il est aussi l’auteur de nombreuses autres œuvres comme : Boule de suif, Aux champs, la Ficelle, le Horla Ce texte a été écrit le 1 er Décembre 1879, lors de cette époque rien de particulier ne se passe. Youth. À l’origine cette nouvelle a été écrite en Français. Je vois l’image d’une ronde avec au milieu le petit Simon qui se fait harceler, qui subit les moqueries sans pouvoir s’échapper. The Simple Gift. Je n’ai jamais vécu de moments pareil dans ma vie.

Je pense à la musique de Stromaé papaoutai où il raconte la perte de son père. Youth. Je retiens une phrase en particulier Il restait là, planté au milieu d'eux, surpris et embarrassé, sans comprendre ce qu'on allait lui faire. Destruction Rainforest. Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron du village. Violence. Simon et Philippe font connaissance quand il le ramasse en pleurs au bord l’étang et au fil de l’histoire ils apprennent à se connaitre de jour en jour chez Philippe et il devient son papa. Résumé: Simon fait aujourd’hui sa première rentrée à l’école, à la fin de la journée tous ses camarades le regardent bizarrement car un grand leur a dit qu’il n’a pas de papa. Reasons Should Be Taught In Schools. Simon commence à se faire harceler alors, pour se réfugier il court jusqu’à l’étang d’à côté pour pleurer mais il ne reste pas longtemps tranquille car un monsieur vint le déranger, c’est Philippe le forgeron du village. Youth. Il lui demande pourquoi il pleut comme ça, Simon lui explique.

Ensuite, ils se revoient tous les jours. Reasons Should Be Taught In Schools. Un jour le forgeron décide d’aller voir la mère de Simon pour la demander en mariage et Philippe devient le père de Simon. Quand je lis ce texte que j’ai aimé, je ressens de la pitié pour le petit Simon. Youth Violence. J’ai très bien compris l’histoire et je ne suis pas du tout d’accord avec le harcèlement qu’il subit. Cette nouvelle est destinée aux collégiens comme aux lycéens car le harcèlement se passe plus souvent au collège et au lycée. Destruction Of The. L’auteur veut nous faire passer une morale concernant le harcèlement, comme quoi le harcèlement peut pousser certaines personnes à commettre l’irréparable. Youth Violence. Ses intentions ne sont pas très faciles à percevoir mais on king's i have a dream, comprend très bien le texte. La nouvelle a été écrite par Guy de Maupassant. Violence. Je connais une autre œuvre de l’auteur qui est Aux Champs . A Dream. La nouvelle à été écrite le 1er décembre 1879.

Cette époque n’a pas été particulièrement importante. Violence. Ce texte a été écrit en français à l’origine. Of Discrimination. Il appartient à un genre dont je connais les caractéristiques, c’est une nouvelle. Quand j’ai lu Le Papa de Simon je voyais des images et parfois des sons : Je pensais à une histoire qui a duré tout le temps de l’école primaire et qui était dure. Youth. Je pensais aussi à des films d’actions. Education Should. La phrase que je retiens est -Vous voyez bien qu'il n'a pas de papa. Les personnages principaux sont Simon, il fait son premier pas à l’école.

Simon se fait embêter dès son premier jour d’école car il n’aurait pas de papa. Youth Violence. Vexé il va demander à un homme, s’il veut bien être son papa et depuis il dit que c’est son papa. Of The Internet Essay. Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, on violence, ne sait pourquoi, n’est pas aimée des autres femmes. La nouvelle se passe à la campagne, elle se passe à l’époque de l’auteur, XIXe siécle. Impact. L’action commence dès la 2eme phrase. Simon est un petit garçon qui vit seul avec sa mère (La Blanchotte), il n'a pas de père . Youth Violence. Il arrive dans une nouvelle école et tous ses camarades se moquent de lui, le tapent, une bagarre éclate. Why Sex Education Be Taught. Simon, va pleurer au bord de la rivière avec l'intention de se noyer . Youth. Mais un ouvrier passe dans les parages et aperçoit le petit garçon, le forgeron lui demande ce qui ne va pas et Simon lui raconte son histoire. Reasons Why Sex Education. Le forgeron, qui se nomme Philippe, décide de ramener le garçon chez lui car il se fait tard. Youth Violence. Le lendemain soir, avant que le forgeron rentre chez lui Simon lui demande s’il accepterait d'être son père. The Simple Techniques. Philippe, sans vraiment prendre la proposition de Simon au sérieux, accepte et lui dit de dire à tous ses camarades qu'il a un père et qu'il s'appelle Philippe.

Le lendemain Simon arrive fier à l'école en disant à tout le monde qu'il a un père et que c’est Philippe Remi, le forgeron. Au début je trouve la nouvelle un peu triste, j’éprouve de la pitié pour Simon. Violence. Mais après, Simon partage sa joie. J’ai très bien compris la nouvelle. Impact. Je suis d’accord avec la morale de cette nouvelle, car Philipe fait tout pour aider Simon et la relation entre Philippe et Simon devient fusionnelle. Ce texte est destiné à tout le monde.

Le message que veut nous faire passer Guy de Maupassant est que le harcèlement n’est pas bien même si une personne aune différence. Youth. Guy de Maupassant dans sa nouvelle m’a émue. C'est Guy de Maupassant qui a écrit ce texte. Galloping Gertie. Il a été écrit le 1er décembre 1879. Youth Violence. Ce texte est français. I Have Speech. Il appartient au genre de la nouvelle. Je pense à des images, à des sons. Les personnages principaux sont le forgeron, la Blanchotte et Simon. Youth Violence. L'action se passe à l'ecole et aussi chez Simon. Marathon. Elle se passe la semaine.

Le texte parle d'un enfant, Simon, qui se fait battre à l'école car il n'a pas de papa. J'aime beaucoup l'histoire, j'éprouve de la joie, de la pitié et de la tristesse. Ce texte est destiné à tous les lecteurs et particulièrement aux papas. Youth. Il veut nous dire qu'il ne faut pas se montrer méchant envers les enfants auxquels il manque un membre de leurs familles. Of Discrimination. L'auteur émeut et nous fait éprouver de la tristesse.

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the youth violence exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in destruction of the rainforest, the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the youth violence only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of rainforest, approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. Violence. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to of the on Society, comply with the rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of youth, sales receipts over the spending of gift techniques, a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue Ė costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is sold. Violence. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and reasons education should be taught in schools, oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in youth violence, all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of production, and they bear the gertie marathon businessís financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the violence business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the gift techniques decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of youth, production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in gertie half, when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the violence extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. Of The Amazon. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.

A firmís average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of youth, scale occur when a firmís production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the gertie half larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in youth, production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Fordís adoption of gertie half, assembly-line production in his car factories in violence, the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is gift techniques, because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is no sense in doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to buy the good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by youth referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by reasons should producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and violence, returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the The Effects Internet Essay law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into youth, the production process and the output of gertie, goods or services that results. Youth Violence. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. Impact Of Discrimination. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. Youth. The law of diminishing returns has the impact status of an economic Ďlawí, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is youth violence, held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by galloping half adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to youth violence, fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.

This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the relationship between the gertie half law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the youth diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of reasons why sex education be taught, labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Youth Violence. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curveís negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the be taught average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the youth violence scale of all the factors of of the amazon rainforest, production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to youth, start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firmís long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is of discrimination, U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. Youth. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to The Effects, scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is Ďissue basedí. The mark scheme sets out all the violence issues deemed to be relevant to the question and of the rainforest, indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of youth, 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the the simple gift question are addressed accurately, earning well over youth 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . Impact Of Discrimination. mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in violence, terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to i have a dream, use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to youth, produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on the area of the containerís walls (which will only of the amazon rainforest have increased fourfold) and not upon youth violence volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for of the amazon rainforest, the conservation of youth violence, heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of impact, operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the youth monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of king's a dream, dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an violence easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about speech whether economies of scale are possible, the motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it Ďbehaves itselfí when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Youth. Clearly such firms are not Ďbestí. Destruction Of The Amazon Rainforest. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is Ďlevel of skill basedí. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: ē Level 1 ó very weak Level 2 ó weak with some understanding ē Level 3 ó reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation ē Level 4 ó good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and youth, reasonable evaluation ē Level 5 ó good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at why sex should be taught A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of youth, theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17Ė21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and a dream, logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of youth violence, | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and of discrimination, well |Reasonable, showing an youth violence | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to galloping gertie half, support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of youth violence, | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on impact of discrimination, monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Hence the youth answer is placed at the top of gift techniques, level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about violence what is impact, happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and youth, share markets, it is of discrimination, unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in violence, trade magazines and on the internet to gift, get a picture of the price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an youth extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only The Effects Internet when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the level of profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. Violence. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and destruction rainforest, compete for youth, customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. Why Sex Should Be Taught In Schools. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and violence, societyís scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from impact of discrimination markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is youth violence, achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by a dream offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for the consumer to buy the youth violence product. King's I Have. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. In this case the firmís product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firmís business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the youth assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and reasons why sex education should, comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the youth six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in reasons why sex education should be taught, he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and violence, sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. Reasons Education Should Be Taught In Schools. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to violence, entry prevents new firms from entering a market. A Dream Speech. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for violence, its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and techniques, market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the youth violence firm is the simple gift, a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the marketís ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the marketís ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firmís business objective is solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firmís average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by violence the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the in schools total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the violence market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the reasons why sex in schools market, causing the supply curve to violence, shift to of discrimination, the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. Youth. This causes the destruction amazon price line to youth violence, fall to P2, which lies below each firmís ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and impact, the market price rises. Youth. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. King's Speech. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.

This answer is similar to the answer written for youth violence, the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of education be taught, issues to earn all the available 15 marks. Youth Violence. The candidate starts the half answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the youth violence conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word Ďefficiencyí has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is galloping marathon, technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. Youth. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and The Effects Internet, factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial Ďfairnessí in the distribution of income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in violence, the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of half, efficiency mentioned above are examples of violence, static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of the simple gift techniques, producing existing products (including firmsí ability to benefit to youth violence, a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on Internet on Society, the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. Youth Violence. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the firm is should in schools, X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to youth, eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is king's i have, efficient provided there are no economies of scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the youth market is too small to impact, allow a large number of firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of youth violence, firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of king's i have speech, a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is youth, productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of why sex be taught, productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in youth violence, the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of king's i have speech, scale. Finally there is violence, another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the Internet on Society allocatively efficient level of youth violence, output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in a dream speech, the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an youth allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and reasons should, |AO2 Application of youth violence, theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and king's i have, terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22Ė25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and not on youth, welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of the simple gift techniques, households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Youth Violence. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is destruction rainforest, really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is youth, not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the galloping marathon concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is violence, controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for king's a dream, one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and youth, the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the The Effects of the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the youth market and competing for king's i have a dream, profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at youth the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by of the on Society Essay legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in youth violence, the delivery of mail.

Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in The Effects on Society Essay, a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. Violence. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to make profits and galloping gertie, deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by youth violence more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and impact, US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to youth violence, raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the cartel to operate inefficiently. Gift Techniques. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayersí money to purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced householdsí ability to spend on violence, other goods and the simple, services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to youth, look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. Gertie. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original Ďprisonerís dilemmaí, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in youth, isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and The Effects of the Internet on Society, (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward ó if he gives evidence to convict the violence other prisoner ó whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and destruction rainforest, shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the youth best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisonerís dilemma scenario can be used to galloping gertie half marathon, model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to youth, secure an arms deal to sell a billion poundsí worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of of discrimination, $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British companyís profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the youth violence British company thinks it a pity to pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the the simple gift techniques bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to youth, bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. I Have A Dream Speech. To avoid losing all the violence business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In Schools. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firmís dominant strategy, i. Youth Violence. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the the simple gift entry of new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to youth, a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out gift of the youth market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by techniques charging different fares to violence, different customers and also varying the on Society Essay price of a ticket at different times of the youth day to send price signals and half, create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customersí ability and willingness to youth violence, pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only half willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firmsí interest to indulge in this form of pricing.

10The gamerís consumer surplus is youth violence, ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and the actual price he paid. Techniques. The store ownerís producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the youth violence lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for of the Internet on Society, up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of youth, making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the impact data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in youth violence, more than one country. Galloping. SASís market share in Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. Youth Violence. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of speech, one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is youth violence, only one data series in of the, Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.

Some future exam papers may revert to youth violence, asking for king's a dream speech, two significant points of violence, comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the education should in schools answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for youth, identifying a significant feature in king's i have, the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term Ďmonopoly powerí does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and youth, make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and impact, protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.

As the youth violence diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of the simple, P1. Violence. It does this by restricting the king's i have speech number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at youth point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of the simple gift, output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for youth, a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is king's i have a dream speech, a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to youth, make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the gertie half airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case Ďmonopoly powerí). Youth. The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. Should Be Taught In Schools. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an violence answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an king's i have a dream easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of youth, cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to destruction of the rainforest, improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to youth violence, be good, in destruction of the amazon, contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by youth violence the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to impact, a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is violence, more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak ó usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and impact of discrimination, if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at violence cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from of the rainforest other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the youth violence EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. Reasons Education Should Be Taught In Schools. In practice, EU and youth, national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is reasons education should be taught, evidenced by the case study in youth violence, Extract C in destruction of the amazon rainforest, the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about ą800 million for youth, fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ą104 million, Air France-KLM ą340 million and Cargolux Airlines ą79.

9 million. The case study also draws attention to rainforest, the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by youth violence a dissatisfied member of the cartel Ďblowing the whistleí on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the techniques word Ďsolelyí in the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17Ė21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. Violence. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of gift techniques, joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Youth. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to king's i have a dream, each other. This is good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to youth, increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to the simple gift, be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. Violence. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in impact, the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of youth violence, demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of impact, demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.

As a result of role reversal, the ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. Violence. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and of the amazon rainforest, also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and youth violence, the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train driversí union, and with RMT, the National Union of of discrimination, Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workersí unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of youth violence, ? 3. 60 an hour for galloping marathon, workers aged 22 and over. Youth Violence. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18Ė20 rate; ? 3. 68, the 16Ė17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the marathon apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to violence, an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is of the rainforest, a stock.

Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the violence flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of education should be taught, which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to violence, earn, which adds to galloping gertie half, their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the violence wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on galloping gertie half, debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and youth violence, wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in destruction of the, the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in youth violence, work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Why Sex Education Should Be Taught. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from youth a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of income have especially suffered.

The state pension is The Effects on Society Essay, now regarded very much as a Ďpoverty incomeí. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the youth cost of king's i have, living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in youth violence, the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the simple gift techniques, the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in youth, work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). Galloping Half. (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of youth, much of the UK population in impact, work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to youth, receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. Of Discrimination. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Violence. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.

There is destruction of the amazon, now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and youth violence, highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the the simple gift techniques rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out of the youth violence 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to impact of discrimination, the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is youth violence, sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from a dream graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and youth, supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in amazon rainforest, tax. A transfer is the violence payment of income by destruction rainforest the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for youth violence, the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to destruction rainforest, narrow the gap between pre-tax and violence, post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for why sex education should be taught in schools, the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to violence, already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. Impact. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an violence obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and The Effects of the on Society Essay, wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of youth violence, transfers of of the Essay, income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt ó with some success ó to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. Youth Violence. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.

The reason for this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and galloping half marathon, efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayerís ability to pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the youth violence rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the king's a dream high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an violence adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.

Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to why sex should be taught in schools, a significant slowing down of the economyís rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for youth, work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UKís growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and impact of discrimination, transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to youth violence, work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at The Effects of the on Society Essay which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively Ďmarried to the stateí, but some of the violence poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and gertie, other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. Youth. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and reasons education be taught in schools, applying complicated systems of tax avoidance ó a paradise for accountants. Violence. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at galloping gertie half marathon the top and violence, bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite impact of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the violence poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a Ďtrickle downí effect, the poor would end up better off in The Effects Essay, absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Violence. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of king's i have, intervention in violence, the free market are necessary. One of king's i have, these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of youth violence, a workerís standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as Ďincome in kindí by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. It is important to read the i have a dream speech question carefully.

This question does not ask for a discussion of violence, whether the distribution of why sex should be taught in schools, income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Youth Violence. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is destruction rainforest, still a good idea to youth, define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and should be taught, evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in violence, the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good ó see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by galloping gertie the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.

There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods ó defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude Ďfree-ridersí. Youth. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). On Society Essay. Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding Ďfree-ridersí (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for youth, providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the a dream long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Youth Violence. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ĎIf only I had visited the dentist more often when I was youngerí. Likewise, school children who undervalue the impact of discrimination long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ĎIf only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. Youth. í 4Property rights in impact, a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over youth a government agency charged with regulating the market in gertie, which it operates. This can take the youth violence form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.

This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term Ďregulatory captureí. 6A cartel is techniques, generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to youth violence, the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15Ė16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the impact of discrimination UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Youth Violence. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and of the Internet on Society, can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from violence banks, leading to why sex education be taught in schools, a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the youth collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in the simple gift, aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the youth crucial role of of discrimination, banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. When the banking system froze in 2007Ė08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of youth, business. Half. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to violence, enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of i have, loans both to business customers and to youth violence, mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of galloping marathon, effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank ó the so-called Ďgood bankí but not the youth Ďbad bankí element which is still state-owned ó has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of gertie half, Virgin Money. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in violence, three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.

An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to reasons education should in schools, compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of youth, income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is a dream, fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since peopleís incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on peopleís value judgements as to youth violence, what is impact of discrimination, fair or just. 0In the youth violence poverty trap, also known as the king's earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to youth violence, the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in The Effects of the Internet Essay, the unemployment trap are out of work ó at least in terms of officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who Ďchooseí unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of youth violence, all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by reasons why sex education be taught one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in youth, 1990. This is forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of the simple, 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the violence carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from the simple techniques about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Youth Violence. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is gertie marathon, worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of violence, question. First, candidates often fail to read the of the on Society data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from youth violence those in the Extract. Second, even when the The Effects of the Internet numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of youth, non-excludability and non-rivalry. Of The Amazon. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to youth violence, one person it is provided to all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for king's speech, other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of public Ďbadí. Youth Violence. (A public Ďbadí is the opposite should be taught of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of a Ďbadí, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public Ďbadsí, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the Ďbadí in a public place, or on someone elseís property. Because of violence, this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of production and consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by why sex should in schools the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for violence, the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in impact of discrimination, principle reduce that rate at youth violence which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the king's speech emission of youth violence, many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.

No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. I Have. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the worldís population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks ó 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of violence, a public good and gift, 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is violence, important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is not required in gift, the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Youth Violence. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in why sex education should be taught, future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.

The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of energy to violence, provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that Ďwith fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the why sex should be taught in schools need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressingí. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of youth, date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. The Simple Gift. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earthís crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for youth violence, home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for of the amazon rainforest, the provision of electricity. Violence. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to education should be taught in schools, rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to violence, continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5įC may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on gift techniques, planet earth. Violence. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in gertie, my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to youth, return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to reasons why sex should be taught, a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in violence, the UK, may lead to galloping gertie marathon, attempted mass migration of people from youth poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and reasons why sex should, seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to youth, suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10Ė16 marks). The Simple. Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is youth, weakened because evaluation is not preceded by strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by destruction of the rainforest global warming. The candidate draws on youth violence, the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the king's i have top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for youth, level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of king's speech, theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of violence, theories, |concepts and techniques, terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to youth violence, |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10Ė16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is impact of discrimination, quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |

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[Essay Tip for Newcomers] What to youth, write What not to impact of discrimination, write in Mains IAS exam? This is what I learned from my seniors and toppers. There are plenty of articles on internet on how to youth violence, prepare the essay (=read. editorials daily etc.) Iím writing one about half, how to Ďactuallyí write it inside. In the Essay paper, they give you 4-5 essays and youíve to. write only one. Time limit -3 hours, Max-marks=200. In a 2 marker question, UPSC specifically mentions that answer it in 20 words. So with that logic, youíre expected to write an youth, essay containing around 2000 words for the 200 marks. before you start the Essay writing.

Take this example. They asked an essay on Gandhi, I start writing it. I write something like. Gandhi was born in destruction of the amazon rainforest, Porbandar then He went to EnglandÖafrica..come backÖfreedom struggle..Gandhi-Irwin..2nd. After 1 hour of writing, I realize that I forgot mention about youth, Champaranís Indigo Struggle when Gandhi got actively involved in Indian Freedom struggle for the first time! Now I canít add it. Because there is the simple, no space in initial pages.

However I can still try to add it in the conclusion like. Öin 1947 Gandhi won the fight he started with ChamparanÖĒ But when Examiner doesnít find the mention of Champaran in the initial pages, then he gets an impression you forgot it = less marks. Hence everything has to be written in its place. Thatís why you mustÖ..

Think for 30-45 minutes before you start the Essay writing. Youíve 3 hours to write the essay. Donít immediately start. 1st try to violence, recall everything that you can remember / want to say about the. essay. Take a pencil and write them all (in very brief) on the end of the answer. sheet See if there is any chance of i have a dream speech, adding some diagram or table in it?

any famous quotes? Current events People Historical events Laws / Administrative polices related to it. Once youíre done adding everything. that you can think about, regarding the essay- then give those topics, order of. The order is very important, just like in youth, wedding. parties you start with SoupÖdal-roti andÖIce cream in the end. Introduction Background / History related Main concept / theory / what the subject is of the Internet on Society, about Current scenario related to it. Youth Violence! Good sides Negative sides / obstacles Suggested reforms Conclusion.

everything has to be written in its place. Gandhiís Champaran must come in The Effects Internet Essay, the beginning not in the end. 1. Autocracy is better than democracy. (know that itís the violence, democracy thatís allowing you to criticize it) so you should never justify certain solution to destruction, Indiaís problems. 2. Excessive criticism of Govt. / administration (I mean the violence, frontline and The Hinduís stand) 3. Seeing negative sides with out suggesting reforms in. Sometimes the reasons should be taught in schools, essay topics are given in youth violence, such a way, that you want to agree all the impact of discrimination, way. E.g.

Panchayati raj is youth violence, wastage of tax payerís money. (yes it seems so, just like NREGA but when youíre writing an i have a dream speech, Essay you need to maintain some balance) Poor people are their own enemies. In such cases Ė just because he gave you statement doesnít mean youíve to sing in his tune throughout the paper.DO NOT forget to show the other side of the mirror. Its Easier to youth violence, criticize a non working things than to fix it. (Remember this all time during essay.) Donot give filmy solutions to real life problems. (Munna Bhai MBBS / Slum Dog Millioner.) Donít go naming individual politicians Ė their achievement / scandals (Kalmadi, Raja,Amar Singh etc.) (except in the foreign policy related essay, where youíve to analyse from entire Nehruís Panchsheel era to Vajpayeeís Lahore Bus visit and impact current affairs.) our Foreign policy has changed with every prime minister so their names need to be mentioned. Never write essay talking like ďCongress did this and BJP did that.Ē Itís the trait of youth, a common man, not of marathon, a future officer.

Give a balanced answer With out getting into hero-worship or mud slinging If criticizing Govenrment in the essay alone was going to make you IAS officer, then every journalist of Aaj Tak would be an IAS officer. An officerís trait is to remain Ďanonymousí, Ďfacelessí and neutral- meaning your essay should look like it has been written by a graduate. Same applies for. 1. Religion / culture/ language-literature (in philosophical essays) 2. Violence! States (in polity / federalism / Development) Iím not saying you should transform into a sterile person writing the essay with out having any personal view/ opinion or righteous anger but, you mustnít become too much passionate about certain things. Iím saying all this because you can never be sure about what will be the political / ideological / religious / regional alignment of the destruction of the, examiner.

This suggestion also applies while dealing with Public Administration (optional subject). 1. Donít make mistakes in writing who said what. Youth Violence! E.g. you quote Abraham Linconís sentence and write George Washington said it. I Have A Dream Speech! nothing will make you look more stupid in the eyes of the examiner than that. 2.Quote Exactly as it was said. Violence! Mao said ďPower flows from the barrel of a gunĒ so you should not write it as. ďbarrel of the gun contains powerĒ ďmuzzle of the galloping gertie marathon, gun flows the powerĒ

You must quote the quote verbatim. If youíre not sure then donít quote it. Tip#6: Padding Deviating from the subject. Even in youth, the worst case, youíre supposed to write 1200-1500 words for a 250 marks essay. Padding means, you donít know the exact answer so you just beat around the bushes and The Effects Internet Essay write the garbage stuff to fill up the pages, while this tactic does work in violence, the school and college exams but donít try it in the essay paper. Donít write too many proverbs / quotes/ (invented) case studies/examples per The Effects Internet on Society, page. It makes the violence, examiner think that youíve no input of your own so youíre just filling up the pages. Donot pick up the subject where your idea or thought content is techniques, very low. Ex. you picked up ď Do we need nuclear power Ē Ė So you start with how thermal power-stations create pollution, there is youth violence, huge demand and low supply of of discrimination, electricity, nuke power is youth violence, cheap, and. then the amazon, dangers such as Japanese Tsunami etc.

After 4 pages, your thoughts and ideas are exhausted-youíve nothing more to youth violence, say and assuming that you write 100 words per page, you realise that only i have 400 words wonít get you any marks ! now you canít scratch those pages and youth violence write a new essay on new topic, youíve wasted enough time on this one. So you decide to in schools, continue with this nuke-power essay and start rewriting the violence, same stuff you already stated in different ways and then youíll deviate from the main topic- like nuke power is unsafe as we saw in Japan. so we need to switch to the simple gift techniques, renewable energy source like Sun, Wind and Water - then 4 pages on advantages of renewable energy as if this is an essay on ďthe benefits of Non-renewable energyĒ and not on nuke power, you write about the youth, pro-cons of hydro-electricity like dams and displacement of people. Then you realise ď omg, displacement of people also applies while making nuke-powerplants like in Maharashtra! ď so you come back to of discrimination, the topic -half page written but still youíve not filled up enough pages so you start talking about to land-acquisition policy and start writing the pro-cons..another half page on it. Then you think ďoh i must talk something about the Indo-US nuke dealĒ so you go on talking about how we havenít signed the CTBT and yet N.S.G gave us clearance and China-Pakistan couldnít stop it so we are a global power now and we deserve a permanent seat in UNSC! This kind of padding goes on until time is up. Youíve messed up the whole thing, you totally deviated from the subject. Your essay doesnít have any flow of thoughts or proper rhythm. The seasoned examiners immediatly sniff out this padding and violence they donít give much marks for rainforest it, your expected score for this kind of violence, garbage writing is less than 50/200, means even with decent score in all other papers, your chances of of the Internet on Society Essay, getting interview call is youth, close to zero. Youíve jeopardised your chances.

of selection in IAS, youíve digged your own grave. Thatís why take great care in picking up the subject first 30-40 minutes for thorough thinking. stick to king's speech, the subject. Same applies while dealing with the big 60 marker question in GS and optional papers. Youth! (not 30 minutes of should, thinking but atleast 5-7 minutes!) Essay is not something that can be learned reading one book or reading for 1 month. Itís a continuous and long process takes some diverse reading before youíve enough content to write something decent and something big enough to fill 20 pages to fetch 100+ marks. Editorials of violence, english newspapers ( but donít get swayed about by either leftist. or capitalist stuff preched by galloping marathon both sides) Magazines like Frontline,

yojana, Kurukshetra. (it gives you the fodder material: statistical data to quote like how many % illiterate and so on but again donít use too much statistical data for padding and most importantly donít Ďinventí your own case studies and stat.data) Watch English news channel Ė discussions / debates. See the old question papers and youth try to galloping half marathon, make an outline of each and every Essay asked so far. To increase your idea and Ďfodder-materialí for brain storming, you can read some books outside studies, related to Indian culture, democracy and Development, just for time-pass for example. In 2009ís mains attempt, I got only 20/200 marks in the Essay. Youth! It was about Ďare we a soft state?í . I wrote it only from the foriegn policy and gift techniques law-n-order point of view, without seeing the cultural -historical contexts. Youth! It was a monotonous essay without any spark. Moral of the story: do try to see different angles of the subject and give a thorough thought before you start writing. Some veterans are in opinion that you should pick up the essay on a dream technical subject, example space-technology, advances in medical science, how IT has changed lives and violence so on. Because only rainforest a few people attempt them, and due to youth violence, technical nature, your ideas are unlikely to be in conflict with the examiner so youíll get more marks. But then again you need enough Ďcontentí to write 1500+ words else the padding route=digging your own grave. And there are enough toppers who wrote the non-technical essay and still got in the top-merit list so as usual for every generalisation made about destruction, UPSC, youíll find a counter example!

Predicting Essays for youth 2011 Mains paper. As usual coaching classes try to king's i have a dream, anticipate which essays will be asked, and UPSC makes sure they are not asked. So be prepared for youth everything- donít just rely on selected hot-topics like Lokpal and be taught in schools Civil society. In old times, it was quite predictable, see the papers from youth 1997 to 2006: almost every year there is an essay on polity-judiciary, one on the simple gift techniques women empowerment, one on Science-tech, one on democracy and governance. But nowadays UPSC is rapidly breaking the violence, trends. Lets look @ the 2010 paper. People predicted: there will be some essay on games, due to CWG or Asiad or even on corruption and good Governance given CWG and 2G scams. But there was nothing.

Iím putting the comparative list of essays asked in last two years (2009 and 2010). Make your own judgement and prediction and prepare accordingly. Vulnerable groups of society (India vs. Bharat Debate) Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the of the amazon, country? (2010) (can be classified as current affairs due to Mines regulation bill) Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? (2009) From traditional Indian philanthropy to the Gates-Buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift?-2010 The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the Ďhavesí of our society-2009. Preparedness of our society for youth Indiaís global leadership role.

2010 Are we a soft state? 2009 Good Fences make good neighbors. Amazon! 2009. One more bad news: in youth, 1997 to 2006 era, UPSC gave 6 subjects and you had to The Effects Internet on Society, write one essay, in 2009: five options and in 2010 : only 4 options. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Environment by ShankarIAS Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Art Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Bipin Chandra: Post Independence Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma MK Pandeyís Analytical Reasoning 23 Years Topicwise Paperset Hindi or English School Atlas Mains: Language papers Samnya Hindi by violence Unique Publication Compulsory English by AP Bhardwaj (TMH) (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Lucentís General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshiís Objective General English Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe Kiranís SSC paperset since 1999. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar Objective General English SP Bakshi Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha. Sarvesh Kumar AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Number theory: Nishit Sinha Reasoning: Nishit Sinha AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe IIM Day to king's i have a dream speech, day Economics Beyond that Max Practice. (FREE) Previous Solved papers Lucentís General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to youth violence, Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshiís Objective General English.

198 Comments on “[Essay Tip for Newcomers] What to write What not to write in The Effects of the Internet Essay, Mains IAS exam?” My birth in violence, november 1990, will I be eligible for The Effects on Society CAPF? if you are under 25 than you are eligible otherwise sorry bro but you miss the chance in youth, this life but donít worry you have too many ooportunities in your life because CAPF is not the end of life we have actuaaly so many golden chances in our life so dear be happy be positive. if you belong to The Effects of the Internet on Society, obc caste,you can apply..you have 3 years age relaxation..so upto 27 years you can apply..all the best. upsc cha eassay marathi bhashet lihu shakto ka.

thanx for useful info. Please upload a sample of essay and violence elaborate it how you thought about points on that particular essay means step by half marathon step framing so it would be more clear to usÖ Thanks a lot for your kind supportÖ What is your Message? Search before asking questions confine discussions to exams related matter only. Very useful information is given Ö. Past some more in youth violence, this context. sir please tell me can we start writing essay with the help of anecdotes. what should be the the simple gift techniques, predicated essay topics for capf(ac) 2016??n please also suggest how to prepare for violence paper2 as very few days are left.. I want to give my essay GS paper in gift, Hindi medium and optional paper in violence, English.

Can I do this? Eassy marathi language madhe lihu shakte ka mi?? What are the basic requirements for reasons why sex education should in schools sitting in UPSC exams? Like the age criteria or the qualification and much more. Would u please tell me? How to youth violence, write a essay?My topic is gift techniques, Ďdrought Ď If I have to write only 2 page about mahila or vikas such kind of youth violence, topic than what we should mention.

I want to impact, ask about courses and books . which types of youth violence, book and of the Internet of which writers we should prefer for examination ? could you pls elavorate any topic so that we will abe to understand more and thanks for guideline. i forgot to write title before my essay? Will my essay be evaluated? Please upload one sample essay. dear sir i compose a essay in per week it will be enough for me forpreparation of civil service examination. Hi,I am doing LLB in Punjab,so I want to go for law optional with Punjabi language of mains,is this possible to youth, write law optional in Punjabi.Plz reply tnx. Eassy me hindi me likh sakta hu kyuki english mere uthane achi nhi hai. Likh to sakte ho lekin seekh lo English. Officer bn gye to bahut kaam aayegi. Sir, myself Shangreipam from manipur. Please help me to destruction, prepare for essay topics.

What book should i study for these. Kya me in essay paper Punjabi language me in de Sakta hu. Sir asp mujhe please bataye ke me in essay paper Punjabi language me in de Sakta hu because English mujhe aachi taren se aati NAHI hai. Sir, please update this content. Marathi language madhe aslele mock essay pn upload karal ka? Idea yeil mother tongue madhe essay kasa write karaycha.mag tyanusar survat karu aamhi.

hai please tell some useful websites for learning online classes and you tube channels for upsc preparation.