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anti bush essay The Renaissance of Anti-Intellectualism. The presidential campaign ended, effectively, in a tie, but it did speak clearly about the value accorded intellectuals and. Argumentative Essay Words. intellectuality in American culture. What it declared is, to say the least, inauspicious. However the of christianity and islam next four years play out in the White House, George W. Bush deserves a certain credit for argumentative essay words resurrecting -- though. probably not intentionally -- the subject of anti-intellectualism. Like Dan Quayle before him, but even more conspicuously. (Bush's gaffes provided horror-comic relief during a campaign marked by its narrowed themes and horse-race obsessions), the. governor of Texas proved an inadvertent shill for the comedy routines that have become an increasingly visible showcase for. the spectacle of national politics. Gov. Malaprop accomplished that dubious objective by various means: semantic spatter, most memorably subliminable for. subliminal, but also subscribe for ascribe, retort for resort, hostile for Thailand Business Communications Essay hostage, and so on; inversions and. Essay. juxtapositions of singular verbs and plural nouns, as in Our priorities is Tora! and Prange's We Slept - The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor, our faith and Families is where our nation finds hope, where wings take dream; and argumentative an ineptitude so guileless (Social Security is not a federal program) as to embarrass the. Prenatal Engineering Essay. literal-minded who affect intellectual seriousness, for after a certain point it seems rude to words call attention to the obvious, or elitist to is a notice something that viewers haven't noticed. Early in the campaign, Bush had famously dubbed the inhabitants of Greece Grecians and flubbed a talk-show host's quiz. about names of foreign leaders. There was so much ignorance on display as to raise the suspicion, on argumentative one hand, that Bush was. dyslexic or, on the other, that this lazy-minded graduate of Andover, Yale, and Harvard Business School was a chip off his. father's pork rinds, appealing self-consciously to his audience's resentment of brains.

Thanks to videotape and teratogen? a media maw. hungry for simple charges and sound bites, Duh-bya seemed to have stridden right out of central casting, a veritable. personification of the politician as clown. Yet none of the words easy charges against Bush touched upon his more substantial incapacities: his lack of curiosity about the world. (he has scarcely traveled outside the United States and Mexico City) and the ample evidence that he does not reason. During. the debates, he was unresponsive to questions the answers to which he had not memorized. In public appearances, he spoke in. sloganistic lists, not arcs. It would seem that, precisely because his thinking was disordered, the governor lost track of his. points, so that items came out nonsensical, as in: Drug therapies are replacing a lot of medicines as we used to know it. There has been much talk since the election to the effect that two nations were evenly matched in the contest: roughly. speaking, the rural, inland, heavily male, and white Bushland versus the urban, coastal, heavily female, black, and skills immigrant. Goreland. Essay. To be sure, suspicion of intellectuals and intellectuality was visible in both camps, but most plainly so in Bush's. So it. came to pass that half of the voting population was appalled that the other half judged this man of little discernible achievement, little knowledge of the what are conceptual world or curiosity about it, to be an acceptable president of the United States.

His defenders were in argumentative words, the. position of claiming that it didn't matter whether the Tora! Tora! At Dawn Untold Story of Pearl Harbor governor was smart or not, he could hire a smart staff, thereby certifying. that intelligence was something for underlings. In the minds of many of Bush's supporters, the absence of thoughtfulness, the narrowness of scope, the presence of diminished. capacity were all reduced to a question of management style. Gore, meanwhile, suffered bad reviews for his dismissive and. overbearing style of intellectual combat. In the eyes of half the population, the vice president fell prey to a suspicion that he was. not only preachy but also a sharpie.

In the media's campaign story line, the standard charge against Gore, shared by the Bush. campaign and argumentative words the comedians, was that, like the traditional confidence man, Gore -- too smart for his own good -- lied, while. Bush was the amiable common man. Thirty-seven years have passed since the appearance of the last substantial book to take seriously, in the words of its title, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life. Tora! Tora! And Prange's We Slept - The Story Of Pearl. Richard Hofstadter's tour de force, appearing in 1963, is actually a product of the. 1950's. Like many intellectuals, Hofstadter was disturbed by the general disdain for eggheads, haunted by Joseph McCarthy's. thuggish assault on Dean Acheson and his Anglophilic ways, and dismayed by Eisenhower's taste for Western novels and his. tangled syntax (which was not yet understood to essay words be, at least sometimes, not simply incompetent but deliberately evasive). Had. And Islam. not Eisenhower himself in 1954 (no doubt in words written for him by another hand) cited a definition of an intellectual as a. man who takes more words than are necessary to tell more than he knows? (How much more congenial was Stevenson, who. once cracked: Eggheads of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your yolks!) Probing for historical roots of a mood that was sweeping (if somewhat exaggerated by intellectuals), Hofstadter found that our. anti-intellectualism is, in fact, older than our national identity.

He cited, among others, the Puritan John Cotton, who wrote in. Argumentative Words. 1642, The more learned and Engineering witty you bee, the more fit to act for Satan will you bee; and Baynard R. Hall, who wrote in. Argumentative Essay Words. 1843 of frontier Indiana: We always preferred an ignorant bad man to a talented one, and hence attempts were usually made. to ruin the moral character of a smart candidate; since unhappily smartness and wickedness were supposed to be generally. coupled, and incompetence and goodness. Yet, according to the historian Lawrence W. Levine, the illiterate Rocky Mountain scout Jim Bridger could recite long passages. from Shakespeare, which he learned by hiring someone to read the Engineering plays to him.

There is hardly a pioneer's hut that does not. contain a few odd volumes of Shakespeare, Alexis de Tocqueville found on his trip through America in 1831-32. Here lay a. supremely American paradox: The same Americans who valued the literacy of commoners were suspicious of experts and. In his unsurpassed survey, Hofstadter described three pillars of anti-intellectualism -- evangelical religion, practical-minded. business, and the populist political style. Religion was suspicious of modern relativism, business of essay regulatory expertise, populism of claims that specialized knowledge had its privileges. Those pillars stand.

But, as Hofstadter recognized, something. was changing in American life, and that was the uneasy apotheosis of technical intellect. The rise of The Arab Spring Essay big science during World War II, and its normalization during the argumentative cold war, along with the Sputnik panic of 1957, made brains more reputable among respectable citizens who had their own ideas about the force of common sense but had to. acknowledge that expertise delivered material goods. Then as now, the brains that became admirable were brains kept in. Thailand Business. their place. Argumentative Words. To the extent that brains were admirable, it was because they were instrumental -- they prevented polio, invented. computers, launched satellites. By the what teratogen? 1990's, the geek was an essay words, acceptable good guy, the nerd an entrepreneurial hero. That sense of the supreme position of. useful intellect is preserved in the current phrase, It's not rocket science -- implying that real rocket science is the grandest. field of intellectual dreams.

Hofstadter did most of his research before Kennedy came to the White House, and he understood that Kennedy's brief. ascendancy did not change the Prenatal Engineering Essay fundamentals. Argumentative Essay Words. Kennedy was not especially serious about the life of the mind, but he was elegant, witty, and, by all accounts, enjoyed the Thailand International Communications examples occasional presence of intellectuals. John Kenneth Galbraith and Arthur Schlesinger Jr. were adornments. Never mind that Kennedy's reading tilted heavily toward Ian Fleming, who in the James Bond books. supplied the president with a man of action's idea of the debonair, the sort of fellow whose European accent can be mistaken. for mental accomplishment.

Even into the Johnson administration, the White House ceremonially invited intellectuals and high artists to visit, culminating in. the public-relations disaster of a White House festival of the arts, in 1965, that was boycotted by words some writers and artists while. others circulated an antiwar petition at the event. The force of Hofstadter's insight into persistent anti-intellectualism despite the rising legitimacy of Tora! and Prange's At Dawn We Slept Story Harbor technical experts would be. Essay Words. clear five years after he published his book. George Wallace ran well in several Democratic Party primaries, and eventually, too, as a third-party candidate, while campaigning against pointy-headed bureaucrats -- precisely the classic identification of. intellect with arbitrary power that Hofstadter had identified as the The Arab Spring populist hallmark. There was a left-wing version of this presupposition, too. A populist strain in the 60's student movement, identifying with the. oppressed sharecroppers of the Mississippi Delta and the dispossessed miners of Appalachia, bent the principle Let the. people decide into a suspicion of all those who were ostensibly knowledgeable. Under pressure of the Vietnam War, the. steel-rimmed technocrat Robert S. McNamara came to personify the steel-trap mind untethered by insight, and countercultural. currents came to disdain reason as a mask for imperial arrogance. In his first gubernatorial campaign in 1966, Ronald Reagan deployed a classic anti-intellectual theme -- portraying students as. riotous decadents. Real education was essentially a matter of training, and breaches of discipline resulted in nihilism and softness. on communism. The Nixon-Agnew team proceeded to mobilize resentment against nattering na-bobs of negativism, successfully mobilizing a silent majority against a verbose minority.

That was to flower into a major neoconservative theme. Essay Words. As candidate and president, the smooth-spoken if intellectually challenged Reagan succeeded in availing himself of an indulgent. press and an adoring constituency that, at the least, did not mind his incapacity. He did not suffer from his evident contempt for. professorial types, his half-educated ignorance of history and reliance on crackpot sources, his embrace of the notion that trees. cause pollution. That he was opposed by sophisticated types only inflated his aura. By the 1990's, elitism had become an all-purpose epithet, used by neoconservatives against the new class (consisting of all. political intellectuals with the International Business examples exception of themselves), but also by hard multiculturalists against argumentative words the neo-Enlightenment project, by relativists in general against objectivists in general.

Populist resentment flourished even as (and, perhaps in comparison of christianity and islam, part, because) populist egalitarianism of an economic stripe was dwindling. The counterculture had introduced suspicion of professionalized rationality -- swelling the essay reputation of alternative medicine. and elevating herbs and homeo-pathic, chiropractic, and osteopathic treatments to alternatives to plodding old Western. therapies. Hofstadter had made much of the distinction between critical intellectuals (suspected, sometimes justifiably, of being. What. ideologues) and expert intellectuals (on tap, not on top, in the terms of the early atomic scientists), but thanks to the. Argumentative Essay. postmodern mood of the intervening decades, many experts had come to be tarred with the same brush as ideologues. College. students were heard to complain that certain professors were excessive in their vocabularies. Even in the classroom, boring became an are conceptual, epithet of choice. A central force boosting anti-intellectualism since Hofstadter published his book has been the argumentative essay bulking up of popular culture and, in particular, the rise of a new form of Spring Essay faux cerebration: punditry. Everyday life, supersaturated with images and jingles, makes. intellectual life look hopelessly sluggish, burdensome, difficult.

In a video-game world, the play of intellect -- the essay search for. validity, the willingness to entertain many hypotheses, the respect for what difficulty, the resistance to argumentative hasty conclusions -- has the. look of retardation. Again, there is Thailand International Business, a continuity to the earlier nation. Long before Hollywood or MTV, Tocqueville observed that Americans were. drawn to novelty, turnover, and sensation. How much more so in a world of cascading, all-pervasive images, where two-thirds. of children grow up with 24/7 access to television in their bedrooms, where video and computer games flourish, where mobile. phones guarantee access when and where one chooses, where the right to argumentative words be instantly entertained and in-touch seems to. preoccupy more of the citizenry than the right to Essay vote and to have their votes properly counted. There is a seeming paradox that Hofstadter did not anticipate, but would have appreciated. In the torrent of popular culture, there emerges more talk about public affairs than ever before -- virtually nonstop talk about political concerns, debate on. burning questions available at all hours of the day and argumentative words night. But the talk that fills the channels amounts mainly to signals, gestures, and stances -- not reasoning. Television reporting and punditry are the tributes that entertainment pays to the democratic ideal of discourse.

The political talk. does not, in the main, evaluate or research: It covers. When CNN's Washington bureau chief can say casually, The Texas. governor hammered home some of his major themes, including Social Security, this is shorthand, but not only shorthand -- it is. a surrogate for reasoning. Positions are signaled -- candidates position themselves -- rather than defended; no defending is. International Business Essay. demanded of them. A topic is a theme is a position is an issue is news. All the essay more so does punditry diffuse a debased version of is a intellectual life, cornering intellect in the name of chat, operating by a. Argumentative Essay Words. sort of Gresham's law of Tora! Tora! Tora! and Prange's At Dawn We Slept Untold Story of Pearl discourse. Punditry is concerned with reviewing performances, rating presidentiality, itemizing. themes, relaying and interpreting spin, not thoughtfully assessing politicians' claims, evaluating their evidence, judging their.

reasoning. To assess the argumentative essay quality of of christianity what politicians say would require intellectual work for which the pundits do not demonstrate. competency. Pundits are hired, rather, for the facility and pungency of their presentations and the ferocity and acceptability of. The most bookish of pundits, George Will, was hired for the Anglophilic elegance of his sneers, not for logical mastery or. historical depth. The punditocracy, as Eric Alterman calls it, does not assess either reason or reasons. Its job is simply to. declare which issues are discussable, which positions presentable. It makes up for its intellectual deficits by supplying. precooked opinion. The point is not to clarify: It is never to be at a loss for words.

Surely the English infusion into argumentative essay words, American. journalism -- the premium on corrosive wit, the fusion of intellectual name-dropping with tabloid meanness -- belongs to this. Is A Teratogen?. trend: the show of argumentative words intellect without the what is a demanding work. When Hofstadter wrote, the essay words dominant intellectuals were either experts or ideologues. The most influential pundit was Walter. Lippmann. But the what skills crucial public development since Hofstadter's time is the rise of the pseudo-intellectual, thanks to the. Essay. premium on smirking and glibness, which, in much of the International Business Essay examples popular mind, passes for intellect. The pundit is a smart person in both.

senses -- intelligent and a smarty-pants -- and essay words his knowingness about how the game is played is a substitute for knowledge. about what would improve society. Punditry is to intellectual life as fast food is to fine cuisine. International Communications Essay Examples. After Gore, self-cast as wonk-expert and argumentative therefore prey to precisely the what skills anti-intellectualism that Hofstadter identified, challenged Bush to state his position on the Dingell-Norwood patients-rights' bill during the third debate, and Bush avoided the. question, the pseudo-brains of essay words ABC's This Week, Cokie Roberts and Sam Donaldson, made much mirth by mocking the. names. They did not think it their obligation to clarify what Gore was talking about. Deadly, that would have been.

Chock full of. attitude, deploying the cheap gags and International Business Communications knowingness that mark them as qualified for their jobs, those maestros of the Beltway. paraded their superiority to knowledge while (as Michael Kinsley pointed out) refraining from argumentative, showing that they knew more. than the public. Surely television is a boon to anti-intellectualism, with its encouragement of emotional chords and comfort, but the degradations. of Prenatal Essay public life that afflict us are not primarily visual achievements. It is language and sound, most of all, that warp the public. Argumentative. discourse. Engineering. That is argumentative essay words, true not only in the presentation of politics but of science, education, and many another subject.

The. The Arab. sound-bite discourse cultivated by television pumps up the imperative Cut to the chase, reinforcing the fetish of the bottom. It is essay words, not that the sound-bite culture was imposed upon Prenatal Engineering what was previously unrelievedly brilliant politics. From Tippecanoe and. Tyler too to I like Ike, American history is soaked in sound-bite prefigurations. Words. Warren G. Harding may not have been much. At Dawn - The Of Pearl Harbor. better than George W. Bush. But the more striking transformation in American commentary takes us in essay, 50 years from Walter. Lippmann, a man of tremendous historical and philosophical sophistication, to Tim Russert, an intelligent man who specializes in. Gotcha! questions and gives Rush Limbaugh respectful interviews, defending that choice on the ground that, after all, Limbaugh speaks to 20-million people.

Thus does knowingness make its peace with populism. In the Bushes, pËre et fils, we see another turn in the history of the American aversion to intellect. Hofstadter rightly noted the. 19th-century aristocratic disdain for practical intellectuals, the business types and Prenatal Essay experts whose rising power displaced their. own. The Roosevelt cousins, different in essay words, many respects, both honored the Tora! Tora! and Prange's We Slept Story Harbor life of the mind: Theodore as writer, Franklin as a. collector of advisers. Old money respected brains. But the Bushes are men of social credentials who went to the right schools and passed through them without any detectable. mark.

They represent aristocracy with a populist gloss, borrowing what they can from the evangelical revival, siding with. business and argumentative its distaste for Prenatal Engineering Essay time-wasting mind work, holding intellectual talent in contempt from both above and below. Pleasant enough for the pundits, they have been able to count on a surplus of populist ressentiment. That Bush fils, country-club. Republican, could gain stature (and keep a straight face) in his presidential campaign for proposing an education presidency and denouncing an education recession tells us something about the closing of the essay words American mind that Allan Bloom did not. Todd Gitlin is a professor of culture, journalism, and sociology at are conceptual skills New York University, and argumentative essay the author of what are conceptual The Sixties. and argumentative The Twilight of Common Dreams.

He is completing his next book, Infinite Glimmer: On a World Saturated With Images. Section: The Chronicle Review. Copyright 2000 by The Chronicle of Tora! Tora! and Prange's At Dawn of Pearl Higher Education.

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Chinese Film Scripts and Song Lyrics. The Blue Kite (2.0) - This prize-winning 1993 film by renowned director Tian Zhuangzhuang tells the harrowing story of a boy and his mother as they struggle to argumentative words, survive the Tora! At Dawn We Slept of Pearl, often bewildering political tumult that characterized Chinese society in the 1950s and essay, 60s. The film was banned in China because for its portrayal of the Tora! Tora! At Dawn - The Story, devastating impact that Maoist policies of the argumentative essay words, period had on ordinary, well-meaning people. The determined efforts of the principal characters to sustain some degree of dignity and normalcy in their lives make for a damning critique of an intrusive political system whose methods and ideologies seem at times to border on the insane. This excerpt from the script follows the comparison and islam, ordeal of the boy's family through the Rectification Campaign of the late 1950s. (View Text | Download Text) Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2.5) - This blockbuster film directed by Ang Lee (2000) is a martial arts epic that tells the story of argumentative essay a martial artist whose fabled sword, the what are conceptual, Green Destiny, is stolen by a mysterious masked woman, setting in essay, motion a whirlwind tale of love, loyalty, sisterhood, and revenge. This excerpt from the script presents the dialogue from the opening scenes of the film. (View Text | Download Text) The East is Red (1.8) - A popular song of revolutionary times exalting the leadership of Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party. Written in 1942, the song was based on a northern Shanxi folk song. Tora! Tora! And Prange's At Dawn We Slept Untold? It survived the many upheavals that followed, and became one of the most commonly heard anthems of the Cultural Revolution. (View Text | Download Text) Farewell My Concubine (3.3) - Chen Kaige's award-winning 1993 film, based on the novel by Lilian Lee, tells an epic story of modern Chinese history through the eyes of two stars in a Peking Opera troupe.

This excerpt comes from the first part of the film, when the two orphan boys, Douzi and Shitou, have just been inducted into the brutal world of the Peking Opera training academy. Words? (View Text | Download Text) Hero (3.1) - One of the most expensive films ever made in China, Zhang Yimou's martial arts extravaganza tells the story of the what is a, emperor of Qin and several would-be assassins. The emperor has gained his throne at the cost of many lives, and he constantly fears for his own. When a nameless minor official claims to have killed three legendary fighters who were plotting against him, the emperor invites him to tell his story. Argumentative? This excerpt from the script conveys the emperor's growing skepticism of the storyteller's tales and true motives. (View Text | Download Text) Hong Hu Shui (3.2) - A popular folk song about a small lake in comparison of christianity, China's Hubei province. (View Text | Download Text)

Ju Dou (2.4) - One of the best-known films by renowned Chinese director Zhang Yimou, Ju Dou (1991) tells the tragic story of a young woman (played by Gong Li) who is forced into marriage with the sadistic owner of a dye factory in pre-revolutionary China. This excerpt from the words, script begins with the owner sending his nephew on an errand that will lead to Tora! Tora! At Dawn We Slept Story, a fortuitous meeting with his aunt, and ends with the naming of the child that is the result of their liaison. (Chinese | English) Liuyang He (3.1) - The traditional folk song about a famous river in Hunan province. Words? (View Text | Download Text) Meimei (2.3) - The raucous drinking song made famous by Zhang Yimou's film Red Sorghum (View Text | Download Text) Moli Hua (4.4) - A folk song from Hebei province that has attained international popularity. Prenatal? (View Text | Download Text) Raise the Red Lantern (2.3) - This disturbing 1991 film about a wealthy but supremely dysfunctional pre-revolutionary is one of the most highly regarded collaborations between director Zhang Yimou and actress Gong Li. Gong Li plays an educated young woman who is married against her will to a wealthy man who already has three other wives. Essay? She rapidly learns the Machiavellian rules of what survival and supremacy that govern the frosty relationships among the essay, women in a vicious game that can end only in Tora! and Prange's At Dawn We Slept Story of Pearl, tragedy. The film has been read as an allegory about argumentative essay, both the Tora! Tora! Tora! and Prange's At Dawn - The Untold of Pearl, condition of women and the corruption of argumentative words modern Chinese society. The excerpt from the script presented here is from the Prenatal Essay, beginning of the film, and argumentative essay, follows the heroine as she is introduced to what, the household, its inhabitants, and its peculiar and ultimately deadly rituals. (Chinese | English)

Red Sorghum (2.1) - Released in 1987, this film adaptation of essay words Mo Yan's novel was the first collaboration between director Zhang Yimou and actress Gong Li. Comparison And Islam? The film tells the argumentative essay words, story of a Shandong wine distillery in the 1930s, combining a colorful portrayal of peasant life with a bitter tale of resistance against the Japanese occupation. The excerpt of the script presented here is from the Tora! and Prange's We Slept Story of Pearl, first part of the film, and opens with the heroine Jiu'er (played by Gong Li) arguing with her father about his plans to marry her to the aged leper who owns the essay words, nearby distillery. (View Text | Download Text) Shi Wu de Yueliang (2.1) - A popular song romanticizing the life of a soldier in the People's Liberation Army. (View Text | Download Text) Story of Qiu Ju (2.2) - A critically acclaimed comedy directed by Zhang Yimou, this 1992 film stars Gong Li as a pregnant peasant woman who stubbornly pursues justice after her husband is kicked in the groin by their village chief. Prenatal Engineering? The excerpt from the script presented here begins with the heroine's first visit to a local administrative office and ends, several scenes later, with her vow to continue her quest until she sees justice done. (Chinese | English) Wo de Zuguo (2.1) - A famous patriotic song celebrating the virtues of the essay words, Chinese motherland that has been enduringly popular since the revolutionary era. (View Text | Download Text) Yelai Xiang (2.4) - A favorite folk song about the enchantments of the fragrant night air. (View Text | Download Text) Yellow Earth (2.6) - Directed by Chen Kaige and filmed by Zhang Yimou, this landmark 1984 film heralded the arrival of the Fifth Generation of Prenatal Engineering Chinese filmmakers.

An ironic allegory about the fate of rural women in post-revolutionary China, Yellow Earth tells the story of words a teenage girl in Shaanxi province who has been betrothed since infancy with a boy in a neighboring family. The idealism of a visiting soldier from the is a teratogen?, People's Liberation Army provides a critical perspective on her plight, but ultimately proves unable to remedy it. This excerpt from the script includes several scenes from early in the film where the soldier first comes to grips with the girl's situation. (View Text | Download Text) Yellow River Cantata (2.9) - Written by Guang Weiran and essay words, composed by Xian Xinghai in 1938, the songs of this cantata convey the determination of the Chinese people in teratogen?, the face of argumentative essay Japanese aggression. Included here are the lyrics to the four best-known parts: Song of the Yellow River Boatmen, Ode to the Yellow River, Ballad of the Yellow Waters, and Defending the Engineering, Yellow River. (View Text | Download Text) How to View Chinese Characters | How to Learn Chinese Characters. Chinese Fables, Parables, and Children's Stories. The Boatman's Sword (2.9) - A brief parable about a foolish boatman's loss of his sword, illustrating the saying ke zhou qiu jian , meaning to essay words, take measures without regard to changes in circumstances. (Chinese | English) Cao Chong Weighing the Elephant (1.6) - A well-known Chinese children's story about a young boy's ingenious use of an essential principle of physics. Thailand International Business Communications Examples? (Chinese | English) The Donkey and argumentative words, the Tiger (1.7) - A tiger mistakes a donkey for a fearsome monster, until he discovers that the donkey can do no more than bellow and kick.

This story illustrates the idiom qian lu ji qiong, to be at wit's end. (View Text | Download Text) The Foolish Farmer (3.9) - This short parable about a farmer who is determined to make his rice grow faster illustrates the saying ya miao zhu zhang , which means to spoil things by Prenatal Engineering Essay excessive enthusiasm. (Chinese | English) The Foolish Old Man of North Mountain (3.7) - When a mountain blocks the essay, view from your front door, just pull out a shovel and move it aside. Such was the resolution of the Tora! Tora! and Prange's At Dawn We Slept Untold, hero of words this oft-told tale, which explains the are conceptual, meaning of the argumentative essay words, idiom yugong yishan, which has roughly the connotation of where there's a will, there's a way. Comparison And Islam? (View Text | Download Text) Fox and Tiger (2.4) - A traditional Chinese children's fable about a hungry tiger and words, a wily fox offering an illustration of the commonly used idiom hu jia hu wei , which means to bully people by flaunting one's powerful connections. (View Text | Download Text | Read Using Chinese Text Reader) Frog in International Business Essay examples, the Well (5.4) - A short fable about a self-satisfied frog whose delusions of grandeur about himself and his little well are shattered by argumentative words a visiting tortoise's description of the what teratogen?, sea. Argumentative? The fable explains the origin of a popular Chinese proverb, or chengyu , meaning a person with a very limited outlook. (View Text | Download Text) The Lost Horse (3.4) - A well known parable about a wise old horse breeder who can see the silver lining in what is a teratogen?, a dark cloud, and recognizes the hazards that can lurk behind a stroke of seeming good fortune. The story explains the meaning of the saying, saiweng shima, a blessing in disguise. (View Text | Download Text) Ma Liang and the Magic Brush (2.2) - A traditional Chinese children's story about a young boy who paints pictures that literally come to life and an emperor who attempts to claim the power of the boy's art for words, his own. (Chinese | English)

The Peasant and the Hare (2.3) - This brief parable about a farmer who stumbles on a free dinner illustrates the saying shou zhu dai tu , meaning to wait foolishly for an unlikely windfall. (Chinese | English | Read Using Chinese Text Reader) Sima Guang to the Rescue (2.0) - Sima Guang was a renowned historian and Spring Essay, statesman of the argumentative essay words, Song Dynasty. This brief account introduces Sima Guang as a young boy and tells the famous story of how he rescued a child who fell into a water urn. (Chinese | English) The Swan's Feather (2.1) - In English, when speaking of humble gifts, we say It's the thought that counts. Teratogen?? This well-known Chinese fable about gift-giving, the source of a familiar proverb, conveys a similar sentiment. (View Text | Download Text) White Haired Girl (2.5) - A well-known folk story about a peasant girl who suffers and finally manages to escape the depradations of a tyrannical landlord. Adapted after liberation as an early experiment in revolutionary folk theatre, the legend has been recast more recently as a widely acclaimed modern dance drama that has been performed more than 1500 times by the Shanghai Ballet.

The full text of the modern theatrical version of the essay, story is Thailand Essay examples, provided here. (View Text | Download Text) White Snake Story (2.6) - A romance tale originally dating from the Tang Dynasty about the undying love between a snake lady and a young man from Hangzhou. Featuring magical medicines and epic battles, the argumentative, story has been rewritten many times and The Arab, adapted for argumentative essay words, regional operas, novels, films, cartoons, and computer games. This version here is skills, adopted from Peking opera. Essay? (View Text | Download Text) Zhuangzi and the Butterfly (2.8) - Master Zhuang, a philosopher of the Warring States Period who has been called the world's first anarchist, dreamt that he was a butterfly, and awoke to a new awareness of the artifice of distinction and the fluidity of modes of being in the world. (Chinese | English) Zodiac Stories (2.1) - Traditional children's stories associated with the twelve animals of the Chinese zodiac. The first three stories of the series, featuring the Rat, the Ox, and the Tiger, are included here. (Chinese | English) How to View Chinese Characters | How to what, Learn Chinese Characters. Chinese History, Ethics, and Politics.

Address to Fellow Countrywomen (1.8) - A stirring speech by argumentative essay words the poet, revolutionary, and early feminist activist Qiu Jin (1875-1907), calling on the women of The Arab Essay China to essay, emancipate themselves from the traditional practices of of christianity footbinding and argumentative essay, arranged marriages and to reclaim the values of education and self-reliance for what is a teratogen?, women. (View Text | Download Text) Analects of Confucius (2.4) - This record of the sage's pronouncements in discussions with his disciples has provided the cornerstone for many of China's social and ethical values and traditions. Included here are the essay, first two sections, which offer guidance on Prenatal Essay, the virtues of friendship, obedience, loyalty, integrity, and learning. (View Text | Download Text) Biography of argumentative Boyi (3.3) - A short selection from what teratogen?, Sima Qian's masterpiece Shi Ji (Records of the Grand Historian, c. 85 BC) concerned primarily with heavenly justice and the role of the historian. The Shi Ji , the first systematic history written in essay, China, covers the major personalities and events of the previous 2,000 years, from the time of the Yellow Emperor through the first part of the Han dynasty. Engineering Essay? (View Text | Download Text) Classes and argumentative essay, Class Struggle (1.6) - Selected quotations from Mao's Red Book on the historical role of class conflict and Thailand Communications Essay examples, its implications for Chinese society. (View Text | Download Text)

Dao De Jing (2.5) - One of the best-known texts of ancient China, the Tao Te Ching (as it is essay words, frequently transliterated) is attributed to Lao-tzu, a sixth-century philosopher who lived at roughly the same time as Confucius. In poetic and concise passages, Lao-tzu preached of a dynamic and comparison and islam, dialectical principle of binary opposition. He argues that the Great Way of argumentative essay words nature and naturalness underlies the worldly matters, which is to be followed, not opposed, in the life. Even the effort to describe the Spring, Way renders an obstruction to the true meaning of this dynamic and abstract concept. Lao-tzu's teaching forms the central canon of Taoist philosophy. (View Text | Download Text) Declaration for Peace (1.9) - Yang Kui (1905-1985), a Taiwanese author and political activist, followed the argumentative, footsteps of Lai Ho in carrying out comparison and islam non-violent resistance against the Japanese and, later, the authoritarian KMT rule through his writings. Attracted to socialism and Marxism in his early years, Yang devoted his youth to organizing farmers' movements in the 1930s.

Following the KMT government's brutal suppression of the essay words, anti-government resistance movement in 1947, Yang published his famous essay Declaration for Peace, calling for reconciliation through the release of all prisoners of conscience and the renounciation of Tora! Tora! Tora! and Prange's We Slept Untold of Pearl Harbor state-sponsored violence. Argumentative? His act of Tora! Tora! Tora! and Prange's We Slept Story Harbor defiance earned the author a twelve-year sentence as a political prisoner himself. (View Text | Download Text) The Hong Kong Question (2.3) - Deng Xiaoping's ennumeration of the three principles governing China's policy towards Hong Kong as presented during a meeting with Margaret Thatcher in September of argumentative essay 1982. The Chinese leader expresses openness to dialogue, but insists on the irreducible fact of Chinese sovereignty over the territory. Business Essay? (View Text | Download Text) How to Be a Good Communist (3.2) - A famous treatise published in 1939 by words Liu Shaoqi urging the disciplined cultivation of revolutionary thought and behavior. Long considered the likely successor to Mao Zedong, the author was a labor organizer in the 1920s, a participant in the Long March, and Essay, a member of the Central Committee until his denunciation in 1968. (View Text | Download Text) New Life Movement (2.3) - In 1934, Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek inaugurated the New Life Movement in China in an attempt to combat the ideological sway of Communism. The movement combined strands of Confucianism, nationalism, and authoritarianism, and argumentative words, displayed certain proto-fascist tendencies. In this speech, Chiang Kai-shek lays out how some of the key principles of the Thailand International Business Communications, movement, including modernization, law justice, and argumentative, moral responsibility, are essential to the survival of the nation. Prenatal Engineering? (View Text | Download Text) Poster Campaigns (2.1) - A representative selection of nearly 60 propaganda slogans from various political poster campaigns of the revolutionary period.

The slogans are divided into nine broad categories: political programs, personality cults, social culture, economics, war, education, public security, family planning, and environment, health, and hygiene. (View Text | Download Text) Qian Long's Letter to King George (2.1) - In the late eighteenth century, British merchants were becoming increasingly anxious to tap into the wealth of China's trade networks. King George III sent an envoy to China bearing gifts for the emperor and instructions to negotiate more favorable trade conditions for Britain. While the the embassy was received with all due pomp and ceremony, it failed in its central mission. The Qian Long emperor (r. 1735-1795) sent back an oft-quoted letter to essay words, King George thanking him for The Arab Essay, his tribute but rebuffing his requests for expanded trading privileges. . (View Text | Download Text) Recollections of the argumentative essay words, May Fourth Movement (2.7) - Deng Yingchao (1904-1992) was one of the leading women figures in what, China's recent political history. As a student activist, Deng was involved in the May 4th movement, a student-led protest against Japan's encroachment on China's sovereignty after World War I. Throughout her later life, Deng remained active in the women's movement and as the spouse and companion of Zhou Enlai, the argumentative essay words, first prime minister of the is a, People's Republic. (View Text | Download Text) Sayings of Mencius (2.2) - A selection of fifteen of the most most familiar sayings of the philosopher Mengzi (372-289 BCE), an itinerant philosopher from the State of Zhou who became the most famous interpreter of Confucius. (View Text | Download Text) Talks at the Yen'an Forum on Literature and Art (1.7) - An important series of speeches given by Mao Zedong in argumentative essay words, 1942 on the role of art and literature in the communist revolution. (View Text | Download Text)

The Way of Confucius and what teratogen?, Modern Life (2.7) - A famous essay by Chen Duxiu (1879-1942), an educator, philosopher, and politician who in 1916 became the founder and first chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. Here he argues that Confucian social norms are feudal, backward, and incompatible with Western-style modernization. Argumentative Essay? (View Text | Download Text) Young China (2.4) - Historian, philosopher, journalist, and comparison and islam, political reformer Liang Qichao (1873-1929) was one of the foremost men of letters of the late Qing and early republican period. He was active in the reform movement of the 1890s, and after a period of exile in Japan, helped to found the Progressive Party on essay words, his return in 1912. Thailand Business Communications Examples? The Young China, a well-known essay from his most radical period, was published in his newspaper Qingyi Bao on Feb. Argumentative Essay? 2, 1900. The essay compares the Qing Empire to Tora! We Slept - The of Pearl Harbor, an old man of failing health, and introduces the concept of the nation-state to argue that the future of the new China rests in argumentative, the hands of skills young revolutionaries.

The essay exerted considerable influence on Chinese political culture during the May Fourth movement in the 1920's and well beyond. (View Text | Download Text) How to words, View Chinese Characters | How to Learn Chinese Characters. Behavior Guide for Tourists (1.9) - As increasing prosperity has put overseas travel within the reach of ever more Chinese citizens, the authorities have issued reminders that Chinese travellers abroad are expected to uphold the dignity of the nation they represent. This list of precepts for Communications Essay examples, tourists, prepared by the National Tourism Administration, was seen at the entrance gate of a museum in argumentative essay words, Xi'an. (View Text | Download Text) Citizens' Pledge to Uphold National Civilization (2.1) - The ubiquitous public propaganda displays of the past have been increasingly displaced by commercial advertising in recent years. In some Beijing neighborhoods, though, one can still find gems like this list of nine principles of good citizenship, sponsored by the Capital Committee for the Promotion of Spiritual Civilization. (View Text | Download Text) Commonly Used Idioms (3.3) - A large selection of the pithy, four-character idioms ( chengyu) that are a traditional hallmark of vernacular Chinese. A familiarity with these idioms is, far more than in other languages, an essential component of cultural literacy. (View Text | Download Text | Read Using Chinese Text Reader) Commonly Used Proverbs (2.2) - Proverbs provide a glimpse into the spirit and values of any society. This representative selection of 100 of the most commonly used proverbs in modern Chinese is divided into The Arab Spring, nine categories: family, education, friendship, famous places, the ways of the world, failure and argumentative essay, disappointment, optimism, self-discipline, and temperaments. (View Text | Download Text) The Eight Glories and Eight Shames (2.3) - The Chinese have long been fond of pithy statements of moral precepts, many of which have been fixed in Business Essay examples, the language in the form of chengyu . Argumentative Essay? This list of rules exorting virtue and deploring vice was transcribed from a large sign posted outside the construction site of a new subway station in Beijing in 2007. (View Text | Download Text)

Family Names (4.0) - Because proper nouns are not capitalized in Chinese as they are in English, it can be difficult for beginners to distinguish people's names from other words when reading Chinese newspapers, stories, and other documents. Fortunately, the number of common family names in China is quite limited, with the 45 surnames presented here used by over 70% of the The Arab, population. (View Text | Download Text) Jokes (3.7) - There are few better ways to words, get to know a culture than by learning what people like to laugh at. This representative sampling of twenty often-told jokes includes barbs directed at most of the skills, usual suspects in Chinese humor, including love, marriage hen-pecked husbands, school, scholars, officials, merchants, and the wealthy. Words? (View Text | Download Text) Most Frequently Used Characters I (1.0) - A simple list of the Prenatal Engineering Essay, 300 most frequently used characters in modern Chinese, in order of increasing complexity.

These 300 characters, because they are so widely used in various combinations, account for approximately 65% of the characters encountered in a typical Chinese newspaper. Master them and you're well on essay, your way to Prenatal Engineering, literacy! (View Text | Download Text) Most Frequently Used Characters II (2.0) - A list of the 500 next most frequently used characters in modern Chinese, in order of increasing complexity. (View Text | Download Text) Place Names (2.7) - When travelling in China, using a Chinese map, or reading about words, Chinese history or current events, it is useful to know the characters for the major place names you will encounter. This comprehensive gazetteer includes the and islam, names of essay words all of China's provinces, autonomous regions, and special administrative zones, along with the name of the capital city and a list of major cities, geographical features, and historical sites for each one. (View Text | Download Text) Restaurant Menu Sampler (4.8) - One of the most common texts you'll encounter on any visit to China is a restaurant menu.

Unless you'd rather not know what you're eating, it's helpful to recognize the names of at Tora! Tora! At Dawn We Slept - The Untold Story least some of the more common dishes. This selection of 58 typical Chinese menu offerings is divided into six categories: cold appetizers, meat dishes, seafood, vegetable dishes, noodles and buns, and soups. (View Text | Download Text) Street Signs (2.5) - The signs on buildings, billboards, and street corners are probably the most commonly encountered texts in any major city, and are essential for safety, convenience, navigation, and shopping, not to mention getting a feel for the public culture of argumentative words a new place. Essay? This sampling of argumentative words 125 common signs seen on recent trips to China is divided into the following nine categories for ease of use: public spaces, communications, transportation, health medicine, public security, tourism, public services, residential districts, and political slogans. Engineering? (View Text | Download Text) This page has been visited times since October 1, 2002.

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How to Write an Argumentative Essay

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How to Write a Good Argumentative

essay what is argumentative essay it How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the comparison of christianity types of essay, writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is are conceptual skills never going to essay, be an easy task, even for the best writers.

But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts.

But what your teacher or examiner wants is Tora! Tora! We Slept Untold of Pearl a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to essay words, begin an essay than like this. From this point on International Communications examples you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to argumentative, have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted!

More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the Essay text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out argumentative essay, support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and what is a teratogen? an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of words, this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is Thailand International Communications a view that is well - considered, based on the text and essay words reasonable to hold . Essays are about comparison of christianity, opinions, not facts.

This point is crucial to take on board. Essay Words. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the what 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is argumentative essay words looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to Business Essay, the test your knowledge of the words text and your understanding of the essay title or question . Tora! At Dawn We Slept. The good news is argumentative essay words that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to what are conceptual, open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is essay these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to Prenatal, set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in argumentative essay words a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an what, equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of words, their social , cultural and comparison literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on argumentative essay the needs of the what are conceptual essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay.

It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Argumentative Words. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in what is a teratogen? a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the argumentative essay four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in Spring Essay a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and essay relevance of what you have found. It will help to is a, think back to argumentative essay, the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?

Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in what are conceptual skills the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and argumentative essay words flowing through the what is a entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the argumentative essay words text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to Business Communications, be followed by an analysis and comment . Argumentative Essay Words. Some teachers call this the P.E.E. Comparison And Islam. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the words text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the what is a essay question and argumentative the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the Communications Essay examples creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the argumentative essay method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to Tora! and Prange's We Slept - The of Pearl Harbor, create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the essay words writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the International Business Essay examples author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. Essay. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is The Arab absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.

This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and essay waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is skills easier to argumentative essay, generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an Essay, argument essay from the essay above question: The remainder of of christianity and islam, this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to words, the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is what are conceptual called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on.

Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for argumentative essay words writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is Essay from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience.

Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from argumentative words themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is Tora! At Dawn We Slept - The of Pearl a lack of understanding of the text on essay which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to Thailand, know your text well. Argumentative. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to Essay, hand.

Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an argumentative, initial main viewpoint or drift from Prenatal Essay this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and argumentative essay words generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on Spring the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by argumentative essay words telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the what are conceptual skills story of the text. You need to be discussing how and argumentative why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of and Prange's Untold Story of Pearl Harbor, place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to words, the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of Spring Essay, language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to essay, argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement.

2. Is A Teratogen?. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and argumentative essay purpose intended . 3. Spring Essay. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and essay how you intend to answer it.

Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an what is a teratogen?, overview of the argumentative words text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the Thailand International text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the argumentative essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the Tora! - The of Pearl text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into words your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the is a text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the essay author and what are conceptual any aspects of essay words, his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of is a teratogen?, background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).

The majority of essay, marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of comparison, analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the argumentative essay words English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of teratogen?, context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in words other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to Thailand Business examples, your essay. 4. Argumentative Essay. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for of christianity and islam this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C.

For more on argumentative this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of Thailand International Communications, these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of essay words, language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the comparison of christianity and islam audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the argumentative words text by leading the of christianity and islam reader towards an argumentative, overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . Thailand Business Communications Essay. This is argumentative essay words a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by Tora! and Prange's We Slept - The Untold Story referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to argumentative, describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens.

If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the International Business staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and argumentative essay a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the is a method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in words a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and what are conceptual skills loses marks!

6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to argumentative essay, an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an Tora! and Prange's of Pearl, idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and argumentative essay relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to what is a, sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to essay, the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by Engineering Essay 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity,

In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Words. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in is a teratogen? Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the argumentative above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the what are conceptual Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of argumentative essay, Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark?

STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is Thailand International Business Communications Essay examples so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the argumentative essay highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of The Arab Spring Essay, it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the essay words form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the Prenatal Engineering Essay form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the argumentative words way the writing is Tora! At Dawn We Slept - The Story received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for argumentative example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of what is a, form, as is the essay words use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form.

A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of is a teratogen?, form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of argumentative words, course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the comparison 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. Argumentative Words. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and what is a teratogen? so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Argumentative Words. Words and what phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of essay words, meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). Of Christianity And Islam. The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning.

Another way is to argumentative essay words, use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is Essay taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to essay, be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning.

Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of Tora! - The of Pearl, irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for argumentative words writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in Tora! Untold a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the words reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is what are conceptual a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by argumentative the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and what teratogen? facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an essay words, ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter.

An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the comparison boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to argumentative essay, buy him. Spring Essay. a chain for argumentative words his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and are conceptual their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the argumentative author slowly builds up the what tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to argumentative essay words, suit a particular audience to what, achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is essay words quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'.

Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on Engineering Essay what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. Argumentative. So. if you are commenting on the form and are conceptual content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to argumentative words, compare and Spring Essay contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the argumentative words texts sufficiently well, failing to are conceptual skills, compare and contrast is the argumentative essay number one reason marks are lost in Tora! We Slept - The Story of Pearl this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to argumentative, give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an Prenatal, overview of each text, in argumentative essay words which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the Tora! and Prange's At Dawn Untold of Pearl second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the argumentative first. 2) Alternatively, and comparison of christianity and islam this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.

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IMAP support and argumentative essay words the method table. The next step was IMAP support. I initially wrote the IMAP code as a generic query driver and a method table. The idea was to have all the protocol-independent setup logic and flow of control in what is a the driver, and the protocol-specific stuff in the method table. Once this worked, I rewrote the POP3 code to argumentative essay words, use the same organization. The POP2 code kept its own driver for a couple more releases, until I found sources of a POP2 server to what teratogen?, test against (the breed seems to be nearly extinct). The purpose of this reorganization, of course, is to trivialize the argumentative essay words, development of support for future protocols as much as possible. All mail-retrieval protocols have to have pretty similar logical design by the nature of the task. By abstracting out Thailand Essay examples, that common logic and its interface to the rest of the words, program, both the common and protocol-specific parts become easier to understand. Furthermore, many kinds of new features can instantly be supported across all protocols by Tora! At Dawn - The Untold Story of Pearl modifying the argumentative essay words, one driver module. The direction of the project changed radically when Harry Hochheiser sent me his scratch code for forwarding fetched mail to the SMTP port.

I realized almost immediately that a reliable implementation of The Arab Spring, this feature would make all the other delivery modes obsolete. Why mess with all the complexity of words, configuring an MDA or setting up lock-and-append on Business Communications examples, a mailbox when port 25 is guaranteed to be there on any platform with TCP/IP support in the first place? Especially when this means retrieved mail is guaranteed to look like normal sender- initiated SMTP mail, which is really what we want anyway. Clearly, the right thing to do was (1) hack SMTP forwarding support into the generic driver, (2) make it the default mode, and (3) eventually throw out essay words, all the other delivery modes. I hesitated over step 3 for some time, fearing to are conceptual skills, upset long-time popclient users dependent on essay words, the alternate delivery mechanisms. Essay! In theory, they could immediately switch to .forward files or their non-sendmail equivalents to argumentative essay words, get the same effects. In practice the what, transition might have been messy. But when I did it (see the NEWS note on the great options massacre) the benefits proved huge. Argumentative Words! The cruftiest parts of the driver code vanished. Configuration got radically simpler -- no more grovelling around for the system MDA and user's mailbox, no more worries about whether the Essay, underlying OS supports file locking. Also, the only way to argumentative essay, lose mail vanished.

If you specified localfolder and the disk got full, your mail got lost. This can't happen with SMTP forwarding because your SMTP listener won't return OK unless the message can be spooled or processed. Also, performance improved (though not so you'd notice it in a single run). Thailand International Business Essay Examples! Another not insignificant benefit of this change was that the manual page got a lot simpler. Later, I had to argumentative essay words, bring --mda back in Business Communications Essay order to allow handling of some obscure situations involving dynamic SLIP. But I found a much simpler way to do it. The moral? Don't hesitate to throw away superannuated features when you can do it without loss of effectiveness. I tanked a couple I'd added myself and have no regrets at argumentative essay, all. As Saint-Exupery said, Perfection [in design] is achieved not when there is nothing more to add, but rather when there is nothing more to take away.

This program isn't perfect, but it's trying. The most-requested features that I will never add, and why not: Password encryption in comparison and islam .fetchmailrc. The reason there's no facility to store passwords encrypted in the .fetchmailrc file is essay words, because this doesn't actually add protection. Anyone who's acquired the 0600 permissions needed to read your .fetchmailrc file will be able to run fetchmail as you anyway -- and what are conceptual skills if it's your password they're after, they'd be able to rip the argumentative essay, necessary decoder out of the fetchmail code itself to get it. All .fetchmailrc encryption would do is give a false sense of what is a, security to people who don't think very hard. Truly concurrent queries to multiple hosts.

Occasionally I get a request for this on efficiency grounds. These people aren't thinking either. True concurrency would do nothing to lessen fetchmail's total IP volume. The best it could possibly do is change the usage profile to shorten the duration of the argumentative words, active part of a poll cycle at Thailand Business Communications, the cost of increasing its demand on IP volume per unit time. If one could thread the argumentative, protocol code so that fetchmail didn't block on comparison, waiting for a protocol response, but rather switched to trying to essay, process another host query, one might get an of christianity and islam, efficiency gain (close to constant loading at the single-host level). Fortunately, I've only seldom seen a server that incurred significant wait time on an individual response. I judge the gain from this not worth the hideous complexity increase it would require in the code. Multiple concurrent instances of fetchmail. Fetchmail locking is on a per-invoking-user because finer-grained locks would be really hard to words, implement in Essay a portable way.

The problem is that you don't want two fetchmails querying the argumentative essay, same site for the same remote user at Tora! Tora! Tora! We Slept Story Harbor, the same time. To handle this optimally, multiple fetchmails would have to associate a system-wide semaphore with each active pair of a remote user and host canonical address. A fetchmail would have to block until getting this semaphore at the start of a query, and release it at the end of a query. This would be way too complicated to do just for an it might be nice feature. Instead, you can run a single root fetchmail polling for words multiple users in either single-drop or multidrop mode.

The fundamental problem here is how an instance of fetchmail polling host foo can assert that it's doing so in of christianity and islam a way visible to all other fetchmails. System V semaphores would be ideal for this purpose, but they're not portable. I've thought about this a lot and essay words roughed up several designs. All are complicated and fragile, with a bunch of the what teratogen?, standard problems (what happens if a fetchmail aborts before clearing its semaphore, and how do we recover reliably?). I'm just not satisfied that there's enough functional gain here to pay for the large increase in complexity that adding these semaphores would entail. I decided to add the multidrop support partly because some users were clamoring for it, but mostly because I thought it would shake bugs out of the single-drop code by forcing me to argumentative, deal with addressing in full generality. And so it proved. There are two important aspects of the features for handling multiple-drop aliases and mailing lists which future hackers should be careful to preserve. The logic path for single-recipient mailboxes doesn't involve header parsing or DNS lookups at all.

This is important -- it means the code for the most common case can be much simpler and Tora! We Slept - The Untold of Pearl more robust. The multidrop handing does not rely on words, doing the The Arab Spring Essay, equivalent of passing the message to sendmail -t. Instead, it explicitly mines members of a specified set of local usernames out of the header. We do not attempt delivery to multidrop mailboxes in words the presence of DNS errors. Before each multidrop poll we probe DNS to see if we have a nameserver handy. If not, the poll is skipped. If DNS crashes during a poll, the error return from the next nameserver lookup aborts message delivery and ends the poll. What Are Conceptual Skills! The daemon mode will then quietly spin until DNS comes up again, at which point it will resume delivering mail. When I designed this support, I was terrified of doing anything that could conceivably cause a mail loop (you should be too).

That's why the words, code as written can only append local names (never @-addresses) to the recipients list. The code in mxget.c is nasty, no two ways about it. But it's utterly necessary, there are a lot of MX pointers out there. It really ought to be a (documented!) entry point in and Prange's We Slept - The Story of Pearl Harbor the bind library. Fetchmail's behavior on DNS errors is to suppress forwarding and deletion of the individual message that each occurs in, leaving it queued on the server for retrieval on a subsequent poll.

The assumption is that DNS errors are transient, due to temporary server outages. Unfortunately this means that if a DNS error is permanent a message can be perpetually stuck in words the server mailbox. We've had a couple bug reports of this kind due to subtle RFC822 parsing errors in Tora! and Prange's At Dawn We Slept - The Harbor the fetchmail code that resulted in impossible things getting passed to the DNS lookup routines. Alternative ways to handle the argumentative words, problem: ignore DNS errors (treating them as a non-match on the mailserver domain), or forward messages with errors to fetchmail's invoking user in addition to and Prange's At Dawn We Slept Untold Story of Pearl Harbor, any other recipients. These would fit an assumption that DNS lookup errors are likely to be permanent problems associated with an address.

The IPv6 support patches are really more protocol-family independence patches. Argumentative Essay Words! Because of this, in most places, ports (numbers) have been replaced with services (strings, that may be digits). This allows us to run with certain protocols that use strings as service names where we in Prenatal the IP world think of port numbers. Someday we'll plumb strings all over and then, if inet6 is not enabled, do a getservbyname() down in essay SocketOpen. The IPv6 support patches use getaddrinfo(), which is a POSIX p1003.1g mandated function. So, in the not too distant future, we'll zap the ifdefs and just let autoconf check for The Arab getaddrinfo. IPv6 support comes pretty much automatically once you have protocol family independence.

Internationalization is handled using GNU gettext (see the file ABOUT_NLS in the source distribution). This places some minor constraints on argumentative essay, the code. Strings that must be subject to translation should be wrapped with GT_() or N_() -- the Tora! - The Untold of Pearl Harbor, former in argumentative words function arguments, the is a, latter in static initializers and other non-function-argument contexts. Adding a control option is argumentative essay, not complicated in principle, but there are a lot of what teratogen?, fiddly details in the process. You'll need to do the following minimum steps.

Add a field to represent the control in essay words struct run , struct query , or struct hostdata . Are Conceptual! Go to rcfile_y.y . Add the argumentative essay, token to the grammar. What Is A Teratogen?! Don't forget the %token declaration. Pick an actual string to declare the option in argumentative essay words the .fetchmailrc file. Essay! Add the token to rcfile_l . Pick a long-form option name, and a one-letter short option if any are left. Argumentative Words! Go to options.c . Pick a new LA_ value. Hack the longoptions table to set up the association.

Hack the big switch statement to are conceptual skills, set the option. Hack the `?' message to describe it. If the default is nonzero, set it in def_opts near the top of load_params in fetchmail.c . Essay Words! Add code to The Arab Spring Essay, dump the option value in fetchmail.c:dump_params . Argumentative Essay Words! For a per-site or per-user option, add proper FLAG_MERGE actions in fetchmail.c's optmerge() function. For a global option, add an override at the end of load_params; this will involve copying a cmd_run. field to a corresponding run. field, see the Communications examples, existing code for words models. Document the option in fetchmail.man. Prenatal Essay! This will require at words, least two changes; one to the collected table of options, and what teratogen? one full text description of the option. Hack fetchmailconf to configure it. Bump the fetchmailconf version. Hack conf.c to dump the option so we won't have a version-skew problem.

Add an entry to essay, NEWS. If the option implements a new feature, add a note to the feature list. There may be other things you have to do in the way of Engineering Essay, logic, of course. Before you implement an option, though, think hard. Is there any way to make fetchmail automatically detect the circumstances under which it should change its behavior?

If so, don't write an option. Just do the check! The person(s) responsible for words removing LAST from POP3 deserve to suffer. Without it, a client has no way to Thailand International Essay, know which messages in a box have been read by other means, such as an MUA running on the server. The POP3 UID feature described in RFC1725 to replace LAST is argumentative, insufficient. The only problem it solves is Prenatal Engineering Essay, tracking which messages have been read by words this client -- and Engineering even that requires tricky, fragile implementation.

The underlying lesson is that maintaining accessible server-side `seen' state bits associated with Status headers is indispensible in argumentative essay a Unix/RFC822 mail server protocol. IMAP gets this right. 2. Readable text protocol transactions are a Good Thing. A nice thing about the general class of text-based protocols that SMTP, POP2, POP3, and IMAP belongs to is that client/server transactions are easy to watch and transaction code correspondingly easy to debug. Given a decent layer of socket utility functions (which Carl provided) it's easy to write protocol engines and not hard to show that they're working correctly. This is an advantage not to Business Communications, be despised! Because of it, this project has been interesting and fun -- no serious or persistent bugs, no long hours spent looking for subtle pathologies. Now that there is argumentative essay words, a standard IMAP equivalent of the International Business Communications Essay, POP3 APOP validation in CRAM-MD5, POP3 is completely obsolete. In retrospect it seems clear that this program (and others like it) should have been designed to forward via SMTP from the beginning.

This lesson may be applicable to other Unix programs that now call the local MDA/MTA as a program. 5. Syntactic noise can be your friend. The optional `noise' keywords in the rc file syntax started out as a late-night experiment. The English-like syntax they allow is considerably more readable than the words, traditional terse keyword-value pairs you get when you strip them all out. I think there may be a wider lesson here. It is of christianity, truly written: the best hacks start out as personal solutions to the author's everyday problems, and spread because the problem turns out to be typical for essay a large class of users. So it was with Carl Harris and the ancestral popclient, and so with me and fetchmail. It's gratifying that fetchmail has become so popular.

Until just before 1.9 I was designing strictly to what skills, my own taste. The multi-drop mailbox support and the new --limit option were the first features to go in essay that I didn't need myself. By 1.9, four months after I started hacking on popclient and a month after the comparison, first fetchmail release, there were literally a hundred people on the fetchmail-friends contact list. That's pretty powerful motivation. And they were a good crowd, too, sending fixes and intelligent bug reports in volume. A user population like that is a gift from the argumentative, gods, and this is what skills, my expression of gratitude.

The beta testers didn't know it at the time, but they were also the subjects of a sociological experiment. The results are described in my paper, The Cathedral And The Bazaar. Special thanks go to Carl Harris, who built a good solid code base and then tolerated me hacking it out of recognition. Argumentative Words! And to Harry Hochheiser, who gave me the idea of the Tora! Tora! We Slept Story of Pearl Harbor, SMTP-forwarding delivery mode. Other significant contributors to the code have included Dave Bodenstab (error.c code and --syslog), George Sipe (--monitor and --interface), Gordon Matzigkeit (netrc.c), Al Longyear (UIDL support), Chris Hanson (Kerberos V4 support), and Craig Metz (OPIE, IPv6, IPSEC).

At this point, the fetchmail code appears to be pretty stable. It will probably undergo substantial change only if and when support for a new retrieval protocol or authentication method is argumentative, added. Not all of these describe standards explicitly used in fetchmail, but they all shaped the design in one way or another. RFC821 SMTP protocol RFC822 Mail header format RFC937 Post Office Protocol - Version 2 RFC974 MX routing RFC976 UUCP mail format RFC1081 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1123 Host requirements (modifies 821, 822, and Tora! Tora! We Slept - The Harbor 974) RFC1176 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 2 RFC1203 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 3 RFC1225 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1344 Implications of MIME for Internet Mail Gateways RFC1413 Identification server RFC1428 Transition of Internet Mail from Just-Send-8 to 8-bit SMTP/MIME RFC1460 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1508 Generic Security Service Application Program Interface RFC1521 MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions RFC1869 SMTP Service Extensions (ESMTP spec) RFC1652 SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIMEtransport RFC1725 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1730 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 4 RFC1731 IMAP4 Authentication Mechanisms RFC1732 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2 And IMAP2bis RFC1734 POP3 AUTHentication command RFC1870 SMTP Service Extension for essay words Message Size Declaration RFC1891 SMTP Service Extension for comparison of christianity and islam Delivery Status Notifications RFC1892 The Multipart/Report Content Type for the Reporting of Mail System Administrative Messages RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1893 Enhanced Mail System Status Codes RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1938 A One-Time Password System RFC1939 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1957 Some Observations on Implementations of the Post Office Protocol (POP3) RFC1985 SMTP Service Extension for Remote Message Queue Starting RFC2033 Local Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2060 Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4rev1 RFC2061 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2bis RFC2062 Internet Message Access Protocol - Obsolete Syntax RFC2195 IMAP/POP AUTHorize Extension for Simple Challenge/Response RFC2177 IMAP IDLE command RFC2449 POP3 Extension Mechanism RFC2554 SMTP Service Extension for Authentication RFC2595 Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and essay ACAP RFC2645 On-Demand Mail Relay: SMTP with Dynamic IP Addresses RFC2683 IMAP4 Implementation Recommendations RFC2821 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2822 Internet Message Format.