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resume lusiadas O que e uma epopeia? Palavra de origem Grega, epopeia significa canto e e uma narrativa, geralmente em verso, que conta (canta) os feitos grandiosos de um heroi, que pode ser individual (Ulisses – em Odisseia - e Aquiles – em Iliada , ambas de Homero) ou colectivo (Os Portugueses – o povo portugues – em Os Lusiadas ). Economics? Este herois ficam imortalizados atraves da narracao dos seus sucessos gloriosos. Necessidade de uma epopeia portuguesa. Em Portugal, intensifica-se, no seculo XV, a necessidade de conhecimento e dominio do espaco fisico. Definitions Of Output Devices? Desenvolveu-se, entao, um espirito de ousadia que levou a uma abertura de mentalidades – Humanismo – e uma consequente percepcao mais rigorosa do mundo a nivel fisico, cientifico e economico. Decorrente deste espirito humanista – aberto, critico, de valorizacao do real e do saber - surge a necessidade de reler os escritores greco-latinos (os classicos) para compreender o seu conteudo ideologico, psicologico e cientifico em oposicao as crencas religiosas que dominavam o pensamento anterior ao humanismo. Positive Economics? A este movimento que reclama os ideais classicos da-se o nome de Renascimento . Definitions? O Renascimento tem como origem o desejo de retomar os valores e modelos da Antiguidade Classica. Positive? Um outro factor que contribuiu para uma mudanca cultural foi a expansao ultramarina. Sociological? Atraves dos Descobrimentos, surgiu ao Homem um novo mundo, repleto de saber, experiencia e observacao, que permitiu o desenvolvimento do espirito critico.

Assim, houve uma conjugacao de aspectos que permitiram que o Homem se tornasse o centro do Universo , exaltando as suas capacidades e a sua forca fisica e mental. Os feitos Portugueses eram a demonstracao evidente da forca humana, do dominio da inteligencia do Homem sobre os elementos da natureza. Positive Economics? O orgulho portugues estava no seu auge. Band Of Brothers Theme? Havia, entao, a necessidade de uma obra que cantasse esses feitos. Luis de Camoes viveu numa epoca em que Portugal gozou o seu ponto mais alto de dominio do mundo, devido aos Descobrimentos. Positive? Esta vivencia serviu-lhe de estimulo (historico) que, aliado ao renascimento cultural, lhe deu a conhecer as epopeias classicas, originando entao a criacao de uma epopeia nacional. Os Lusiadas acabam, entao, por surgir com um duplo objectivo: exaltar os feitos Portugueses (ideal cavaleiresco) e enobrecer a Lingua Portuguesa. Estrutura de Os Lusiadas. Os Lusiadas estao divididos em dez cantos , cada um deles com um numero variavel de estrofes, que, no total, somam 1102. Examples Of Romanticism? Essas estrofes sao todas oitavas (tem oito versos) decassilabicas (cada verso tem dez silabas metricas), obedecendo ao esquema rimatico “abababcc” (rima cruzada, nos seis primeiros versos, e emparelhada, nos dois ultimos).

Camoes respeitou com bastante fidelidade a estrutura classica da epopeia. Positive? A obra e constituida por quatro partes: Proposicao — O poeta comeca por declarar aquilo que se propoe fazer, indicando de forma sucinta o assunto da sua narrativa; propoe-se, afinal, tornar conhecidos os navegadores que tornaram possivel o imperio portugues no oriente, os reis que promoveram a expansao da Fe e do Imperio, bem como todos aqueles que se tornam dignos de admiracao pelos seus feitos (Canto I, estancias 1-3). Invocacao — O poeta dirige-se as Tagides (ninfas do Tejo), para lhes pedir o estilo e eloquencia necessarios a execucao da sua obra; um assunto tao grandioso exigia um estilo elevado, uma eloquencia superior; dai a necessidade de solicitar o auxilio das entidades protectoras dos artistas (Canto I, estancias 4 e 5). Dedicatoria — E a parte em que o poeta oferece a sua obra ao rei D. Theme? Sebastiao (Canto I, estancias 6-18). Narracao — O poeta canta os feitos dos Portugueses, tendo como accao central a viagem de Vasco da Gama a India. Economics? A par desta, surge a narracao da Historia de Portugal. Band? A narracao constitui o nucleo fundamental da epopeia. Positive Economics? Aqui, o poeta procura concretizar aquilo que se propos fazer na “proposicao”. Of Demand? Surge “in media res”, ou seja, ja na viagem (caracteristica da epopeia classica).

A narracao desenvolve-se em quatro planos diferentes , mas estreitamente articulados entre si: 1. Positive Economics? Plano da viagem — A accao central do poema e a viagem de Vasco da Gama. Sociological Papers? Luis de Camoes percebeu a importancia historica desse acontecimento, devido as alteracoes que provocou, tanto em Portugal, como na Europa. 2. Positive Economics? Plano da Historia de Portugal – O objectivo de Camoes era enaltecer o povo portugues e nao apenas um ou alguns dos seus representantes mais ilustres. Band? Tinha, por isso, que introduzir na narrativa todas aquelas figuras e acontecimentos que, no seu conjunto, afirmavam o valor dos Portugueses ao longo dos tempos. Economics? O poeta utilizou, entao, alguns artificios para contar a Historia de Portugal: a) Narrativa de Vasco da Gama ao rei de Melinde — O rei recebe Vasco da Gama e procura saber quem e ele e donde vem. Of The 3? Para lhe responder, Vasco da Gama localiza o reino de Portugal na Europa e conta-lhe a Historia de Portugal ate ao reinado de D. Positive? Manuel. The Genocidal In The Mirror” By Crispin Sartwell Fromm’s As A Psychological Problem? Ao chegar a este ponto, conta inclusivamente a sua propria viagem desde a saida de Lisboa ate chegarem ao Oceano Indico, visto que a narrativa principal se iniciara “ in economics, media res” , isto e, quando a armada ja se encontrava em frente as costas de Mocambique.

b) Narrativa de Paulo da Gama ao Catual —Em Calecut, uma personalidade hindu (Catual) visita o navio de Paulo da Gama, que se encontra enfeitado com bandeiras alusivas a figuras historicas portuguesas. Elasticity And Supply? O visitante pergunta-lhe o significado daquelas bandeiras, o que da a Paulo da Gama o pretexto para narrar varios episodios da Historia de Portugal. c) Profecias — Os acontecimentos posteriores a viagem de Vasco da Gama nao podiam ser introduzidos na narrativa como factos historicos. Positive Economics? Para isso, Camoes recorreu a profecias colocadas na boca de Jupiter, Adamastor e Tetis, principalmente. 3. Papers? Plano Mitologico, dos Deuses ou Maravilhoso (conflito entre os deuses pagaos) — Camoes imaginou um conflito entre os deuses pagaos: Baco opoe-se a chegada dos Portugueses a India, pois receia que o seu prestigio seja colocado em segundo plano pela gloria dos Portugueses, enquanto Venus, apoiada por Marte, os protege. Economics? O maravilhoso tem uma funcao simbolica: esta intriga dos deuses reflecte indirectamente as dificuldades que os Portugueses tiveram que vencer e inculca a ideia de que os portugueses eram seres predestinados para estas facanhas do destino e que os proprios deuses o desejavam.

A mitologia permite a evolucao da accao (os deuses assumem-se como adjuvantes ou como oponentes dos portugueses) e constitui, por isso, a intriga da obra. Deus do Ceu e da Terra, pai dos deuses e dos homens. Deusa do amor e da beleza. Deus do vinho e do Oriente. Deus do Sol, das artes e das letras. Deus da Guerra, velho apaixonado de Venus.

Mensageiro dos deuses. 4. Of Output? Plano das consideracoes do poeta — Por vezes, normalmente em final de canto, a narracao e interrompida para o poeta apresentar reflexoes de caracter pessoal sobre assuntos diversos, a proposito dos factos narrados. 1. Positive Economics? Proposicao (Canto I – estancias 1-3) O poeta apresenta o assunto do poema: vai cantar as facanhas guerreiras dos homens que se fizeram herois devassando o mar, dos reis que dilataram a Fe e o Imperio e de todos aqueles que se tornaram imortais pelas suas obras. Of Brothers? Afirma tambem que vai cantar a gloria do povo portugues. Positive? O poeta acrescenta ainda que os feitos portugueses sao mais grandiosos do que aqueles cantados nas epopeias classicas, logo, merecem ser exaltados. “As armas e os baroes assinalados/ (. Number? ) as memorias gloriosas/ Daqueles Reis (. Positive? )/ (. Band Of Brothers Theme? ) E aqueles (. Positive Economics? )/ Se vao da lei da Morte libertando:/ Cantando espalharei por toda parte,/ (. Of Output? ) Que eu canto o peito ilustre Lusitano/ A quem Neptuno e Marte obedeceram.”

Neste excerto, encontram-se todos os agentes do engrandecimento da Patria que o poeta vai cantar. Economics? Todos eles sao sintetizados na forca do povo portugues “. Killer Mirror” And Erich Disobedience As A Psychological And Moral Problem? o peito ilustre Lusitano/”, a quem Neptuno (venceram os mares) e Marte (conquistaram as terras atraves da guerra) obedeceram. Positive? O povo portugues e tao sublime, tao digno que gloria, determinado e corajoso, que ate os deuses lhe obedecem. Notar o uso da conjugacao perifrastica, - se vao libertando; que exprime o aspecto durativo, apresentando a accao no seu fluir. Elasticity Of Demand? Sao expressoes que conferem visualidade e impressionismo a linguagem e sugerem tambem que esses feitos heroicos sao um trabalho aturado e persistente. 2. Economics? Consilio dos Deuses (Canto I – estancias 20-41, plano mitologico) - Enquanto a armada portuguesa navega no oceano, da-se uma simultaneidade de dois planos. - Os deuses sao convocados por Mercurio (o seu mensageiro) e dirigem-se ao Olimpo para decidirem sobre o futuro dos Portugueses no Oriente. - Na estancia 22, temos uma descricao de Jupiter (o pai dos deuses), atraves da qual vemos o seu destaque, a sua responsabilidade e o seu poder. - Discurso de Jupiter: o pai dos deuses afirma que o Fado (destino) tornara os portugueses superiores aos povos da antiguidade classica. Examples? Enuncia herois do passado e refere a presente ousadia e persistencia portuguesas na demanda de vencer os mares.

A sua opiniao e que se deve cumprir o Fado, os portugueses devem conseguir chegar a India. - Os outros deuses vao intervindo, dando as suas opinioes: Baco manifesta-se contra, com receio de perder a sua fama; Venus pronuncia-se a favor, por gostar dos portugueses, dada a sua semelhanca com os romanos; Marte intervem a favor de Venus, interpelando Jupiter para cumprir com a sua determinacao. - Jupiter concorda com Marte, pelo que fica decidido que os Portugueses serao ajudados a chegar a India. Positive? (de notar a intencao de Camoes: os portugueses sao tao valorosos que ate os Deuses estao a seu favor) “Do mar que ve do Sol a roxa entrada/” – Perifrase para Oceano Indico, Oriente. 3. The Genocidal Killer Mirror” And Erich As A Psychological And Moral Problem? Ines de Castro (Canto III – estancias 118-137, plano da Historia de Portugal) - episodio tragico e lirico. Contempla momentos da tragedia classica:

O narrador interpela o Amor acusando-o de ser responsavel pela tragedia, sendo a inconformidade do “eu” poetico expressa ao longo de todo o episodio, bem como a repulsa pela morte de Ines, chorada ate pela natureza. - a paixao entre Pedro e Ines e um desafio ao poder. - a punicao , a decisao de matar Ines. - a piedade , presente no discurso de Ines quando tenta demover o rei. - a catastofre , quando se consuma a morte de Ines. - Vasco da Gama relata ao rei de Melinde o episodio tragico de Ines de Castro, cujo responsavel e o Amor. - Descreve-se a vida feliz e tranquila de Ines nos campos do Mondego.

O narrador, neste momento, vai introduziondo indicios de que essa felicidade nao sera duradoira “Naquele engano de alma, ledo e cego” (est. Positive Economics? 120, v.3). - Condenacao de Ines – D. Elasticity Of Demand? Afonso IV decide a morte de Ines, no entanto, tendo-a na sua presenca, vacila, mas as razoes do reino levam-no a prosseguir. - Discurso de Ines – Ines inicia a sua defesa, apelando a piedade do rei atraves: dos animais que se humanizam ao cuidar de criancas; da afirmacao da sua inocenca; do respeito devido as criancas; do apelo ao desterro. - Sentenca e execucao da morte – A determinacao do rei mantem-se. Positive Economics? Ines e executada. - Consideracoes do narrador – ve a morte de Ines como uma atrocidade. The Genocidal Killer In The By Crispin Sartwell And Erich And Moral Problem? Afirma que a propria natureza chora Ines. - Vinganca de D. Positive? Pedro – D. Devices? Pedro, quando sobe ao trono, manda matar os carrascos de Ines.

Sentimento antitetico. Positive? Provoca sentimentos contrarios, opostos. “. Band Of Brothers? puro Amor, com forca crua,/ (. Positive Economics? ) fero Amor,(. Devices? )/ (. Positive? ) aspero e tirano,/ Tuas aras banhar em sangue humano.” Antitese do amor – o amor e puro, mas age com forca crua, e cruel, tirano, e causador das maiores desgracas. De notar a impressionista animizacao da natureza, que chora a morte de Ines “As filhas do Mondego a morte escura/ Longo tempo chorando memoraram,/” - Animismo.

4. Papers? Batalha de Aljubarrota (Canto IV, estancias 28 a 45, plano da Historia de Portugal) - O sinal da trompeta (est. Economics? 28). - Descricao da batalha; D. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply? Nuno Alvares Pereira defronta os seus irmaos que lutam por Castela, o que leva a uma reflexao sobre traicao (est. Positive Economics? 32 e 33) – poe em evidencia a lealdade e o patriotismo e confere maior dramatismo a descricao, realcando a figura de Nuno Alvares (objectivo de Camoes). - Discurso de D. Examples? Joao I, incitando ao combate. Positive Economics? O animo dos soldados cresce e os chefes castelhanos comecam a perecer “A sublime bandeira Castelhana/ Foi derribada aos pes da Lusitana” (est. In The Mirror” Sartwell Fromm’s Psychological Problem? 41) – “sublime” – respeito por Castela, pelo seu povo, mas nao pelo seu rei. - O final da batalha: os vencedores - D. Positive? Joao festeja a vitoria; os vencidos – os castelhanos deixam de oferecer resistencia, uns morrem, outros fogem (incluindo o proprio rei).

“Ja pelo espesso ar os estridentes/ Farpoes, setas e varios tiros voam;” – Aliteracao – em –s e –r , simula o som rispido e rude da guerra. 5. Elasticity And Supply? Despedidas de Belem (Canto IV, estancias 83 a 89, plano da Viagem) Os que partem – referencia ao estimulo dado pelo rei aos marinheiros; Vasco da Gama refere o entusiasmo de marinheiros e soldados nesta demanda; oracoes de despedida. Os que ficam – A gente da cidade deixa transparecer saudade e tristeza; os mais chegados revelam a sua tristeza (os homens com “suspiros”; as mulheres, as maes, as esposas e as irmas “cum choro piadoso”). “De ser do Olimpo estrelas. Positive Economics? /” – Metafora para tornarem-se imortais . Grandeza epica – os navegadores tinham consciencia do perigo mas, mesmo assim, enfrentaram os obstaculos. Of The Number 3? A verdadeira coragem so aparece perante o medo (mais uma vez, a exaltacao do povo portugues) 6. Positive Economics? Adamastor ( Canto V, estancias 39 a 60, plano mitologico) - O Adamastor e um dos episodios mais significativos da obra, pela inter-relacao dos planos da narracao e pela sua simbologia.

Pertence ao plano da Viagem – “aquele oculto e grande Cabo” -, como figura mitologica, pertence ao plano mitologico e faz profecias dos acontecimentos futuros de Portugal, logo, pertence tambem ao plano da Historia de Portugal. - Simbolicamente, este episodio representa os perigos do mar, perigos esses que os portugueses enfrentaram e ultrapassaram, assemelhando-se, pela grandeza, ao proprio gigante. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply? Este episodio, por isso mesmo, adquire uma dimensao epica. - Aparecimento e descricao do Adamastor – figura gigantesca que surge no mar numa atitude ameacadora, deixando os marinheiros completamente paralisados “Arrepiam-se as carnes e o cabelo, / A mi e a todos, so de ouvi-lo e ve-lo!”(est. Positive? 49, vv. Of Demand? 7 e 8). - As profecias: Adamastor comeca o seu discurso elogiando os Portugueses.

Depois, profetiza dificuldades futuras na passagem do Cabo. - A historia do Adamastor: era um dos filhos do Ceu e da Terra; confrontou-se com Jupiter e Neptuno; apaixona-se por Tetis, filha de Nereu e Doris; Doris promete interceder, dadas as ameacas de Adamastor em conquistar Tetis pelas armas; Tetis aparece e surge a decepcao do gigante quando se ve abracado a um rochedo, pensando que abracava a amada; transformacao de Adamastor em penedo como castigo de Jupiter que venceu os gigantes. - O Adamastor desaparece, chorando, emocionado com a sua triste sorte – simbolo do dominio dos mares por parte dos portugueses. Corpo de super-homem. Fragilidade psicologica de um heroi enganado – frustracao amorosa. 7. Economics? A tempestade e a chegada a India (Canto VI, estancias 70-93, plano da Viagem) - Aproximacao da tempestade. - Descricao da tempestade: do interior e do exterior. - Suplica de Vasco da Gama: Vasco da Gama dirige-se a “Divina Guarda” pedindo clemencia e argumentando que aquela e uma viagem ao servico de Deus “Se este nosso trabalho nao Te ofende,/ Mas antes Teu servico so pretende?” (est. Killer In The Mirror” By Crispin And Erich Fromm’s As A Psychological And Moral Problem? 82, vv.7 e 8) - Continuacao da descricao da tempestade. - Intercessao de Venus – Venus manda as Ninfas enfeitarem-se e irem ao encontro dos ventos que, perante a sua beleza, logo desfalecem “A vista delas, logo lhe falecem/ As forcas com que dantes pelejaram” (est.

88, vv.1 a 3) – simbologia. ? Estilo de Luis de Camoes. Na Invocacao, Camoes pede as Tagides um estilo grandioso e um “som alto e sublimado”. Economics? Como o conseguiu? (ver pp. Examples Of Romanticism? 238 e 239 do manual) Aliteracao - Repeticao de um ou mais sons consonanticos para intensificar e aumentar a expressividade Sois senhor superno (I, 10). Anafora - Repeticao (de que resulta sobressair o que se repete) de uma palavra ou de um membro de frase Vistes que, com grandissima ousadia/ Vistes aquela insana fantasia / Vistes, e ainda vemos cada dia, (VI, 29). Antitese - Confronto de dois elementos ou ideias antagonicas, no intuito de reforcar a mensagem:

Tanto de meu estado me acho incerto, Que em vivo ardor tremendo estou frio. Apostrofe - Apelo do autor, atraves de interrupcoes, invocando pessoas ausentes, coisas ou ideias sob forma exclamativa E tu, nobre Lisboa, que no mundo. Positive? (III, 57). Comparacao - Aproximacao entre dois termos ou expressoes atraves de uma particula comparativa (como), levando a compreensao mais profunda do primeiro termo Qual aos gritos…// Tal do rei… (III, 47-48). Eufemismo - Expressao que atenua ou modifica o sentido violento, mau ou desonesto da narrativa Tirar Ines ao mundo determina, (III, 23).

Hiperbato - Inversao violenta da posicao dos membros de uma frase: Ex.: . Sociological Papers? os duros/Casos que Adamastor contou, futuros (V, 60). Hiperbole - Exagero de qualquer realidade para a tornar mais saliente, exagero este que serve para ferir o pensamento quando tomada a letra Que a vivos medo, e a mortos faz espanto,. Ironia - Exprime o contrario do que as palavras ou frases significam, para que se compreenda ou a estupidez ou a fraqueza que se pretende castigar apos se verificar a discordancia: Ex.: Oula, Veloso amigo, aquele outeiro (. Economics? ) Por me lembrar que estaveis ca sem mim; (V, 35).

Metafora - Consiste em designar um objecto ou ideia por uma palavra que convem a outro objecto ou outra ideia - ligados aqueles por uma analogia. Of Output Devices? A metafora e num unico, os dois termos da comparacao sem a particula comparativa (como) Tomai as redeas vos do reino vosso: (I, 15). Onomatopeia - Representacao auditiva ou visual pelos sons das palavras, alem do respectivo sentido: tentativa de imitacao dos ruidos naturais atraves dos fonemas da linguagem: Polas concavidades retumbando. Positive Economics? (III, 107). Perifrase - Expressao por diversas palavras daquilo que se poderia dizer mais concisamente ou apenas por uma palavra Pelo neto gentil do velho Atlante. Examples? (=Mercurio) (I, 20). Personificacao - Atribuicao de qualidades, atributos e impulsos humanos a seres inanimados e a animais irracionais Os altos promontorios o choraram, (III, 84).

Sinedoque - Consiste em tomar o todo pela parte e a parte pelo todo, o plural pelo singular ou o singular pelo plural Que da Ocidental praia Lusitana (=Portugal) (I,1).

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2004 Ap Psychology Frq Essays and Research Papers. ? FRQ Practice #2 AP Psychology 2013-2014 1. In response to positive economics, declining reading scores in local schools, John . wrote an editorial suggesting that schools need to increase interest in reading books by of the number 3 providing students with incentives. Based on research showing a relation between use of positive economics, incentives and student reading, he recommended providing a free Starbucks gift card for every ten books a student reads. A. Explain how each of the band of brothers following psychological concepts could be used to refute John's. Economics. Albert Bandura , Educational psychology , Learning 734 Words | 4 Pages. 2008 Psych FRQ 1. A) • One of the findings from band of brothers, Ainsworth’s attachment research was that children’s responses can fall into . two categories: secure or insecure attachment. Securely attached children felt close to their mothers, safe, and more willing to explore or tolerate a novel experience, while insecurely attached children were more likely to economics, react to sociological papers, the situation either with anxiety and ambivalence or with avoidance. • One of the findings from Baumrind’s research. Positive. Attachment theory , Childhood , Developmental psychology 851 Words | 3 Pages. AP Psychology Free Response Questions Sample The following questions are samples of the free response questions from past . Definitions. AP Psychology exams. The free response sections are worth 33 1/3 percent of the total grade.

Students have 50 minutes to answer two questions. The key to successfully answering these questions is to: completely define the terms using appropriate psychological terminology and then critically apply each term. Many students concentrate their efforts on the multiple-choice. Free response , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 1439 Words | 6 Pages. AP Psychology Midterm Study Guide #1 Unit 1: Psychology's History and Approaches 1.Definition of positive economics, Psychology ? . Disciplines it is rooted in? Psychology is the science of elasticity and supply, behavior and mental process; it seeks to answer how and positive, why we think, feel, act as we do. Psychology is rooted in philosophy and biology. 2.What is the difference between nativism and and supply, empiricism? Which ancient philosophers/early psychologist were nativist? which were empiricist? Nativism is the argument that all our skills.

Brain , Cerebrum , Genetics 1380 Words | 6 Pages. Positive Economics. |Wundt |“Father of Psychology ”; introspection/ Structuralism . | |Wertheimer |Gestalt psychology | |Titchner |Structuralism | |James . Clinical psychology , Cognition , Cognitive behavioral therapy 1164 Words | 7 Pages. AP US Government and Politics 2003 FRQs By Mitch White mwhite@weberschool.org Marist Summer Institute July 14, 2010 2003 . AP US Gov FRQ #1 •Presidential approval ratings fluctuate over the course of each presidential administration. –A. The Significance Of The. Identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect. –B. Identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect. Positive Economics. 2003 AP US Government Politics. Bill Clinton , Federal government of the United States , Gerald Ford 754 Words | 6 Pages. Unit 6 FRQ Many pioneering researchers have devoted their careers to understanding how we learn.

These researchers included Ivan Pavlov, . John Watson, John Garcia, B.F. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply. Skinner and Albert Bandura. Ivan Pavlov researched classical conditioning. This is a type of positive, learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Pavlov researched a dog and how it began to sociological papers, salivate at the sight of food, the bowl for the food, the person delivering the food, and positive economics, even the sound of the examples person’s. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 420 Words | 2 Pages. going to be worse than usual. Dave endured this abuse for years but finally one day he was saved by a police officer and was told he would never have to set . foot in positive that home again. He was finally free.

As this book ties in with the aspects of psychology , Dave Pelzer did not have any mental disorder, or anything causing his brain not to function the correct way. He was a victim of child abuse for many years. Not only did he have to go through all of the physical pain that was brought onto him but. Child abuse , Suffering 1029 Words | 3 Pages. shaping and successive approximation, it can teach kids how to put on band theme, their own clothes all by themselves. The Smith-Garcia’s are having a baby and should . learn how to raise their child appropriately. Since both of the expectant parents took a psychology course, they should remember Skinner’s operant conditioning method, and should use this method on their child when he or she throws a tantrum. For example, if their child throws a tantrum because he wants his favorite candy bar, a parent should. Albert Bandura , Attachment theory , Educational psychology 962 Words | 3 Pages. Ch. 10 FRQs 1. A) The problem with the positive economics election in 1800 was that it wasn’t much of an of output “election” at positive, all. Newspapers, at . the time, were mostly partisan, and weren’t concerned with telling the truth all the time.

Also, because of their lack in technology, campaigning was almost impossible for presidential candidates, so not much was done to campaign their running of office. Bottom line, there were NO primaries, NO nominating conventions. Band Theme. Democracy , Election , Elections 1397 Words | 4 Pages. not hiring 11/03 Rmi Pine Call next week 11/03 Custom Metal Workers Pine Slow workload 11/03 Seal Co Pine Happy W/ mystaff and economics, express . 11/03 Life Touch 11th and of romanticism, Sheridan Send proposal through mail 11/03 Sagebrush Sapulpa Ap . With Ashantee next week 11/03 SB Systems Pine Not hiring 11/03 Dauben Internatinal energy Pine F/U next Week 11/04 DMI International BA Exclusive w/ Prime 11/04 Air x changers Port of Catoosa Use 5 staffing companies, might. Economics. Oklahoma , Steel 504 Words | 7 Pages. ? Subspecialities of Forensic Psychology : Legal Psychology and of demand, Correctional Psychology Antonella Zavala . MISSOURI VALLEY COLLEGE CJ240 ABSTRACT Forensic psychology is the positive science that studies the individuals offender’s behavior. Forensic Science has other sciences that coordinates its goal such as Legal Psychology which will decide whether an offender is on conditions to go or not to court and correctional psychology that will follow the The Genocidal Killer Sartwell and Erich Disobedience as a Problem behavior and rehab on positive, an. Applied psychology , Clinical psychology , Crime 1583 Words | 5 Pages. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply. ?LO 1 Define psychology . “The study of behavior mental process” LO 2 Describe the scope of psychology and its subfields. “The . psychology is a broad field that includes many perspectives and SUBFIELDS.

APA the American Psychological Association and the APS The Association for Psychological Science. Positive Economics. Psychologists conduct two major types of research Basic research which is “often done in universities” and focuses on collecting data to support (or refute) theories and gathers knowledge for the. Behaviorism , Cognition , Cognitive science 1019 Words | 11 Pages. AP Psychology Fall Term Project Introduction I am more interested in the abstract and philosophical aspects rather than the . more concrete biological aspects of psychology . The topic that interested me the most so far this year and the topic that I continued to research was the topic of morality. I didn’t have a specific question I wanted to definitions devices, address but as I read some articles about people who were institutionalized for violently expressing psychopathic personality traits, I came across an. Antisocial personality disorder , Conduct disorder , Hare Psychopathy Checklist 1027 Words | 3 Pages. “ Psychology has given the world little cause for amazement” Sinead Clarke Word Count: 1,769 “ Psychology has given the world . little cause for economics amazement” In 1843, John Stuart Mill published “System of The Genocidal in the Sartwell Fromm’s Disobedience Psychological, Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation” (A System of Logic) in which he declared “ psychology should leave the realm of speculation and philosophy and become a science of observation and economics, experiment.” Commencing. Archives of the History of American Psychology , Behavior , Behaviorism 2026 Words | 6 Pages. FRQ #1 The independent variable is the group receiving feedback.

The dependent variable is examples of romanticism, how much each group correctly identified the . figures. The independent variable will not change in economics the experiment and the dependent variable's outcome will rely on the independent factor. The foveal is the examples of romanticism small pit, in economics the retina, which provides the clearest and sharpest vision. The participants' foveal vision are needed to be highly active so they can best identify the geometric figures. Feature detectors. Brain , Japanese language , Language acquisition 521 Words | 2 Pages. level of autonomic nervous system arousal may contribute to A) post-traumatic stress disorder. B) phobias. C) antisocial personality disorder.

D) . dissociative disorders. E) generalized anxiety disorder. ____ ____ ____ ____ Page 1 AP Psychology C14 Practice Test ____ 6. The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ________. Examples Of Romanticism. A) antisocial personality; schizophrenia B) major depression; bipolar disorder C) obsessive-compulsive disorder;. Positive Economics. Abnormal psychology , Bipolar disorder , Cognitive behavioral therapy 2795 Words | 10 Pages. ? Psychology Chapter 3 outline Helen Sternberg A. Papers. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint a. Chromosomes- threadlike structures made of DNA molecules . that contain the genes b. Positive. DNA- a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. c. Genes- the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of the significance of the 3, DNA capable of synthesizing a protein d. Positive. Genome- the complete instructions for making and organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. Chromosome , DNA , Gender 1363 Words | 4 Pages. Unanimous Mr. Tassinari AP Psychology 19 August 2013 Observation of a Person Psychology is the scientific . study of the human mind and its functions. One thing that is major in psychology is the elasticity of demand and supply behavior of the organs. There are many things that can be used to describe behavior and positive economics, show how the person is without even knowing them. For example there is: clothing, body language, general behavior, and anything else that would provide insight to the behavior of a person. Throughout the course.

By the Way , Education , Mind 571 Words | 2 Pages. Source: http://psychology.about.com Psychology Today, psychologists prefer to theme, use more objective scientific methods to understand, . Positive Economics. explain, and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested. The discipline has two major areas of focus: academic psychology and applied psychology . Academic psychology focuses on the study of different sub-topics within psychology including personality, social behavior and human. Applied psychology , Behavioural sciences , Clinical psychology 607 Words | 3 Pages. ? Psychology Chapter One Psychology started as a speculation and has evolved into science over years. . It was born as an . independent discipline. The discovery began in the significance of the number 3 1870 by a small number of scholars. The founders are disciplines of philosophy and physiology which share an interest in the mysteries of the positive economics mind. In 1832- 1920 Wilhelm Wundt changed the view, he created the first laboratory in 1879 in of romanticism Leipzig Germany. He mounted a campaign to positive, make psychology and theme, independent discipline rather. Behavior , Behaviorism , Clinical psychology 979 Words | 3 Pages. Positive. ?Robert DeCooman Mr.

Holcomb AP Psychology 16 May 2014 Hypochondriasis Hypochondriasis also knows as, hypochondria is band of brothers, a . type of economics, mental illness. It is devices, a type of somatoform disorder which causes bodily symptoms. It is an anxiety disorder in positive which people think they have a disease or are convinced that they do have a disease. Hypochondriacs still think they have a disease even though medical tests show that they are not sick. For example, if a hypochondriac has a headache, he may think that it.

Antidepressant , Anxiety , Anxiety disorder 475 Words | 3 Pages. PSYCHOLOGY Eva Evangelio- Pacayra Faculty Centro Escolar University School of Science and the significance number, Technology Department of Psychology . PSYCHOLOGY • • is derived from the Greek word “psyche” which means MIND/SOUL and “logos” which means STUDY/KNOWLEDGE is the SCIENTIFIC study of HUMAN BEHAVIOR and MENTAL PROCESSES. The Roots of Psychology • • • • • • • John Locke- blank slate “Tabula Rasa” Wilhelm Wundt- Structuralism (uncovering the fundamental mental components) William James- Functionalism. Applied psychology , Clinical psychology , Educational psychology 730 Words | 5 Pages. ? PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is derived from the Greek words Psyche and logos, meaning soul and study. To Greeks, . Psychology is simply a study of the soul.

Psychology as the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. Scientific because it uses the steps in a scientific method in its quest to understand why a person behaves in a certain manner. Positive Economics. It is systematic and empirical and it is of output, dependent upon economics, measurements. Psychologists - study human issues that begin before birth and continue. Behavior , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1555 Words | 5 Pages. ?Aspects of Psychology Unit 1 Individual Project Introduction: The three early perspectives (theories) of psychology . Examples Of Romanticism. that I have chosen were Functionalism, Cognitive, and Humanistic.

We will discuss these three perspectives in the following. They are three different school of thought in the field of psychology . “Functionalism psychology focuses on how mental and behavioral processes function. They enable organism to adapt, flourish and economics, survive.” Functionalism is the doctrine that what. Cognition , Cognitive science , Human 701 Words | 3 Pages. : BA (Humanities) Degree University of Johannesburg Johannesburg, South Africa (Gauteng). Major Subjects : . Psychology (III), Development Studies (III) Other Subjects Passed : Anthropology (III) Sociology (I) Communication (I) Zulu (I) Secondary Education (Completed, 11/ 2004 ): St James College Matric / Grade 12 / A-level . Definitions Of Output Devices. Johannesburg , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 438 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Different schools of psychology Structuralism- the first school of thought headed by Wilhelm Wundt, a German, and later by E.B. Titchener . started in 1879 when experimental psychology was gaining more incentive. Economics. The structuralists, as they called themselves, thought of psychology as the study of conscious experience. They started components experience. Devices. They started that all complex substances could be analyzed through their component elements. They held that elementary mental states such as.

Behaviorism , Clinical psychology , Cognition 1725 Words | 5 Pages. Studies College of Legal studies BA.,LLB(Hons.) Semester III Academic YEAR: 2014 -15 SESSION: July-December Assignment For PSYCHOLOGY . Under the Supervision of PRIYANKA SHARMA Name: _______________________ Sap No: _______________________ Roll No ------------------------------------- Major Schools Of Thought In Psychology And Their Contributions When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the. Behaviorism , Edward B. Titchener , Human behavior 1988 Words | 8 Pages. Positive. Psyc 3331 Psychology of Gender Notes 02.02.05 Chapter 1 Key Terms ? Androcentric bias: discipline of psychology that is . Definitions Devices. largely focused on men and describes men as superior and women as inferior. ? Bias in positive economics Research Methods: bias occurs in every part of the research process-from question formulation and research design to data analysis and interpretation ? Blatant sexism: occurs when women are treated in band of brothers a transparently harmful and unequal way. ? Covert sexism: form of positive economics, sexism that's intentional. Band Of Brothers. Discrimination , Feminism , Feminist theory 756 Words | 3 Pages.

AP problem #1 Redox, bonding, thermochemistry Sodium chlorate decomposes upon heating in the presence of a manganese dioxide catalyst. Positive Economics. a. i. . Elasticity Of Demand. Write the balanced equation for the decomposition. ii. As the reaction proceeds, what would you expect the total mass in economics the test tube to increase, decrease or stay the same? b. Chlorates are highly soluble in water. i Draw the lewis structure of the chlorate ion. ii. What factors make the chlorate ion highly soluble in water? c. Sociological. i. What would. Positive Economics. Acetic acid , Ammonia , Chemical reaction 2547 Words | 26 Pages. Biological Psychology Jessica Parks APA Format PSY/340 This paper will outline the major point of sociological, biological . psychology . The paper will give an overview of the actual definition of biological psychology and the history of how it came to be. There will be an illustration of the main theorist that attributed to the ideas of biological psychology . As well as commentary on how biological psychology is used today and it’s function in our current society. Biological psychology can also. Positive. Brain , Cognition , Cognitive science 832 Words | 3 Pages. Karly Coppola 7/5/13 Psychology The Five Parts of Psychology When you hear the word psychology , what comes to . mind? While psychology is of the 3, a popular subject, a lot of people are not aware of the many different elements of positive economics, this broad and fascinating subject. It’s best to learn about the early history of psychology , the official beginning of psychology and more about psychology today.

Generally, there are five different approaches to the subject of of output devices, psychology . The five different parts are; Cognitive. Behavior , Brain , Cognitive psychology 1511 Words | 5 Pages. areas of psychology and these areas include Developmental psychology , Cognitive psychology , Behavioral . Economics. psychology , and Social psychology . While in this course I was able to learn not only about the of romanticism areas of psychology , but also learned a lot about myself. Within this paper, I will explain each major area of psychology and I will also explain personality, how it is measured, and how it is positive economics, used in psychology . I will also explain the importance of knowing the nervous system while learning psychology . Killer Mirror” Sartwell And Erich Fromm’s Disobedience Problem. I also. Behavior , Behaviorism , Cognition 1066 Words | 3 Pages. ap psychology chapter 3 outline from the myers textbook wickedsunshine398 AP . Psychology chpter 11 outline- Myers 8th edition textbook wickedsunshine398 ap psychology chapter 5 outline from the Myer's Psycholog. wickedsunshine398 chapter 9 ap psychology outline Memory Myers textbook wickedsunshine398 ap psychology chapter 7 outline wickedsunshine398 AP Psychology. Adult , Adulthood , Ageing 1098 Words | 12 Pages. ? Psychology Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of positive economics, mental functions and . behaviors. A lot of persons mix psychology with psychiatry. Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. So, the difference between these two is that psychology is nothing about medicine.

It involves some science, yes, but just for research. The definition of the name: Like a lot of words from our vocabulary. Behavior , Carl Jung , Developmental psychology 1988 Words | 7 Pages. ?History of Psychology Psychology is defined as the study of behavior and mental processes. Philosophical interest in the mind . and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, and The Genocidal Killer in the Mirror” Sartwell and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience as a and Moral Problem, India. Psychology as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt founded the positive economics first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Wundt was also the first person who wrote the first textbook on psychology : Principles of Physiological.

Behavior , Behaviorism , Brain 1694 Words | 6 Pages. Cross-Cultural Considerations in Psychology. “Cross-cultural psychology is the study: of similarities and differences in individual psychological functioning in various cultural and devices, . ethnocultural groups; of ongoing changes in variables reflecting such functioning; and of the relationships of economics, psychological variables with sociocultural, ecological and biological variables” (Berry et al, 2012). Of The Number. Defining Cross-Cultural Psychology Berry et al (2012) define their topic using the English language, which of positive, itself contains culturally-bound concepts. Archaeology , Colonialism , Culture 1436 Words | 4 Pages. is designed to assess your ability to apply the of output devices social psychology theories discussed in positive economics lectures to real world situations. Social . psychology is papers, NOT a purely academic area – it is positive economics, essential that you are able to understand how social psychology operates in the wider world. We cannot test the applications of examples of romanticism, social psychology in an exam so this assignment aims to positive, give you an of the 3 opportunity to demonstrate your ability to recognise social psychology theories in positive action by completing a simple yet interesting.

Academia , American Psychological Association , Citation 1259 Words | 5 Pages. Rogers used numerous case studies to The Genocidal Killer Mirror” Sartwell Fromm’s Disobedience as a, draw their conclusions about economics, psychology . The danger of assessing the outcome of case studies is that the . individual being studied may be atypical of the larger population. Researchers will try to ensure that their studies are geralnalizable, or applicable to similar circumstances because of the predictable outcomes of repeated tests. Of Romanticism. Two important research methods associated with developmental psychology are cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Two important. Applied psychology , Blind experiment , Causality 1470 Words | 5 Pages. Ap Euro Frq: Age of positive, European Explorations. alan katz AP Euro Age of examples of romanticism, European Explorations The renaissance’s curiosity helped pave the positive way for the European age of exploration, which . took place from 1450 to 1525. There were many factors, including technological, economic, political, and religious ones.

The age was promoted by many specific factors, including the examples of romanticism invention of caravels and other nautical inventions, the positive economics commercial and price revolutions, the new monarchs, and the constant growth that the Catholic faith wanted. Papers. “God, glory. Age of economics, Discovery , Atlantic Ocean , Christopher Columbus 833 Words | 3 Pages. Ms. Papers. Michelle P. Trangia Instructor 1. Define Psychology . Positive Economics. Psychology is an academic and applied . Band. discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Positive Economics. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to of demand, benefit society. The word psychology literally means, study of the economics soul (from the Greek word psukhe, meaning. Albert Bandura , Behavior , Behaviorism 953 Words | 4 Pages. Contribution to Psychology Jersey Hosier Northcentral University Abstract This entry wills exam the different approached both Howard . Gardner and Edward Zigler had on the field of psychology . The examination will also include the different obstacles and specific kinds of of brothers theme, resistance the experienced. Economics. The comparison will also contain a select few similarities they experienced while contributing to the field of psychology . Zigler and Gardner’s Separate Contribution to Psychology Perhaps. Accept , Clinical psychology , Graduate school 904 Words | 3 Pages.

Tyler Browne Psychology 1 Tues. Thurs. 9:30 – 1:45 Psychology Reflection Paper The top ten things that I learned this . Papers. semester in economics psychology were as follows; The importance of The Genocidal Killer Mirror” Sartwell and Erich Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem, sleep, the negative effects that stress has on your body and brain, the process of neurogenesis, the knowledge I gained about positive, psychological disorders and their symptoms, effective and healthy ways to cope with stress, the treatment of examples, psychological disorders, variations in consciousness, motivation, psychological experiment. Brain , Emotion , Mind 1659 Words | 5 Pages. Sigmund Freud was the founder of positive economics, psychoanalysis and the psychodynamic approach to psychology . This school of thought emphasized the influence . of sociological, theunconscious mind on behavior. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of positive, three elements: the id, the of romanticism ego, and the superego. Freud's theories ofpsychosexual stages , the unconscious, and dream symbolism remain a popular topic among both psychologists and laypersons, despite the fact that his work is economics, viewed with skepticism by many today. . Carl Jung , Consciousness , Mind 671 Words | 3 Pages. ?Describe the behaviourist approach in psychology and evaluate the research methods used by behaviourist psychologists. The behaviourist . Definitions Devices. approach in psychology states that all behaviour is learnt from experience and from the positive environment we are in. John Locke (1690) a psychologist described the mind as ‘Tabula Rasa’, believing when we are born our minds are completely blank slates, and that all of our behaviour is the significance of the number 3, dependent upon our interactions and experiences with the environment. Positive. Behaviourists. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1959 Words | 5 Pages.

give an overview of the evolution of of brothers theme, cognitive psychology . In this overview the term cognition will be defined as it relates to positive economics, cognitive . psychology and explain the interdisciplinary perspective. In providing an overview this paper will describe how cognitive psychology emerged as a discipline and address the manner in of demand which the decline of behaviorism affected cognitive psychology . Positive Economics. Cognitive Psychology In order to discuss cognitive psychology the term cognition must be defined (Gardner, 1987). Behaviorism , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1191 Words | 4 Pages. Enduring Issues in The Genocidal in the Sartwell Fromm’s Disobedience Problem Psychology Toni Blake • Which Type of Psychotherapy Is Most Useful? • Psychotherapy should focus on unconscious . traumas • Psychotherapy should focus on economics, irrational thought processes • Psychotherapy should focus on an individual’s potential • Psychotherapy should focus on sociological papers, changing • What Is Personality and positive economics, How Is It Measured? • Unconscious instincts motivate personality • Social feeling motivates personality • A hierarchy of needs motivates personality • Personality. Cognitive psychology , Developmental psychology , Mental disorder 674 Words | 4 Pages. experiments in social psychology drawing on the cognitive social perspective and one of the other three perspectives in the module (discursive . psychological, phenomenological or social psychoanalytic). This essay will provide a description of the experimental method for examples both the cognitive social perspective and social psychoanalytic perspective.

A compare and contrast will be given for the two perspectives in economics a critical evaluation as an of romanticism approach to doing research in social psychology . The cognitive. Cognition , Psychoanalysis , Psychology 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Danielle Christian AP Bio FRQ #2 January 22nd, 2013 A.) Graph #1 A.) Calculation The rate of reaction from 0-30 minutes . is 0.34667; r=10.4?M /30 minutes B.) Explanation The reaction was observed after 30 minutes because the reaction rate eventually slows down and the enzyme reaches its maximum potential. Positive. Since the enzyme is using the substrate so quickly, the substrates concentration depletes. That means the rate will slow down.

Our graph shows that after about in the Mirror” by Crispin Sartwell and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral, 40 minutes, the enzyme. Chemical reaction , Enzyme , Enzyme substrate 375 Words | 2 Pages. ? AP Euro FRQ Even though the renaissance had begun in main Italian city states by 1347, the rest of Europe was still . basically Medieval in positive culture and outlook. Analyze how the Black Death put an end on to this medieval culture and hastened the The Genocidal Killer in the by Crispin and Erich Fromm’s as a and Moral Problem development of the renaissance.” The Bubonic plague, also known as Black Death invaded the positive bodies of 50% of the English population, flourishing them with welts, 104-degree temperatures, bruising, wretched stench, coughing and death within 24 hours. Black Death , Bubonic plague , Europe 579 Words | 2 Pages. A.P.

Psychology Crib Notes People: Wundt- Father of Psychology : Introspection Wertheimer- Gestalt Psychology . Titchner- Structuralism James- Functionalism Watson- Behaviorism; Little Albert Study Freud- Psychoanalytic; dream analysis; free association; structure of personality; stages of of romanticism, development; defense mechanisms Milgram- Obedience; Ethics Broca- left frontal lobe: associated with expressive language Wernike- left frontal lobe: receptive language Pavlov- Classical conditioning. Clinical psychology , Developmental psychology , Erikson's stages of psychosocial development 1534 Words | 8 Pages. Associate Level Material Appendix C Psychotherapy Matrix Directions: Review Module 36 of Psychology and Your Life. Positive. Select three . approaches to summarize. Include examples of the types of psychological disorders appropriate for of demand and supply each therapy. Economics. | | | | |Summary of |Shortest approach, lasts about 20 sessions and no longer. Anxiety , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Fear 358 Words | 3 Pages. program to The Genocidal Killer by Crispin Fromm’s Psychological Problem, get this class out of the way. I learned the knowledge bases of psychology , critical thinking of economics, psychology , . applications of psychological principles and concepts and papers, personal and positive, professional development. These knowledge bases that was in our syllabus and we really learned on sociological papers, these levels of positive economics, knowledge and I will be able to definitions of output devices, reflection on these throughout my life time in my own life and career. Developmental Psychology is defined as the scientific study of changes that occurs in human beings. Death , Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson 1059 Words | 3 Pages.

10/7/12 AP : Advanced Placement or Absolute Pain? “Are you ready for a unique learning experience that . will help you succeed in college? Through AP’s college-level course and exams, you can earn college credit and positive, advanced placement, stand out in the admission process, and by Crispin Sartwell and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience Psychological and Moral Problem, learn from some of the most skilled, dedicated, and inspiring teachers in economics the world.” This excerpt comes from the of brothers main web page about AP course on positive, College Board’s official website. In 1900. Advanced Placement , Educational programs , Harlan Hanson 2343 Words | 6 Pages. is definitions devices, hypothesized that the participants who watched violent videotape would list down a higher number of aggressive associations to the homonyms in comparisons . to those who watched a non-violent videotape (Bushman, 1998). The participants were 200 psychology undergraduate students who voluntarily participated, 100 of which are men and another 100 are women. One group of participants were tasked to watch violent videotape and another group of participants were tasked to watch a non-violent videotape. Positive. Aggression , Graphic violence , Media violence research 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply. anxiety, less depression. By Michael Otto, Ph.D. and Jasper Smits, Ph.D. Dan Edmunds, Ed.D., D.D., B.C.S.A. Extreme States of Mind Helping the positive . developmentally different.

By Dan Edmunds, Ed.D., D.D., B.C.S.A. Follow Psychology Today: Twitter FaceBook Google+ Psychology Today Magazine © Copyright 1991-2014 Sussex Publishers, LLC The Therapy Directory The Health Profs Directory The Building Pros Directory © Copyright 2002-2014 Sussex Directories, Inc. About/Contact Privacy Policy . Papers. Clinical psychology , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Cognitive therapy 608 Words | 4 Pages. Positive. Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination Katrina Pride PSY301: Social Psychology Instructor: Michelle Andes July 1, 2013 When it . comes to prejudice, stereotyping, and and supply, discrimination the root of it does not have a common knowledge of where it comes from. People tend to economics, stay with those who have the definitions same features as them, have the same beliefs and/or same characteristics as they do. In reference to the above sentence it may make it difficult or challenging for us to adapt or adjust to the. Economics. Discrimination , Group dynamics , Prejudice 1421 Words | 4 Pages. Definitions Of Output. term, emotionally important relationship in which one individual seeks proximity to economics, and derives security and comfort from the sociological presence of another” . Positive. (Investigating psychology , 2012 p. 193).

Harry Harlow and Mary Ainsworth are two famous psychologist who provided us series of experiments to understand the attachment in the significance number terms of psychology . HarryHarlow started the experiments on economics, monkeys and Mary Ainsworth focused on human infants’ behaviour. There are various similarities and number 3, differences in positive economics their sets. Attachment measures , Attachment theory , Harry Harlow 1439 Words | 4 Pages. Environmental Psychology PSY/460 Environmental Psychology . Environmental psychology was established as an independent discipline in the 1950’s and definitions of output devices, 1960’s that studied the positive environmental features as well as human behavior in the physical and sociophysical environment. Research was focused to have a solid understanding of the environmental physical features of the environment and effect toward human behavior. At the beginning of. Papers. Biodiversity , Ecology , Environment 918 Words | 4 Pages. Social Psychology By: Virginia Gabbard University of economics, Phoenix Social Psychology /PSY555 April 2, 2012 . Theme. Kimberly Kinsey, PhD Social Psychology Social psychology is the understanding of individual behavior in social environments.

Per McLeod (2007) “the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior in positive social situations.” Social psychology studies how human behavior is influenced. Behavior , Culture , Identity 2030 Words | 6 Pages.

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Category Archives: Religious titles. Follow AP style, which prefers phrases rather than abbreviations. For example: “She has a master of divinity degree.” (Instead of “She has an economics, M. Div.”) A Roman Catholic diplomat chosen by elasticity of demand, the pope as his envoy to the church in a nation that does not have formal diplomatic relations with the Vatican. See papal nuncio . The highest-ranking clergy person in a hierarchical religious jurisdiction. The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an positive economics, honorary one, and an archbishop has no power to tell the bishop of a neighboring diocese how to run his churches.

In some Eastern churches, the corresponding title is definitions devices metropolitan . In the Anglican Communion, the title archbishop also is used. Capitalize only when used as a formal title before a name, such as Archbishop Donald W. Wuerl . (See exception in archbishop of Canterbury .) On second reference, use only the last name. Lowercase archbishop when it stands alone. The archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is part, and is the most senior bishop of the Church of economics, England. He has no authority over sociological papers, other national Anglican/Episcopal churches but does hold a place of honor among them. Capitalize the positive economics, title when it precedes the holder’s first and last name; on second reference use only the devices, person’s last name. Capitalize Archbishop of Canterbury standing alone, though, when used alongside references to British nobility. The archbishop of Canterbury is also referred to by the honorific the Most Rev. , as in positive economics, the Most Rev. Justin Welby, archbishop of papers, Canterbury , but it is sufficient to refer to positive, him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Pronounced “eye-ya-TOE-la.” A Shiite term for senior clergyman. Elasticity And Supply! Capitalize when used as a title before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A major division of Christianity.

In the United States there are more than 70 distinct Baptist denominations or associations. Baptists practice baptism by immersion of persons who profess faith in Jesus Christ. They do not practice infant baptism and generally reject the notion of sacraments. They describe baptism and positive economics, the Lord’s Supper as ordinances carried out in the significance of the number 3, obedience to Jesus’ commands in Scripture. Baptists are noted for their emphasis on personal religious experience and the authority of Scripture, which individuals are free to interpret according to economics, conscience. Some Baptists do not like to of output, be called Protestant because they trace their tradition’s origins to John the Baptist, but most historians say the Baptist tradition began with several early 17th-century breaks from English congregationalism. The local congregation is the highest church authority for Baptists.

No leader from a regional or national headquarters can tell a congregation what to do, and it is incorrect to refer to any body other than a congregation as the Baptist church . Baptists refer to their church connections as voluntary “ropes of sand.” The most tangible link between a local church and any convention or association is money: Local churches contribute to the state or national organizations and are considered “members” of the organizations they donate to. There are dozens of associations of Baptist churches. The largest in the United States by far is the conservative Southern Baptist Convention. The smaller and economics, more liberal American Baptist Churches USA is based in the northern United States. Prominant black Baptist associations include the National Baptist Convention of America, the National Baptist Convention USA and the Progressive National Baptist Convention and the National Missionary Baptist Convention of America.

Other major U.S. Baptist organizations include the Baptist General Conference, the Conservative Baptist Association of America, the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches, the General Association of General Baptists and the North American Baptist Conference. The Baptist World Alliance, made up of more than 200 Baptist bodies throughout the world, organizes the of brothers theme, Baptist World Congress, which generally meets every five years. The Southern Baptist Convention, a founder of the BWA, left the alliance in economics, 2004 when the SBC leaders accused the BWA of becoming too liberal. All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. On second reference use only the last name. Beatitude is a formal title of respect for a Catholic patriarch or an theme, Orthodox metropolitan. It should not be used except when it appears in quotations. The Beatitudes is the name given to a well-known portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew (5: 2-12) and Luke (6: 20-23).

In this section, Jesus describes the qualities of citizens of the positive, kingdom of heaven. The Significance 3! Capitalize when used as a title or when referring to the Beatitudes , but lowercase in positive, other forms of reference. Beatitude means “blessed” but can also be translated as “happy.” Pronounced “BHIK-koo.” A fully ordained monk in the Theravada Buddhist tradition; a nun is definitions of output devices a bhikkhuni. In the Mahayana tradition, the positive, Sanskrit forms (bhikshu, bhikshuni) are used.

Capitalize when used with a name. In Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches and some Protestant denominations that have an episcopal or hierarchical form of government, bishop is the highest order of ordained ministry. The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an examples, honorary one, and positive, an archbishop has no authority over definitions devices, a neighboring diocese. Some groups, including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Amish and economics, some Pentecostals, use the title bishop for someone who is the pastor of a congregation. Killer Sartwell And Erich Fromm’s Disobedience As A! Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name. On second reference, use only the cleric’s last name. Lowercase bishop in other uses.

A man who has taken vows in a Christian religious, particularly Catholic or Anglican, order but is not ordained. Also, a monk or friar who is in seminary preparing for priesthood is called brother if he has taken his vows. In many traditions, especially evangelical, brother is used as a generic, friendly title. Capitalize before a name but not otherwise. On first reference, generally identify the religious community, for economics example Franciscan Brother John Smith . The Significance Of The! On second reference, use the first name if the person is known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the last name on second reference. Buddhism, the fourth-largest organized religion in positive, the world, was founded in India sometime between the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or the “awakened one.” Buddhism teaches that meditation and the practice of moral behavior (and, according to some schools, rituals) can lead to the elimination of personal craving and hence the release of suffering and the attainment of absolute peace (nirvana). This is gradually achieved through successive cycles of sociological, rebirth (although some schools say such liberation may be obtained as quickly as within one lifetime). Although Buddhism is positive economics frequently described as a nontheistic tradition since the historical Buddha did not claim to be divine and there is no concept of a divine absolute God — the vast and complex tradition of Buddhism includes an theme, intricate cosmology of beneficent and wrathful deities as well as transcendent Buddhas and economics, bodhisattvas who can be propitiated to help Buddhist practitioners on the path to enlightenment.

There are three major forms or “vehicles” of Buddhism: Theravada , found in most of definitions, Southeast Asia, focuses on individual realization, with practices particularly directed to monastic life; Mahayana stresses the universality of Buddha-nature and the possibility of positive, enlightenment for all beings. It developed into many variant schools in examples, China, Japan and Korea; Vajrayana , or Tibetan Buddhism, is found in Tibet, Nepal and Mongolia. Vajrayana developed from the Mahayana tradition but is often considered separately as a third “vehicle.” Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in economics, the United States. (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is always referred to as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. In Judaism, a synagogue official who leads the musical part of a service.

Capitalize before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A title of of the, honor given to certain Catholics, nearly always archbishops, who are chosen as special advisers to positive, the pope. Their primary function in today’s church is to elect a new pope, but they are assigned to serve as advisers to in the Mirror” and Erich Disobedience Psychological and Moral, important offices in the Vatican bureaucracy. Some have a great deal of positive economics, behind-the-scenes influence. Most cardinals are archbishops of “cardinalatial sees” — archdioceses that traditionally have a cardinal. However, the heads of important Vatican offices are usually also named cardinals, and devices, occasionally the pope will name a respected theologian who is past 80 and thus ineligible to vote for a new pope. Positive! Cardinals are not required to be archbishops, bishops or even priests.

In the U.S., Jesuit theologian Cardinal Avery Dulles is not a bishop. Papers! Cardinals should be referred to conventionally, as in Cardinal Avery Dulles , not Avery Cardinal Dulles . On second reference use only the cardinal’s last name. A denomination founded in 1879 based on interpretations of the Bible found in economics, the teachings of Mary Baker Eddy, who wrote Science and Killer in the by Crispin Sartwell and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience Psychological and Moral, Health with Key to the Scriptures . Economics! The church’s official title is the papers, Church of Christ, Scientist. Positive! Headquarters are in Boston, with individual and democratically governed branch churches throughout the world. Christian Science teaches that Jesus was primarily a spiritual healer.

It embraces the original Christian teaching and practices of healing sin, sickness and death based on definitions devices, the church’s understanding of the positive economics, divine principles of Jesus’ teaching and healing. Number! Christian Scientists tend to practice spiritual-based health care rather than relying on conventional medicine, but the church says it does not interfere with members’ health care decisions. Christian Science worship services are led by lay leaders, who are called readers. The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Capitalize these titles before a name and on second reference use only the last name. Do not use the Rev. in any references. The Church of economics, Christ, Scientist, is not recognized as Christian by the Catholic, Protestant or Orthodox churches for a number of doctrinal reasons, including its rejection of the doctrine of the Trinity. The Genocidal Killer Sartwell As A Psychological And Moral! In stories where this is relevant, journalists should explain the Christian Science beliefs and why other groups say those beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity.

In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. For example, say Baptists, Christian Scientists, Presbyterians and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians and non-Christians, including Christian Scientists and Jews, took part in relief efforts. The terms Christian Science Church or Churches of Christ, Scientist, are acceptable in all references. The church subsidizes the international newspaper The Christian Science Monitor . Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Members of the positive, church are called Mormons or Latter-day Saints ; either is of brothers acceptable.

It is preferable to use the church’s entire name, the Church of economics, Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , on first reference. The LDS church has asked not to examples of romanticism, be referred to as the positive, Mormon Church but does not object to of demand, adherents being referred to as Mormons . Mormon, LDS and Latter-day Saint can all be used as adjectives, as in economics, Mormon beliefs or LDS practices . The church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, a farm boy in upstate New York. Smith said he was directed to a set of golden plates that contained a record of ancient inhabitants of the Americas who had migrated from Jerusalem. Examples Of Romanticism! Smith said he translated this record with divine help and published it as the Book of Mormon. The book tells of a visit by the resurrected Jesus to these inhabitants in the Western Hemisphere, which is why its subtitle reads “Another Testament of Jesus Christ.” Mormons believe that Smith had a vision of positive economics, God and Jesus Christ and that the examples of romanticism, church he founded is the restoration of true Christianity. Positive! In the 19th century, Mormons were persecuted for their beliefs and eventually fled to elasticity, Utah, where they could practice their faith in peace.

Because of their extra-biblical scriptures and beliefs about God and positive economics, Jesus (they reject the band theme, Nicene Creed, for economics example), Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant churches do not regard Mormons as Christian. In stories where that is relevant, journalists should explain why Mormons regard themselves as Christian and why other groups say their beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity. In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. For example, say: Baptists, Mormons, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and examples of romanticism, non-Christians, including Mormons and Jews, took part in positive economics, relief efforts . The church has headquarters in Salt Lake City and is highly structured. All worthy males, 12 and number 3, older, can be ordained to positive, the priesthood; women are not ordained but can serve in leadership and other positions in the all-volunteer clergy. The top authority is the sociological papers, “prophet, seer and revelator,” a position held by the most senior apostle, who has the title of church president. He is joined by two counselors, who constitute the governing First Presidency. When the president dies, the First Presidency is dissolved and the senior member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles becomes the new president. Under the First Presidency is the three-member Presiding Bishopric, which governs in positive, temporal affairs. There is also the First Quorum of Seventy, which oversees missionary work and other aspects of church governance.

The church is divided into papers territories called stakes, and each stake is headed by a president, two counselors and a stake high council. Individual congregations are called wards. Positive! The leader of a ward holds the title of bishop. The only formal titles in the LDS church are president for the head of the First Presidency, apostle , bishop and elder . Female leaders are called sisters. Capitalize all formal titles before a name on first reference, and only use the person’s last name on second reference. Papers! The terms minister and the Rev. are not used. There is no central headquarters or organization for the Churches of economics, Christ, as each congregation is of brothers autonomous. Members have traditionally regarded their churches as a restoration of the New Testament church. They typically do not use instrumental music in worship because, they say, the New Testament does not command it, and whatever is not commanded is economics forbidden.

Baptism by immersion is generally regarded as essential for salvation. The minister of papers, a congregation is addressed by members as Brother. Do not use the positive, honorific the Rev. for band Church of Christ ministers. Do not refer to the space for worship as a sanctuary ; auditorium is usually preferred. Do not refer to the Communion table as an altar ; use Communion table . Priests, ministers, rabbis and others who are ordained by positive economics, specific religious bodies to perform official duties. Most denominations have specific requirements for education, training and the selection process. The singular form is cleric . The title of the leader of Tibetan Buddhism and the spiritual and theme, (now exiled) political leader of the people of Tibet. Dalai Lama is a title rather than a name, but it is all that is positive used when referring to the man. Capitalize when referring to the person who currently holds the title; lowercase when referring to the title in the significance number, general. Each dalai lama is considered to be the reincarnation of the last; the current, 14th Dalai Lama left Tibet in 1959 after China’s invasion and resides in Dharamsala, India. Tibetan Buddhists address him as Your Holiness and positive economics, refer to him in writing as His Holiness . A group of Christian churches that do not recognize the authority of the pope in Rome, but, like the Roman Catholic Church, have roots in the earliest days of Christianity.

The Eastern Orthodox churches split from the Western church in the Great Schism of 1054, primarily over of the number, papal authority and whether the Holy Spirit proceeds from the positive economics, Father (as the Orthodox believe) or from the Father and Son (as the Catholics believe). Of Demand And Supply! Included in the Eastern Orthodox churches are the Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Armenian Orthodox, as well as other, smaller churches based on the nationalities of various ethnic groups such as Bulgarians, Romanians and positive economics, Syrians. Eastern Orthodox clergy comparable to Catholic archbishops are known as patriarchs or metropolitans . They recognize the patriarch of Constantinople, now Istanbul, as their leader. He has the the significance 3, power to positive, convene councils, but he does not have authority over number 3, the activities of the positive, other archbishops. The patriarch of Constantinople is known as the ecumenical patriarch.

Working with the archbishop are other archbishops, bishops, priests and deacons. Definitions Of Output Devices! Archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. When no last name is used, repeat the title before the name in subsequent references. Archbishop may be replaced by economics, the Most Rev. on first reference. Use the Rev. The Genocidal Killer Mirror” By Crispin Disobedience As A Psychological And Moral! before the name of a priest on first reference. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. The churches have their own traditions on matters such as married clergy; for positive economics example, a married man may be ordained, but a priest may not marry after ordination.

In the United States, the largest Eastern Orthodox church is the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, followed by the Orthodox Church in Killer Mirror” and Erich as a Psychological and Moral, America. The Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion. Officially called the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of positive, America. The Genocidal In The By Crispin Fromm’s Disobedience Problem! Episcopal Church is acceptable in all references. Two bodies govern the church nationally — the permanent Executive Council and the General Convention, which meets every three years. Economics! One bishop holds the title of presiding bishop . Devices! The General Convention determines national policies, and economics, all acts must pass its House of Bishops and House of Deputies.

Under the devices, council are provinces, dioceses or missionary districts, local parishes and economics, local missions. A province is composed of several dioceses and has a synod made up of a house of bishops and a house of deputies. Within a diocese, a bishop is the principal official and is helped by the Diocesan Convention, which is elasticity of demand and supply made up of all clergy in the diocese and lay representatives from each parish. A vestry, composed of the rector and positive, lay members elected by the congregation, governs the elasticity of demand, parish or local church. Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about such disputes whether a bishop is Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. She is addressed as the positive, Most Rev. All other bishops use the title the theme, Rt.

Rev. before their name. Priests and deacons use the title the Rev . Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of positive, a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the Venerable , as in the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. Use the definitions devices, Rev . in first reference before the names of Episcopal, Orthodox and positive economics, Roman Catholic priests. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Use Father before a name only in direct quotations. The most supreme religious leader. One can be a grand mufti of a city, region or country. It is a title used mostly by Sunnis.

Capitalize when used before a name. A Sikh leader trained in all aspects of maintaining gurdwara decorum, including reading from and caring for Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhs often use the terms granthi , gyaani and band theme, raagi interchangeably. A granthi is not clergy. Terms such as priest and minister are not applicable. Pronounced “GOO-roo.” Broadly used to economics, refer to a teacher of any subject, but especially of spiritual matters. In Hinduism, one’s spiritual guru is seen to be a representative of the divine, through whom one is devices given the teachings and practices necessary for enlightenment. Pronounced “ee-MAHM.” In everyday use, any person who leads a congregational prayer. Traditionally, only men have been imams, although women are allowed to serve as imams for other women. To lead prayers, one does not have to be a cleric.

In a more formal sense, an imam is a religious leader, but can also be a political leader. Many Shiites believe imams are intercessors with God; many also believe in positive, the Twelve Imams, descendants of Prophet Muhammad whom they consider his rightful successors. The Twelfth Imam disappeared from the world in 873, but followers of Twelve Imams Shiism believe that he is still alive and will return as the Mahdi, or “the guided one,” who will restore righteousness before the end of the world. On first reference, uppercase imam when preceding a proper name. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Uppercase imam when referencing the Twelve Imams. Religion founded in seventh-century Mecca by the Prophet Muhammad, who said Allah (God), through the band of brothers theme, Angel Gabriel, revealed the Quran to positive economics, him between 610 and 632, the year of his death. Followers of Islam are called Muslims . They worship in a mosque, and of romanticism, their weekly holy day is Friday. Islam is the positive economics, second-largest religion in the world, after Christianity. After Muhammad’s death, Islam split into elasticity and supply two distinct branches — Sunni and Shiite — in an argument over positive economics, who would succeed him. Sunnis make up an estimated 85 percent of all Muslims.

Shiites are the majority in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain, while Sunnis are the of the, majority in positive economics, other Islamic countries. In Sunni and Shiite Islam, there are various madhhabs, or schools of thought, and other theological traditions. There is no central religious authority, so theological and legal interpretations can vary from region to region, country to country and even mosque to mosque. Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on first reference and of output, only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and positive economics, Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on the significance number 3, others. Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to positive, any of the of brothers theme, 12 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is positive used in both communities, but can be used either as term of respect — to address older men, for example — or for a formally trained scholar. Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of of output devices, Sufi orders. Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education.

A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and faqihs are jurists with the authority to positive, issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja , the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and The Genocidal Killer by Crispin Sartwell Fromm’s Psychological and Moral Problem, grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by economics, an institution. Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Because the in the and Erich Disobedience as a and Moral Problem, Quran is in Arabic, it is a common misconception that all Arabs are Muslim and all Muslims are Arab; neither is economics true. A member of the laity, rather than the clergy. The terms lay person and lay people are each two words. Layman and laywoman , however, are each one word. In the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and ranks below the patriarch.

In Orthodoxy, a metropolitan is said to Killer Mirror” and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience as a Psychological, govern a metropolia , while the Eastern Catholics call it an archeparchy . In the Western churches, the corresponding terms are archbishop and archdiocese . Most Protestant denominations use the term minister to describe their clergy, but it is not a formal title and is not capitalized. It is also used in Catholicism, with a strong distinction drawn between ordained ministers (priests and deacons) and lay ministers (including, for positive economics example, Eucharistic ministers, who take Communion to definitions, the sick, and youth ministers). The Nation of positive, Islam also uses the papers, term, and in that case it is economics a title and should be capitalized before the person’s name. A term often applied to any man in a religious order, it should be restricted to members of contemplative orders, such as Benedictines, Cistercians and elasticity of demand, Carthusians. Friar is the economics, name given to members of the mendicant orders, such as the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites, which are pledged to live on free-will offerings. Brother is a title given to laymen who take vows as members of religious communities. Monks and friars can be, but often are not, ordained priests. Brothers remain in the lay state but as vowed members of the community.

All monks, friars and brothers who are not ordained can be addressed as Brother in conversation and on first reference, such as Brother John Doe . On second reference, continue to use Brother and the first name if the person is of demand and supply known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the last name on positive economics, second reference. An honorary title given to some diocesan priests by the pope. Capitalize before the name on first reference. Do not use the abbreviation Msgr . or the titles the in the Sartwell and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience as a and Moral, Very Rev. or the Rt. Rev. Editor’s note : While the Catholic Encyclopedia disputes this definition, the CNS Stylebook and other Catholic reference books mirror the above definition. A Shiite term for lower-level clergy. Capitalize the title when it precedes a name. Generally, the head minister or priest of a Christian church, although in some denominations any ordained minister is called pastor . It means shepherd and is also used in reference to bishops and to the pope.

One of the ancient fathers of Judaism and Christianity — Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. In the positive, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, a patriarch is the highest-ranking bishop. Capitalize if used before a name. In the devices, Roman Catholic Church, the patriarch is the bishop of positive, Rome and is called pope. Unlike the pope, who has jurisdiction over all Roman Catholic territories, the examples of romanticism, authority of Eastern and Oriental patriarchs is more limited. They have a great deal of enforceable jurisdiction in their own territories but no authority over each other’s. A religious title used by a variety of traditions, including Santeria, Wicca, paganism and neo-paganism.

Christian traditions that ordain women to economics, the priesthood, such as the Episcopal Church, call them priests . Hebrew word for teacher and of demand and supply, the title used by positive, Jewish clergy. On first reference, capitalize before a name. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Guidance on titles in specific faith traditions can be found below. More explanation is usually offered under the individual entry on that group, or, sometimes, under an entry on the title itself. Not all faith traditions are listed here. This entry highlights the major religious traditions as well as traditions in which titles are likely to be unfamiliar to many journalists. For all faiths, the of romanticism, title Dr . is generally not used before the names of scholars or clergy who hold academic doctorates. If the person’s academic credentials are important to the story, it is better to give specifics, as in Jane Doe, who holds a doctorate in systematic theology, led the economics, discussion . Of Output! Never combine Dr . Positive Economics! with other titles, such as the Rev.

Dr. Baptist churches: All members of the definitions devices, Baptist clergy may be referred to economics, as ministers . Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the in the by Crispin Sartwell and Erich Fromm’s Disobedience as a, Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. On second reference use only the last name. Buddhism: Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is always referred to as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to economics, a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. Teachers may be addressed by their titles (e.g., “Rinpoche, may I ask a question?”). Dalai Lama is capitalized when referring to the man who holds the title and no name is used; dalai lama is 3 lowercase otherwise. Buddhists address the Dalai Lama as Your Holiness in person and His Holiness in writing. Ordained monks in positive economics, Theravada Buddhism are given the definitions devices, honorific Venerable before their names. Church of Christ, Scientist: This denomination, also called the Christian Science Church, has lay leaders called readers who lead its worship services.

The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Capitalize these titles before a name, and on second reference use only the last name. Positive! Do not use the Rev . in any references. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Apostle is a title used for the church’s highest-ranking members. The senior, or longest-serving, apostle serves as the church president and carries that title. Other titles used by Mormons are bishop , elder and sister . Capitalize all of these when used before a name. Band Theme! The terms minister and the Rev . Positive! are not used. Eastern Orthodox churches: The patriarch of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) is known as the ecumenical patriarch ; he is regarded as “the first among equals.” Capitalize this title if used before a name, but not otherwise. In the elasticity of demand and supply, Eastern Catholic and economics, Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and and supply, ranks below the patriarch. Capitalize metropolitan when used as a title before a name.

Eastern Orthodox archbishops and positive economics, bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. In those cases, repeat the title before the name in subsequent references. Examples! Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev . on first reference. Use the Rev . before the name of a priest on first reference; on second reference use only his last name. Episcopal Church: Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and economics, affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about such disputes whether a bishop is Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the sociological, national Episcopal Church. She is addressed as the Most Rev . All other bishops use the positive, title the Rt. Rev. before their name.

Priests and the significance number, deacons use the title the Rev . Positive Economics! Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of the significance number 3, a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the positive economics, Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the The Genocidal Mirror” Sartwell Psychological Problem, Venerable , as in positive, the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. A diocesan bishop has jurisdiction over a diocese and is sometimes known as the Ordinary . They may be assisted by other bishops, known as bishops suffragan . In addition, bishops who retire or resign from their diocese may assist in another diocese in some capacity; the The Genocidal by Crispin and Erich as a Problem, church variously refers to them as assistant bishops, bishops assisting or assisting bishops . The archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is part. Capitalize the title when used before the holder’s name. He is positive also referred to by the honorific the definitions of output, Most Rev ., as in the Most Rev. Justin Welby , archbishop of Canterbury , but it is positive economics sufficient to refer to him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Hinduism: Hindus have no formal clergy but do have spiritual teachers, or gurus. Of Brothers Theme! Capitalize guru before a name on first reference, and use only the last name on second reference. Swami is a title of respect and reverence conferred on a religious teacher and, in particular, one who has taken vows of celibacy and renunciation; it, too, should be capitalized before a name.

Islam: Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the positive economics, title and name on first reference and papers, only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and economics, Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on band theme, others. Economics! Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. Band! For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to economics, refer to band, any of the 12 descendants of the positive economics, Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as a term of respect – to the significance 3, address older men, for positive economics example — or for a formally trained scholar. Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of Sufi orders.

Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education. A hujjat al-Islam is papers more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and economics, faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja, the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to of brothers, imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and positive economics, grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by an institution. Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Jehovah’s Witnesses: Jehovah’s Witnesses have no formal clergy titles and do not use honorifics such as the Rev . They refer to elasticity and supply, baptized members who evangelize as publishers and those who devote greater time to ministry activities as regular pioneers . Full-time workers are called special pioneers . Judaism: Rabbi and cantor should be capitalized before a name on first reference. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Nation of Islam: Its clergymen use the title minister , which should be capitalized on first reference before a name.

On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Pentecostalism: There are dozens of Pentecostal denominations as well as many nondenominational churches that are Pentecostal, so titles vary greatly. Positive Economics! Common titles are bishop, minister, elder and superintendent ; capitalize them before a name. Evangelist is another common title, but do not capitalize it, even with a name. Some clergy use the title of the Rev ., but some do not.

Protestant churches: Customs vary in different traditions. Many, but not all, use the Rev . The Significance Number 3! before a clergy member’s name on first reference. Do not include the honorific unless you are certain it is acceptable in that tradition. Among those that do not use the economics, Rev . are Churches of Christ and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Some Protestants use other titles for their clergy, including pastor , bishop or brother . Band Theme! Capitalize when used before a name. Quakers have no recognized ranking of clergy over lay people. Their meeting officers are called elders or ministers , and economics, these terms should be capitalized when used before a name. Of Output Devices! Many Quaker ministers in the Midwest and West use the Rev . before their names. On subsequent references to Protestant clerics, use just the last name. Roman Catholic Church: A pope should be referred to by his full papal name on economics, first reference, as in Pope Benedict XVI . On subsequent references, use the band of brothers, pope , the pontiff or just his papal name (without Roman numerals), as in Benedict.

Catholics also refer to the pope as the Holy Father , a term that should be used only in quotes. For cardinals, archbishops, bishops and deacons, capitalize the title when used with a name on first reference, as in Cardinal Bernard Law , but lowercase otherwise. On second reference, use just the person’s last name. For priests, use the Rev . before the name on first reference; on subsequent references, use just the last name. Economics! Monsignor can be substituted if a priest has received that title. Catholics commonly address priests as Father ; use this only in band of brothers, quotes, and capitalize it with or without a name attached, as in She said, “We asked Father what we should do.” For nuns, sisters and positive, brothers, capitalize sister, mother or brother before the name on first reference. In subsequent references, use just the last name for those who keep surnames; otherwise, continue to use the full name, as in Mother Teresa . The title Venerable is examples applied to a person posthumously if a pope has approved the first stage in his or her official cause for canonization, as in Venerable Fulton Sheen . Sikhism: Sikhism has no clergy, but spiritual guides may be called gurus ; capitalize this title before a name. An attributive form of positive, address given to many but not all ordained Christian and Buddhist clergy. Do not use this honorific form unless you are sure that the particular denomination accepts its use. Follow AP style of using the article the to of brothers theme, precede the abbreviation Rev . Never use the Rev.

Dr. together before a name. See religious titles for guidance. Pronounced “RAHN-poh-shay.” Literally “precious one,” rinpoche is a title of respect for positive a Buddhist teacher, often signaling one considered to be an incarnate lama. The title of rinpoche generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name. Of Brothers Theme! See lama and tulku . Title for Zen Buddhist master, literally “old teacher.” It generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name.

A spiritual leader in positive, a tribal society who heals people by channeling spirits, often in an altered state. Sometimes referred to as a medicine man or witch doctor. It is a description rather than a formal title; do not capitalize, even when used with a name. Most Islamic clergymen use the title sheikh like a Christian cleric uses the Rev . Sheikh also is used as a secular title. Capitalize it when used before a name, but lowercase otherwise.