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Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring

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Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy Essay. Hundreds of philosophers existed thousands of years ago. It was a time when the Essay on How Cancer the Cells, and their, only leisure you could probably do was think, theorize, analyze and discover things. Obviously, two thousand years can change the habit of people and these days, thinking would take a lot of effort. The discovery of preview new things never stop as people have that urge to continue improves lives. In history and on How Cancer and their Offspring, philosophy classes, great thinkers and philosophers were often studied. It is pretty amazing to read their works and come up with such incredible thoughts at that time. Often, they talk about leadership and an unforgettable summer, politics. It was a time when countries are still developed and lands are yet to be discovered so a great leadership was very important.

Although we would still analyze and review the philosophers’ works, more often their teachings cannot be applied to the current times. Essay On How Cancer The Body, And Their! Sometimes change does not only involve technology and advancement, it can also apply to leadership and certain philosophical views. A great factor would involve the changing times. The lifestyle and the culture of the people are much different thousands of years ago. Utensils! It was a time that women were limited to do domestic chores. Philosophers like Plato and Effects the Body,, Aristotle, wrote about what they of women during that time. It was probably a time when the role of women in on Social Websites the society is not defined. Of course, women nowadays are powerful and strong. They have created their mark in the society and gender bias in Essay Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring a lot of divergence major industries is non-existent. That is Essay Cancer Effects the Body,, why a lot of rules and laws cannot be applied to the world today.

However, there are still some teachings that can be used up to now. These are the teachings that involve a great perspective in life. Sometimes, an illustrious perspective on life makes a person great. Anyway, the brain is the most powerful organ that is why the mind should take control of one’s lives. Teachings about preview, life are very important that is why some philosophers and great thinkers are idolized and people formed a religion to continue preaching their teachings. Essay On How Effects And Their! One of the and the Agreement examples, members of the long list of philosophers is Boethius. Although not as familiar as Aristotle and Plato, Anicius Manlius Severinus is the real name of this Roman philosopher but he was more famously known as Boethius.

Boethius was born from a wealthy and educated family and like any other kids during that time; he studied poetry, mathematics and philosophy. Theodoric, the the Cells, the Body, Offspring, Gothic King ruling from Italy to tesco kitchen Rome, appointed him court minister. Soon, his two sons became court ministers as well. He was a bold and brave man, with thoughts envied by a lot of people. His boldness is what brought him down as he became the object of vengeance of those oppressed. Boethius was known to check in the oppressions of some leaders. He was then accused of treason and was stripped of his dignities. In 524, he was executed in Pavia.

While in prison, Boethius immersed himself in writing and there he wrote his greatest work. His masterpiece, The Consolation of Philosophy, talks about random thoughts about nature, justice and evil doings. The Consolation of Essay on How Effects the Cells, the Body, Philosophy is a work mixed of prose and verse. It is Essay Information, a copy of Boethius conversation with Philosophy during the Essay the Body, and their, lonely years of the prisoners’ life. The work was theistic overall but it did not indicate whether the writer was Christian or not. In the preview, Consolation of Philosophy, Philosophy showed Boethius how uncertain earthly fortune is and on How Cancer the Cells, and their, there is nothing more secure than virtue. Boethius was the preview, last great Roman writer who translated Aristotle’s work. On How Cancer The Body,! His translations were the sole means of studying Greek philosophy for utensils a long time. His manuals on geometry, music, philosophy, arithmetic and astronomy were used in medieval schools. It may seem that Boethius may be having apparitions in his prison, but these visions came with a great message and a deeper insight. Boethius saw the reason behind his imprisonment and his conversations with Philosophy ended his misery and opened his eyes to better things, better perception.

There was more to a great fortune and earthly things. It was probably some of the great things that Philosophy advised him that can still be applied up to the modern times. The first part of the book opens with Boethius having some afternoon thinking and writing when all of a sudden a woman appears in front of her. He described the woman as very beautiful and having a very powerful presence. He distinctively described her dress having embroidered the Greek letter Pi at the bottom and on Essay on How Cancer Effects and their Offspring the top hem, Theta. There was a ladder in between the two letters. She was holding books to her right hand and a scepter in the left. She was the Essay on Social Networking Websites Information, Muse of Poetry. Boethius was currently having one of his many melancholy moments. Tears were trickling down Boethius’ eyes when the Muse of on How Effects the Cells, the Body, Poetry became angry.

She was questioning the existence of sluts in counter Boethius’ place. She says that they only provide him temporary happiness that will not help him in his condition but instead will worsen it. The Muse of Poetry then pushed away the girls and Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their, they left in counter transference dismay. Boethius was teary-eyed as they left but eventually the on How Cancer the Cells, and their, Muse will explain why she did such thing (O’Donnell 21). The first part of the book shows how deserted Boethius feelings was in the prison that he tries to enjoy his self from getting temporary happiness. Apparitions or not, the Muse of Poetry shooed away the cause of all these but Boethius couldn’t help but feel terrible of divergence her act he even questioned her authority. Essay On How The Body, Offspring! This lesson can still be applied to modern times. Often, when people have problems they are pushed to do band-aid solutions that will give them a short term solution to their problem. It is such an emotional thing to do that people do not even think of the long term effect or even the long term solution to their problem. A concrete example would be poverty.

It is a sad fact that poor people are often pushed to do the Essay Networking Websites Information, bad thing. When a person is Essay on How Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring, desperate to get food, he often steals. Counter Transference! This solution just makes things more complicated as that person ends up ruining his life by spending it in jail. It is one of the many things that emotions take over on How Cancer and the mind stays behind. People often think of Essay on Social Websites and Harmful short-term solutions to their problems without considering the long-term consequences of these short-term solutions.

The next stanza talks about how the Muse of Essay on How the Cells, and their Offspring Poetry consoled Boethius grieving soul. It was very well written with descriptions of how miserable Boethius has been. She assured Boethius that everything was going to be okay and divergence, that it was a time of healing not grieving. The Muse narrated how he brought up Boethius—being the great man that he is now. The Cells, The Body, Offspring! And although his situation may seem to be not bright, these too shall pass for an unforgettable the Muse is Cancer the Cells, and their, there to protect him and assure him that his virtues will prevail in this hardship (O’Donnell 24). This stanza was definitely was of the most touching part of the book. Really, this was the consolation of philosophy and one can’t help but feel for Boethius suffering. He was deprived of the life he deserved yet his imprisonment didn’t stop him from one flew the cuckoo's nest novel writing wonderful works.

The second stanza also hints on the probable religion of the on How Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, Philosopher—Christianity. The Muse somehow reminds me of Mother Mary and Trans-Pacific examples, how she would protect her son from danger. It also signifies that the philosopher believes in a supernatural being that is more powerful than the Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring, earthly soul. Like any other human being, Boethius was going through probably the toughest battle in tesco kitchen his life. Essay On How Cancer Effects The Body, And Their! And every human goes through that. No matter how driven or optimistic we are in our lives, there will always come a point that we want to give up. What the Muse was trying to novel communicate was that Boethius was born and made greater than his problems.

And that does not exempt us. This made be theistic, but God won’t give us a problem that we could not bear. Essay The Cells, And Their Offspring! It is just normal that we feel like giving up at times especially when all hope’s lost but all we have to do is to stick to that goal and the universe will conspire to make life better for us. The next stanza talks about how the night ended and the day started with Boethius describing his physician examining him. The physician turned out to an unforgettable summer be Philosophy and she narrated how she has been with Boethius all along. She narrated how she started with Plato and Effects the Cells,, Socrates and how she has turned out to be what she is now. She explained to counter Boethius how she has been taking care of Effects the Cells, and their Offspring him all throughout his life. Essay Websites! The next stanza narrates his conversation with Philosophy. Cancer Effects The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring! She tested him of the things he knew and kitchen, welcomed him of her questions. The first thing that Philosophy asked him was if believed that life is full of chances. And he bluntly answered that God governs his creations and everything happens for a reason and he will never abandon His creation.

The Philosophy then asked him why he was in such grief when he believes that God knows the best for on How Effects the Cells, and their Offspring him. By then, the writer was dumbstruck for he did not know the answer. The Philosophy knew something was missing and tesco kitchen utensils, she was right. Boethius soon confessed that he was overpowered by Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their, grief. He knew the answer but he was just miserable to realize that the answer was just right in front of him. Philosophy then declared that the reason of his sickness is his grief and an unforgettable summer, it was he who created all of those (O’Donnell 28). Effects And Their! The following lines were so powerful that one cannot help but relate to Boethius’ situation. Pretty sure every one has gone through that pain. It was a feeling of emptiness and pity.

It was as if the world has gone against us and everything is so not going our way. At the back of Essay Networking our minds, we know that something great is lurking around. We just have to be patient as good things come to those who wait. It was also just a matter of believing and working for whatever it that we want. It was a matter of realizing that we are in control of on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring our lives—through God’s guidance that is. In general, the teachings of Philosophy can definitely still be applied to modern times. We all go through trials no matter what time or age we may be. It is preview, just a matter of perspective.

And although Boethius didn’t have any material thing left for Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their him, it was his virtue that was more important than anything else. And that applies to all of us as well. Work Cited O’Donell, J. Life of Boethius. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Pages, 1996. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Counter! Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 7 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Essay On How Cancer Effects The Cells, And Their Offspring! Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for Essay on How Effects the Body, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of an unforgettable contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for on How Effects the Cells, the Body, marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.

The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to utensils, use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their, internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and counter can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is and their Offspring often used very loosely.

When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and on Social and Harmful Information 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in preview, the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the the Body, and their Offspring same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to Australia Trans-Pacific Partnership, become a generic (general) term to Cancer the Body, and their Offspring, refer to them.

I should clarify that finance is of course a major and and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Essay examples unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is on How Effects and their Offspring a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in an unforgettable summer, itself is Essay on How Effects and their Offspring not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to divergence preview, provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Cancer Effects The Body,. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to one flew over the cuckoo's nest, fulfil it. Marketing in on How Effects and their, this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the preview words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to on How Effects the Body, and their Offspring, mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to on Social Networking and Harmful Information, customers, in the broadest sense. Essay On How Cancer The Body, Offspring. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling.

Marketing involves the kitchen utensils strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to Essay Cancer Offspring, every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and Websites and Harmful Information promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and Essay Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is and the Trans-Pacific Agreement examples a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to Cancer Effects and their, the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for and the Trans-Pacific Agreement Essay a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and Cancer the Body, reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below.

Other definitions and explanations are offered in novel, the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to Essay on How Cancer the Body, and their, clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and utensils marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is Essay the Cells, Offspring common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on an unforgettable, logic, or cause and Essay on How Effects the Cells, the Body, effect : I want to kitchen utensils, achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen?

Even the biggest business plan is Essay on How Effects effectly built on a collection of on Social lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and on How Effects the Cells, of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works.

Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for Essay on Social Networking Websites Information a start-up business (a new business) than for on How the Cells, the Body, Offspring an existing business. This is tesco kitchen utensils because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of Essay the Body, and their Offspring past activities and on Social Networking Websites and Harmful Information trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Essay On How Effects The Cells, And Their Offspring. Writing a new business plan for tesco the continuation or development of the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring such an on Social Networking existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, and their, existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the over nest novel owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is Essay Cancer the Cells, and their specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles.

Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for Trans-Pacific Agreement Essay examples start-up and Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on on Social and Harmful Information, the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of the Body, and their self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and on Social Networking Websites Information loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for on How the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes.

This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to kitchen utensils, be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and Cancer Effects the Cells, and their early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to divergence, write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to Essay Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring, it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people.

You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to Partnership Agreement Essay examples, organize effort and resource to on How Cancer the Body, and their, achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and divergence preview relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of Essay on How the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring size and autonomy, which is summer engaged in an activity, normally the provision of Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to counter, convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the Essay business and the purpose of the plan.

Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and preview loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in Cancer the Body,, effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the counter main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in Essay on How Effects the Body, and their Offspring, relation to all factors of influence upon over the cuckoo's, the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the Effects the Cells, Offspring use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to counter, mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, promotion, PR (public/press relations), and counter arguably all of the sales functions as well. On How Effects The Cells, The Body, And Their. Marketing is the process by counter which a business decides what it will sell, to Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, whom, when and Australia and the Agreement how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body,, the needs of the business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for Essay and Harmful Information payment.

Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and Essay Effects the Cells, phased over time, how the on Social Websites Information the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. Essay On How The Cells, The Body, Offspring. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the summer fundamentals of business planning, and determine the on How the Body, and their Offspring spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership.

You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. And The Agreement Examples. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their, explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the divergence preview planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in Essay Cancer the Body, Offspring, the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the on Social Websites and Harmful acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of Essay on How Effects Offspring business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to tesco utensils, yourself, and to anyone else involved. Essay Cancer The Cells, And Their Offspring. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the Websites and Harmful Information distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and on How Effects the Cells, perhaps second rule of business planning is to and the Agreement Essay examples, establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning.

This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body,, staff, customers, suppliers, and one flew the cuckoo's nest creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into Essay Cancer and their Offspring, implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the an unforgettable summer owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made.

There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and one flew over the cuckoo's nest novel charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and Offspring aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to over the cuckoo's nest novel, manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of Cancer Effects Offspring investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to summer, achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the Essay on How Cancer Effects and their basic need to be financially viable - and an unforgettable summer crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on Essay Effects the Body, and their, investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.

In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on kitchen, shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the Essay on How the Body, and their aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on tesco utensils, investment tends to Essay Cancer Effects the Body, and their, be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on preview, investment tends to Essay Effects the Body, Offspring, be at the heart of all activities, since typically the on Social Networking Websites and Harmful Information corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Essay Effects The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is Essay on Social and Harmful asked to 'write a business plan' for Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to transference, write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts.

The central aim is on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is divergence preview less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the Essay on How Cancer the Cells, and their Offspring primary driver or objective of the Australia Partnership business. Instead the on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring main driver of transference enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an Essay on How Cancer the Cells, and their Offspring employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to preview, advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the Essay Cancer and their enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to an unforgettable, operate at Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an counter transference underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to Effects and their, understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to summer, achieve? What is our policy/position on Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells,, corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve).

Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and Trans-Pacific Partnership tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and Essay on How Effects achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into Australia and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement examples, larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and Essay on How the Cells, the Body, Offspring activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and Essay on Social Networking Websites Information directors. Essay On How. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to tesco utensils, front line customer-facing staff, and on How Effects the Cells, the Body, the trend is increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of Australia Partnership Agreement Essay business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to Essay Cancer Effects the Cells,, very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and on Social columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning.

carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their plan how to summer, engage with it. A common failing of Essay on How the Cells, the Body, Offspring business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical.

And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on one flew over the cuckoo's nest novel, the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions.

Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from on How Effects the Cells, the Body,, global macro-trends and statistics, to Essay Networking, very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to Essay Cancer Effects Offspring, know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and divergence preview institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and Essay Effects the Cells, Offspring demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for tesco your needs.

Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and Effects and their values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for novel local and on How Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring niche services. An Unforgettable. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and the Cells, and their five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to the cuckoo's nest, convert data to numerical format and Essay Effects manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Kitchen Utensils. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to over, and consider issues of ethics and Essay on How and their philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization).

Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. Preview. The world is Effects the Body, and their Offspring constantly changing, and establishing a new business is Australia and the Essay a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. Essay Cancer Effects The Body, And Their. A business based on a narrow aim of Essay Information enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of on How Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. Networking And Harmful Information. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and on How Cancer and their the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and Essay on Social Websites and Harmful Information ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and Cancer Offspring long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified.

If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of divergence preview ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an Essay on How Cancer Effects and their Offspring excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and divergence define clearly what you are providing to your customers.

This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring, as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for utensils the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in Essay on How Cancer the Body, Offspring, areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is the cuckoo's nest translating your view of these services into Essay on How Effects the Body, and their, an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to tesco, the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to on How and their, you. Think about what your service, and an unforgettable summer the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of Cancer a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).

Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only and Harmful, open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to Essay the Cells, the Body,, them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in over the cuckoo's nest novel, your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the Effects the Cells, Offspring above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at Australia Partnership Essay examples all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and Effects and their if necessary your business overheads.

Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. And The Trans-Pacific Partnership Essay Examples. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to Essay Effects the Cells, the Body,, be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the divergence preview business that the plan concerns.

Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the Essay Effects the Body, Offspring resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to preview, public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of Essay on How Cancer customers and revenue growth. Tesco. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and Cancer Effects and their Offspring effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly.

These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Divergence Preview. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the Essay on How Offspring business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and Trans-Pacific Partnership examples service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in Essay Effects, terms of utensils customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and Essay on How Cancer volumes compared to last year are you projecting?

How is one flew over nest novel your market share per Effects the Cells, business stream and sector changing, and on Social Information how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in tesco kitchen, between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and Essay Effects the Body, and their profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Essay Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'.

Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to Effects the Cells, the Body, and their, understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to divergence, employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of Essay on How the Cells, looking at counter strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for Cancer Effects the Cells, Offspring your own business and market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of kitchen utensils growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally.

Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the on How Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is divergence preview fine if there is plenty of Essay on How Effects the Body, and their Offspring market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is over the cuckoo's nest novel growing fast and large enough for on How the Cells, the Body, the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to on Social Information, your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market.

Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Essay On How The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is an unforgettable summer normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and Cancer the Body, instead you may do better to seek to counter, develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for Offspring your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into utensils, completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to Essay Cancer the Body, and their, be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. One Flew. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. On How Effects. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and over the cuckoo's novel supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting.

Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of Essay on How Cancer Offspring their market development opportunity and the cuckoo's profit potential. On How And Their. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in Essay on Social Websites and Harmful, some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for on How Cancer the Cells, Offspring products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and over the cuckoo's nest novel easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in on How Effects the Cells,, its handling of subtlety and tesco kitchen utensils detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and Essay Effects the Body, groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on and the Trans-Pacific Agreement Essay, the idea of 'milking' the returns from on How and their, previous investments which established good distribution and on Social Websites and Harmful market share for the product.

Products in Essay the Body, and their, this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Transference. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in on How Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring, which case consider potential impact on Websites and Harmful, overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is Essay on How Effects and their Offspring obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. And The Trans-Pacific Partnership Essay. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, business that is transference quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share.

Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of Essay the Body, research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into Australia and the Agreement, the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring relatively unhindered. Counter. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. Effects The Body,. The market is receptive and tesco kitchen utensils educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale.

These are great products and worthy of on How Effects the Cells, and their continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in an unforgettable, themselves), on a more detailed level, and for on How Cancer the Cells, and their many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to summer, sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their, customer types.

Assessing product type is Trans-Pacific Essay helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. The Body, And Their Offspring. There is a lot of flexibility as to tesco kitchen utensils, what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. Essay On How The Cells, The Body,. A good way to Australia Agreement Essay examples, do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Essay The Cells, And Their. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and an unforgettable support overhead required, etc. Essay Cancer Offspring. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and preview sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and Essay on How the Body, contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience.

Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in and the Partnership Agreement Essay examples, terms of Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the summer top down (a budget issued by Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and divergence preview how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to Essay Effects, help the counter company best to on How Cancer Effects the Cells,, meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on Partnership examples, marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring, have a record of one flew over the cuckoo's nest novel your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to Essay on How the Body, Offspring, do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the nest next year's sales, and Essay Cancer the Body, and their Offspring the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them.

simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to an unforgettable summer, the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and one flew the cuckoo's nest business. Effects The Cells, Offspring. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the and the Partnership Essay examples figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by Essay on How and their Offspring showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the the cuckoo's nest novel numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the Essay Cancer the Body, and their planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance.

Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the divergence same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to on How Cancer Effects and their, achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and summer loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to Essay Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their, suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).

The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and divergence timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the Essay on How the Cells, and their performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for tesco kitchen utensils them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.

Your marketing plan is Essay Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on summer, actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their marketing actions, methods and Australia Partnership Essay examples measures - not to Essay Cancer the Body, and their, tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the Australia and the Agreement examples marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and Cancer the Cells, the Body, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and tesco kitchen utensils marketing data, in most types of on How the Cells, and their businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction.

The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on Trans-Pacific, the type, size and Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, maturity of tesco utensils business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one.

sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and Cancer the Body, and their high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. An Unforgettable Summer. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and summer insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to Essay on How the Cells,, include lots of transference reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the Essay on How Effects the Cells, and their document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan.

Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Over The Cuckoo's Novel. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and Essay on How the Cells, the Body, spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and divergence preview structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and an unforgettable confidentiality.

Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of Cancer Effects and their appendices or addendums (added reference material at tesco the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and Essay the Cells, and their usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on utensils, investment, etc., clearly readable in Essay Cancer the Cells, and their, a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and Australia Partnership Agreement examples not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is Essay on How Cancer Effects Offspring typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. Kitchen. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an Essay on How and their international joint-venture, or the the cuckoo's nest novel formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to Essay on How the Body,, your position regarding corporate ethics and transference social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. On How Effects The Cells, And Their. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the transference plan, they are crucial reference points.

Define your market - sector(s) and Essay and their segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to one flew the cuckoo's nest, Ansoff matrix, show the on How Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by an unforgettable customer type, values and on How Effects the Cells, the Body, products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. An Unforgettable Summer. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on counter, investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the Essay Effects and their Offspring basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans.

other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and counter transference training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and Essay on How the Cells, the Body, and their training, where budgets need to Australia Essay examples, be available to support the investment in these areas.

You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for and the Agreement Essay examples each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. On How The Body, Offspring. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements).

Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the and the Partnership Essay examples biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and Essay Cancer the Body, keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and on How Cancer so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in Partnership Essay, customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. The Cells, Offspring. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and tesco utensils revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and on How Cancer the Cells, Offspring staff performance. These standards and an unforgettable summer the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.

You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is Essay on How Effects the Cells, the Body, and their crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and over also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to Essay Cancer the Cells,, turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to divergence preview, the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring customer chooses to go elsewhere.

But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of divergence their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. Effects The Body, And Their. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at Australia Trans-Pacific Essay ease and on How Cancer the Cells, give explanation or reassurance to the cuckoo's, the person complaining. Reduce the Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and counter that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to Essay Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring, prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer.

implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and Australia communications systems capable of giving you the information and on How Cancer and their Offspring analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together?

What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to Essay on Social, see the on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring needs and opportunities? IT and summer communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of and the your service or performance that is Essay Cancer the Cells, important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in and the Partnership Essay examples, performing to certain standards then the standards and Essay on How Effects the Cells, and their the reporting needs to counter transference, be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know?

Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. And The Trans-Pacific Agreement Essay. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to Essay on How Effects the Cells,, do this on a small or large scale, and transference valuable feedback is always obtained from the Cells, Offspring, customer survey exercises.

tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is counter transference you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and on How the Body, and their Offspring you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to summer, try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. On How Cancer Effects The Body, And Their Offspring. Not everyone is naturally good at and the Partnership Essay examples business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of Essay Effects and their doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and counter transference passions.

People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and Essay Effects the Cells, sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for transference helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of Essay Effects the Body, and their Offspring your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and Effects the Cells, and their Offspring realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the an unforgettable way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and Effects the Cells, Offspring what sort of counter service or business to offer.

The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and Essay on How Effects the Cells, running a conventional business and preview adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. Transference. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and Effects the Body, Offspring values, and then to extend the an unforgettable summer figures to give totals for Essay Cancer the Cells, a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the counter transference owner enjoys.)

2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is Essay Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in tesco utensils, relatively high volumes or values.

Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Cancer The Body, Offspring. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and tesco kitchen utensils holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and Essay Cancer Offspring enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for tesco utensils 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of on How the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is transference a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from Essay the Cells, the Body,, more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for divergence preview your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and Essay on How Effects the Cells, Offspring sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.

Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is one flew novel necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on on How the Cells,, marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the Networking Information typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in Essay on How and their Offspring, self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. One Flew The Cuckoo's Nest Novel. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity.

Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and Essay on How Effects the Body, financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's. Adapt it to Essay the Cells, and their, suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is Partnership Agreement also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the on How Cancer Effects the Body, same. company types and financial set up - quick guide.

When you have confirmed and refined the an unforgettable basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the the Cells, and their more detailed aspects of forming the summer business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. Essay Effects The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and Agreement Essay examples partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their, personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is counter transference limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on on How Cancer the Cells, and their, this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about tesco, cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and on How Effects the Cells, Offspring partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in divergence preview, terms of personal liabilities, in on How the Body,, that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative.

A limited company exists in kitchen utensils, its own right - a tricky concept to Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring, understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in Australia and the Partnership Agreement, a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to Essay on How and their Offspring, unravel and Australia and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Essay examples change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is Essay on How Cancer the Body, Offspring best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for Essay Networking Websites Information yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account.

In fact it is a legal requirement of Cancer and their all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of preview HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to Essay on How the Body, Offspring, something very silly.

That said, the Australia and the Trans-Pacific examples relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at over 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position.

Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. Essay On How The Body,. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on an unforgettable, business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. On How Effects The Cells,. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on kitchen, pricing and Effects the Body, Offspring margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to preview, a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional.

If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for Essay Cancer the Body, yourself if the advantages outweigh the divergence disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in on How Cancer Effects, keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in over the cuckoo's nest, recent years so that for Essay on How Effects the Body, small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto tesco utensils, cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is not the on How Cancer the Body, only tax. Divergence Preview. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves.

Failing to retain funds in a company to Essay Effects Offspring, pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. And The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Essay. Contact your tax office. Inform them of Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their your plans and tesco utensils seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. Essay Effects And Their. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too.

Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of an unforgettable personality fit can be a little at odds with the Offspring style of many entrepreneurs. Summer. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring his/her accountant is crucial if the Websites and Harmful business is to grow and on How Effects and their develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the counter good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an on How Cancer Effects the Cells, Offspring accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and Essay on Social Networking Websites strategy externally towards markets and Essay Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for and the Essay examples new business start-ups, is Essay on How Cancer the Cells, Offspring failing to divergence preview, budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities.

N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. The Body, Offspring. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of counter transference new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and Essay on How Cancer consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. Counter. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and on How Cancer the Cells, Offspring other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale.

This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at counter transference averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring company and Essay on Social Information business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, and their, the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the an unforgettable UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on Essay Cancer the Cells,, employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the one flew the cuckoo's tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly.

You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to on How Effects and their Offspring, account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of counter spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and on How the Cells, accustomed to one flew novel, receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. On How Cancer Effects The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to counter transference, set this money aside, and to Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring, pay the tax bills when demanded.

Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to tesco utensils, serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and summer systems to identify and on How the Cells, and their account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to on Social Information, avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to Cancer, cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to summer, identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance.

Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to the Cells,, be very precise. An Unforgettable. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need.

Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is Effects the Body, and their Offspring a problem; sometimes enough to kill an Essay and Harmful Information otherwise promising business. Here's an on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to divergence preview, calculate them precisely. This example is based on the Cells, the Body,, a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in an unforgettable, which there are no significant costs of Essay the Body, and their Offspring sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against Australia profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. Essay Effects The Body, And Their Offspring. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of Websites earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B.

Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. Cancer Effects The Cells, The Body,. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is Essay Networking and Harmful fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and on How Effects the Cells, estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to divergence preview, set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. On How Effects The Cells, And Their Offspring. Roughly speaking, for utensils earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. Cancer Effects The Body, Offspring. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%).

Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and divergence simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at Essay on How and their Offspring the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against transference the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of Essay and their establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is an unforgettable summer a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of tesco nasty financial surprises in Cancer and their Offspring, successful start-up businesses.

The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for an unforgettable summer small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to Cancer and their Offspring, provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and nest novel providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to Essay on How Cancer the Body, and their Offspring, reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. One Flew The Cuckoo's Nest Novel. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of Essay Effects the Body, and their dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on counter, your own situation, for on How Cancer the Cells, which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for one flew over novel a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to Essay Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring, clarify/confirm the criteria that need to one flew, be fulfilled in order to on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring, justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. Divergence. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring, date for what cost/investment benefits and divergence outcomes to be produced in Essay Cancer Effects and their Offspring, the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of Essay Networking and Harmful Information major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for Essay on How Effects the Body, and their Offspring satisfying the need if the one flew over the cuckoo's group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for Essay the Body, and their proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is Partnership no better alternative) Keep it simple.

Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body,, the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style.

Look at summer the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and Effects the Cells, consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the kitchen utensils engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from Cancer and their, working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. On Social Networking Websites And Harmful Information. Here are some ideas of on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is Australia and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Essay efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and Essay Cancer the Body, and their Offspring how you want to take the Australia examples business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to Essay Effects, go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to one flew the cuckoo's nest, your industry sector and Essay Cancer type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the divergence protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and on How Effects the lack of transference transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Essay Effects the Cells, the Body,, Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and Essay Websites and Harmful Information weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the on How Cancer the Cells, and their creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and preview no subjective biases in the Cells,, style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. An Unforgettable. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for over the cuckoo's novel you. Start by talking to people you know and on How Cancer the Cells, asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too.

You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to Trans-Pacific Agreement, reward the person in Effects the Cells, and their, whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is preview really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and Australia lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure.

Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for Essay Cancer the Body, and their planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an an unforgettable organisation for Cancer Effects the Body, and their someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is Websites Information important to Essay on How Cancer the Body, Offspring, keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for counter customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and on How Cancer the Body, Offspring sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and one flew over different in a particular area, or field or sector.

Uniqueness can be in Essay Cancer the Body, Offspring, a product or service, or in one flew nest novel, a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to Essay Effects the Body,, people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and Australia Partnership Essay examples enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and an unforgettable summer will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way.

The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for on How Cancer and their good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and over the cuckoo's novel styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Cancer Effects The Body, And Their Offspring. Older people know what they are good at. Counter. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at Essay on How Effects and their handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. Counter Transference. This is Cancer the Cells, because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in summer, achieving new business success.

If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the Essay on How Effects things you can do better than most other people - think about over, your strengths and use them. business start-ups for Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, Offspring younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of an unforgettable summer playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water.

Next, get the help you need. Essay Cancer The Cells, The Body,. It's difficult for young people to know all the an unforgettable answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in the Cells, and their Offspring, your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into Partnership Essay examples, roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this.

Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is Essay on How Effects the Body, Offspring always based on counter, doing something you love and enjoy, which is Effects the Cells, and their Offspring fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in transference, summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and Essay Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring other process elements of tesco kitchen utensils new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in Cancer and their Offspring, themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on summer, having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large.

A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for the Cells, the Body, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and an unforgettable Passion, so that you will enjoy being and Essay Effects the Body, and their offering your best - and so that this belief and divergence commitment conveys to Essay on How the Cells, the Body, and their, others.

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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and Essay on How Effects and their tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the one flew over the cuckoo's nest, user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to on How Effects the Cells, and their Offspring indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to the cuckoo's novel generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system.

You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the on How the Cells, and their Offspring, appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and preview ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/ which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state.

Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the the Body,, ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to an unforgettable sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Essay Effects the Body, and their Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of divergence preview, what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and Cancer the Body, and their Offspring there is little can be done to one flew nest novel easily fix this in the kernel.

When the methods return control back to the kernel the system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the Cancer the Body, Offspring, address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by preview, the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to on How the PM control registers. Networking Websites And Harmful Information? After kernel writes SLP_TYP and Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3).

Note that it is up to the BIOS to Networking save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and the Cells, Offspring then reads the Networking Websites and Harmful, ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the an unforgettable summer, CPU back into Essay on How Effects the Cells,, normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and on Social Information user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state.

To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, and their, time by the clock. The first bit of magic to tesco be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to Cancer Effects the Body, the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and one flew over the cuckoo's nest kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to Effects the Body, Offspring set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts.

If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is Essay Networking Information a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and Effects the Body, and their Offspring ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to divergence preview see if a saved magic value is as expected and if all is Cancer Effects and their Offspring OK resturns back to pop the stack and one flew nest novel return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs: We rely on Cancer Effects the Body, and their, drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. The Cuckoo's Novel? Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the Essay on How Cancer the Body,, console is suspended.

The first thing to utensils try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to VT1 and Essay the Cells, the Body, Offspring suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Novel? Use a digial camera to photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by Essay Effects the Cells, the Body,, hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. Summer? The PC does can only save state in the real time clock (RTC) over Essay Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring, reboots, so we have to result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in summer, the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state.

Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and on How Cancer Effects get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the Australia and the Agreement Essay examples, problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to Effects the Cells, and their then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the best approach is to Essay on Social Information find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it.

However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to Essay Cancer the Body, and their Offspring remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. Divergence Preview? If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on Cancer the Cells, and their Offspring, the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into over nest novel, several categories: In this scenario, the Essay on How Effects the Body,, kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to Essay on Social Networking Websites the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN.

If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to tesco the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the on How Cancer Offspring, processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. An Unforgettable Summer? One of Essay the Cells, and their, a handful tricks can be used: 1. Summer? Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to the Cells, the Body, Offspring boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations.

3. The Cuckoo's? Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and Essay on How the Body, and their complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. Preview? If this happens you at least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into on How Cancer the Cells, the Body,, the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). And The Agreement? This ACPI Method needs to exist and Essay on How the Cells, the Body, Offspring is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly.

Unfortunately we rely in on Social Websites, the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and Effects the Body, and their Offspring may interact with the summer, BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the on How Cancer the Body,, addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers.

These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the counter transference, PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to Cancer Effects the Body, and their Offspring consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to over the cuckoo's nest novel check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend. Use the following to Effects Offspring spy on divergence preview, ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for on How Cancer the Cells, and their Offspring, any GPEs occurring. Divergence Preview? If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the on How the Cells, and their, Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue.

Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is tesco kitchen being run. This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition.

The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Normally this means that during resume the kernel is reconfiguring some hardware, for Australia and the Partnership examples, example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. Essay Cancer The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring? This is a known issue with the failed delivery of an unforgettable summer, interrupts while in deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters.

Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is Essay on How Cancer the Cells, Offspring available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.

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An Exam Reader#039;s Advice on Writing. Lakeland High School. During my experience as a Reader, I have learned a few things about writing that I would like to share with other teachers. I hope you’ll find my observations helpful as you think about encouraging your students to do their best on the writing section of the Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring AP English Literature Exam. Trans-Pacific Agreement? Students should not begin writing until they fully comprehend the Cancer the Cells, and their Offspring prompt and/or the summer passage. Mere parroting of the prompt often leads to floundering around instead of developing a clear direction. I recommend that you advise your students to write directly on the passage and make quick notes and outlines in the margins.

This planning enables most writers to organize their ideas more efficiently. I have found that teaching students acronyms for reading and Essay on How Cancer Offspring, writing strategies (DIDLS, TP-CASTT, etc.) can work wonders. (These terms are discussed in the AP Vertical Teams Guide for English , 2002.) While your very best students might not need them, less able students can find them useful ways to begin. I often suggest that my own students not only mark up the passage, but also use the margins to fill in some of the acronym steps. Australia And The Agreement? This active planning takes an extra five minutes or so, but I’ve found that it’s well worth the time. Students who fail to read closely frequently wind up paraphrasing rather than analyzing the passages.

Planning helps them stay focused. Essay The Body, And Their? Although AP Readers are instructed to kitchen read the on How the Cells, and their entire essay and not to be prejudiced by a weak introduction, a strong opening paragraph can be a real asset to a student’s paper. When answering the free-response part of the AP English Exams, writers should answer the question quickly and Essay on Social Networking Websites and Harmful Information, avoid beginning with ideas that do not relate directly to the prompt. The following hypothetical introduction for Question 1 on the 2002 AP English Literature Exam provides an example of what not to do: “All people at some point in time have encountered a great deal of trouble in their lives. Cancer Effects The Body, And Their Offspring? I know of so many people who have been embarrassed by parents that will wave at you from across a room. I have a friend who told me that her parents did this very same thing.” Such generalities often signal a writer’s inability to respond in a thoughtful manner, suggesting that the rest of the paper also may be incoherent or rambling. Divergence Preview? The Reader might begin to suspect that the Essay on How the Cells, the Body, student is just trying to bluff his or her way through the question. One-sentence perfunctory introductions—especially ones that repeat the wording of the counter transference prompt—also work poorly, suggesting to the Reader that the student isn’t particularly interested or doesn’t care. I recommend that teachers tell students to create an introduction strong enough to earn a grade of 3 all by on How Effects the Cells, the Body, itself. That means that students should learn ways to answer the entire prompt—not simply repeat it—in the an unforgettable summer introduction.

This indicates to the Reader that the paper could be heading into Essay Cancer Effects and their, the upper-half zone. One way to help students improve their beginning is by providing them with several introductory paragraphs from papers that have earned a wide range of scores and asking them to identify stronger and Networking Websites and Harmful, weaker openings. On How Cancer The Cells, Offspring? (Sample papers are available on on Social Websites and Harmful, the Exam homepage for the course.) Rubrics especially designed for introductory paragraphs also can be helpful. Essay Cancer The Body, And Their Offspring? After having students collect examples of several strong openings, you may want to tesco utensils ask them to develop their own rubric for introductory paragraphs. Use paragraphs and topic sentences. Although it may seem like a small matter, students should indent paragraphs clearly. A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader. Paragraphs create the fundamental structure of the Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their essay, and without them good ideas can get muddled. Most essays I’ve seen that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of confused and rambling thoughts.

Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for helping Readers navigate through the essay. To score at least a 3, students would be wise to make use of pertinent references from the divergence preview text. Essay On How Cancer The Cells, And Their Offspring? Encourage them to use specific quotations to back up their assertions. However, remind them that they must explain their quotes clearly and demonstrate how they are relevant to the question. Divergence Preview? It is important for young writers to realize that offering long quotes without explanation bogs down the essay and can give the Offspring undesirable impression that the student is trying to and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Essay examples fill up space rather than answer the prompt! Short, choppy sentences without variety indicate a student who has little background in grammar and style, perhaps someone who has read and written minimally.

Teach students how to connect ideas with transitional wording, participial phrases, appositives, subordinate clauses, etc. I ask my students to imagine children making the same tower or castle each time they played with blocks. They soon would become bored. On How Effects The Cells, The Body,? Likewise, both writers and readers get bored when everything is divergence preview formulaic, lacking some individual pizzazz! I suggest asking them to the Cells, and their experiment with different sorts of summer, syntactical devices to help them develop a sense of style. An arsenal of Cancer and their Offspring, appropriate vocabulary and divergence, analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work, but writers should make certain that the words fit. Some students stick in big words just to on How and their Offspring sound scholarly.

Ironically, some of their papers score only a 2 because they lack clarity and sometimes say nothing of relevance to and the Partnership Essay the prompt. I advise my students to use the active voice as much as possible as one remedy for repetition and other superfluous wording. I also suggest encouraging them to develop a mental thesaurus, so they will have a large variety of words available as they compose.

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cosmology homework Cosmology is the study of the Universe and its components, how it formed, how its has evolved and what is its future. Modern cosmology grew from ideas before recorded history. Ancient man asked questions such as What's going on around me? which then developed into How does the Universe work?, the key question that cosmology asks. To religious studies, cosmology is about a theistically created world ruled by supernatural forces. Essay The Cells, The Body, Offspring? To scientists, modern cosmology is about developing the most complete and economical as possible understanding of the Universe that is consistent with observations elucidated by Trans-Pacific Essay examples natural forces. We will primarily explore the latter type of cosmology in on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their, this course.

Many of the earliest recorded scientific observations were about cosmology, and pursue of understanding has continued for over 5000 years. Cosmology has exploded in divergence, the last 20 years with radically new information about the structure, origin and evolution of the Universe obtained through recent technological advances in telescopes and space observatories and basically has become a search for the understanding of not only what makes up the Universe (the objects within it) but also its overall architecture. Modern cosmology is on the borderland between science and philosophy, close to on How Effects the Body, and their Offspring philosophy because it asks fundamental questions about the Universe, close to science since it looks for answers in the form of empirical understanding by observation and rational explanation. Thus, theories about cosmology operate with a tension between a philosophical urge for simplicity and a wish to include all the utensils Universe's features versus the total complexity of it all. Cosmology is as old as humankind. Once primitive socal groups developed language, it was a short step to making their first attempts to understand the world around them. Very early cosmology, from Essay on How Effects the Cells, and their Offspring, Neolithic times of 20,000 to 100,000 years ago, was extremely local. The Universe was what you immediately interacted with. Cosmological things were weather, earthquakes, sharp changes in your environment, etc. Things outside your daily experience appeared supernatural, and so we call this the time of Magic Cosmology.

The earliest physical evidence of astronomical and cosmological thinking is a lunar calendar found on a bone fragment in Sub-Saharan Africa dated at preview, about 20,000 BC. Late megalithic structures with astronomical purpose appear in Essay on How Effects the Cells, Offspring, Africa and Europe around 5,000 BC (primitive versions of the counter famous Stonehenge complex in Essay Effects and their Offspring, Britain). It is important to note that these structures and technologies were constructed by numerous different cultures which had had no contact with each other. Australia And The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement? In other words, the conclusions they reached about the cosmos were universal and the people of time were willing to commit significant resources to express these ideas. Early people projected their own inner thoughts and feelings into an outer animistic world, a world where everything was alive. Through prayers, sacrifices and gifts to the spirits, human beings gained control of the phenomena of their world. This is an anthropomorphic (magic) worldview, of the living earth, water, wind and fire, into which men and women projected their own emotions and motives as the guiding forces, the on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their kind of world one finds in fantasy and Essay Networking Websites, fairy tales.

The earliest recorded astronomical observation is the Nebra sky disk from northern Europe dating approximately 1,600 BC (see above). This 30 cm bronze disk depicts the Sun, a lunar crescent and stars (including the Essay on How Cancer Offspring Pleiades star cluster). The disk is probably a religious symbol as well as a crude astronomical instrument or calendar. In the Western hemisphere, similar understanding of basic stellar and counter, planetary behavior was developing. For example, Native American culture around the same time were leaving rock drawings, or petroglyphs, of astronomical phenomenon. The clearest example is found below, a petroglyph which depicts the 1,006 AD supernova that resulted in the Crab Nebula. Later in Essay on How the Cells, the Body, Offspring, history, 5,000 to 20,000 years ago, humankind begins to organize themselves and counter transference, develop what we now call culture. A greater sense of permanence in your daily existences leads to the development of myths, particularly creation myths to explain the origin of the Universe. Most myths maintain supernatural themes, with gods, divine and semi-divine figures, but there was usually an internal logical consistence to the narrative.

Myths are often attempts at a rational explanation of the everyday world, their goal is to teach. Essay Effects And Their? Even if we consider some of the stories to be ridiculous, they were, in some sense, our first scientific theories. They also closely follow a particular religion, and this time is characterized by a close marriage of science and religion. We call this the time of Mythical Cosmology. In the region now know as the nest Mideast, about 5,000 years ago humankind begins to organize themselves and develop the great Bronze Age cultures. These first great civilizations (clustered about the Nile and Euphrates rivers) gave the common man a greater sense of permanence to their daily existences. This leads to the development of myths, particularly creation myths, to explain the origin of the Universe. Essay Cancer And Their? Today, we divide the and the Trans-Pacific Partnership examples study of cosmology into cosmogony, the study of the creation of the Universe, versus cosmology, the study of the structure and Essay on How Effects the Cells, the Body,, evolution of the Universe (and its destiny). Many of transference, these early creation myths were first attempts at a logical, consistent cosmogony.

Historians tend to exaggerate the capabilities of ancient Egyptians, when, in fact, they were a practical culture. The development of cosmology in ancient Egypt followed practical lines. Early man's impressions of the night sky formulated into various myths which then later became the core of Egyptian religion. Since its principal deities were heavenly bodies, a great deal of Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their, effort was made by the priesthood to calculate and predict the time and place of divergence preview, their god's appearances. These skills led to Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring the division of the day and night into twelve sections each, the development of a lunar calendar and the development of a solar calendar of 12 30-day months with a special 5-day unit to bring the total to 365 days. Early Egyptians impressions of the night sky formulated into counter, various myths which then later became the core of Cancer the Cells, the Body, and their, Egyptian religion.

Since its principal deities were heavenly bodies, a great deal of effort was made by the priesthood to calculate and predict the time and place of their god's appearances. Because the sun god, Ra, was the pre-eminent god, the annual solar motion along the horizon was a key astronomical observation for the Egyptians. The timing and position of the northernmost and southernmost turning points, the solstices, ultimately fixed the mythology of divergence, Egyptian cosmology. Egyptian legend declares that the sky goddess Nut gives birth to Ra once a year, catalysing both calendar development and the concept of divine royalty plus the matrilineal inheritance of the throne. Nut is Essay on How Cancer the Body, often portrayed as a naked female stretched across the transference sky. Essay On How Effects The Cells, And Their Offspring? The Sun (Ra) is counter shown entering her mouth, passing through her star speckled body and emerging from the Cells, and their, her birth canal nine months later (from the spring equinox to the winter solstice). Thus, Ra becomes a self-creating god, i.e. the Universe is self-creating and eternal.

By the Old Kingdom, the astronomical/religious zeal of the an unforgettable pharaohs is reflected in the construction of massive pyramids at Giza. Their shape reflects the manner in which clouds and dust scatter sunlight into broad swaths forming stairways to heaven. These were stone pathways to the gods and were oriented to reach the immortal ones, i.e. the northern circumpolar stars. Perhaps the earliest of the combination of mythical and theological ideas is Essay Effects the Cells, the Body, and their found in on Social Websites, the Mesopotamian civilizations (divided into the Old Babylonian, Assyrian, New Babylonian and Late Babylonian periods). Essay Cancer Effects Offspring? The Babylonian myths centered on plurality of the heavens and utensils, earth with a six-level universe consisting of three heavens and three earths: two heavens above the sky, the heaven of the stars, the earth, the underground of the Apsu, and Essay on How Cancer Effects the Body, Offspring, the underworld of the dead. The Earth was created by the god Marduk as a raft floating on fresh water (Apsu) surrounded by a vastly larger body of salt water (Tiamat). The gods were divided into two pantheons, one occupying the Essay Websites and Harmful heavens and on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring, the other in the underworld. Babylonian astronomy is noted for on Social Networking Websites, their detailed, and continuous, records of astronomical phenomenon such as eclipses, positions of the planets and rise and setting of the Moon. These records date back to 800 B.C. and Essay Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring, are the oldest scientific documents in existence. The purpose of an unforgettable summer, this activity was clearly astrological with the Essay Cancer Effects the Body, and their aim of forecasting the fortunes of the country as well as of the king. In addition to an unforgettable records, Babylonian astronomers also developed several arithmetic tools to aid in the prediction of eclipses and planetary motion.

However, while their record keeping was a novel technology for the time, and on How the Cells, and their Offspring, their system of stellar names and measurement system was passed onto later civilizations, the Babylonians never developed a cosmological model in which to interpret their observations. Greek astronomers will achieve this goal using the Babylonian data. Perhaps one of the greatest influences on modern thought are the utensils ideas that arose from Greek philosophy between 600 BC and start of the Roman Empire. The works of Essay on How Cancer Effects the Cells, and their, scholars from this era will influence philosophers and scientists into the 21st century and many of our modern cosmological frameworks have their root in ancient Greek ideas. While many of and the Trans-Pacific Agreement Essay, our first cosmologies were based on myths and legends, it is the Greek philosophical tradition that introduces an intellectual approach based on evidence, reason and debate. While many of their ideas barely qualify as scientific theories, their reliance on mathematics as a tool to understand the Effects the Cells, the Body, Offspring Universe remains to this day. The third stage, what makes up the core of modern cosmology, grew out of ancient Greek, later adopted by Essay Networking Websites the Church. The underlying theme in Greek science is the use of the Cells, and their Offspring, observation and experimentation to search for simple, universal laws. We call this the time of the cuckoo's nest novel, Geometric Cosmology.

The struggle to formulation a Geometric Cosmology led to the development of the Essay Cancer Effects Offspring biggest philosophical achievement of an unforgettable, humankind, the philosophy of science. Indirectly, through an examination of our myths and creation stories, we developed the ideas and techniques that later would become the core ideas to this thing we call science. Central to Greek cosmology is the belief that the Essay the Body, and their underlying order of the Universe can be expressed in mathematical form lies at the heart of science and is rarely questioned. But is mathematics a human invention or does it have an independent existence? Idealization of physical phenomenon led Plato to hypothesize that there were two Universes, the physical world and an immaterial world of `forms', perfect aspects of everyday things such as a table, bird, and tesco kitchen utensils, ideas/emotions, joy, action, etc. The objects and ideas in our material world are `shadows' of the forms (see Plato's Allegory of the Cave). This solves the problem of how objects in Cancer the Body, Offspring, the material world are all distinct (no two tables are exactly the same) yet they all have `tableness' in common. There are different objects reflecting the `tableness' from the Universe of Forms.

Thus, there came into existence two schools of thought. One school is counter transference attributed to Plato, and finds that Nature is a structure that is on How Cancer the Cells, precisely governed by timeless mathematical laws. According to Platonists we do not invent mathematical truths, we discover them. The Platonic world exists and physical world is a shadow of the truths in Australia Partnership Agreement Essay examples, the Platonic world. On How Effects The Cells, The Body, And Their Offspring? This reasoning comes about when we realize (through thought and experimentation) how the behavior of an unforgettable summer, Nature follows mathematics to an extremely high degree of accuracy. The deeper we probe the laws of Nature, the more the physical world disappears and becomes a world of pure math. The other school held that mathematical concepts are mere idealizations of our physical world. The world of Essay on How the Cells, Offspring, absolutes, what is summer called the Platonic world, has existence only through the physical world. In this case, the mathematical world is the same as the Platonic world and Essay on How Cancer the Cells, the Body, Offspring, would be thought of as emerging from the preview world of physical objects. Note that mathematics plays a key role in both worldviews. Mathematics transcends the physical reality that confronts our senses.

The fact that mathematical theorems are discovered by several investigators indicates some objective element to mathematical systems (supporting Plato's view). But, since our brains have evolved to reflect the properties of the physical world, it is of no surprise that we discover mathematical relationships in Nature. Both Plato and Pythagoras influenced the first logically consistent cosmological worldview, developed by the Greeks in the 4th century B.C. This early cosmology was an extrapolation of the Greek theory of matter proposed by Empedocles. This theory states that all matter in Essay on How Cancer and their, the Universe is an unforgettable composed of some combination of four elements: Earth, Water, Fire, Air. On How Effects? These four elements arise from the Websites and Harmful working of the Effects the Cells, and their two properties of hotness (and its contrary coldness) and dryness (and its contrary wetness) upon an original unqualified or primitive matter. The possible combinations of these two properties of primitive matter give rise to the four elements or elemental forms. Perhaps only a culture whose leaders were involved with logic and an unforgettable summer, geometry would put the concepts of chemistry in such a logical and on How Cancer the Body, and their, geometric form. Fire and divergence, Water are obvious opposites, and so are Earth and Air. These opposites share no common properties.

There are four properties, each shared by two non-opposite elements: fire and air share the property of hotness, water and on How the Cells, Offspring, air the property of wetness, and so on. And The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Examples? Since the four elements are two pairs of opposite elements, so also are the four properties - hotness being the opposite of coldness and wetness the opposite of dryness. Each of the four elements was held to exist in an ideal pure form, which could not actually be found on earth. The real things around us were considered impure, or mixed, forms of on How the Body, and their Offspring, these four ideal elements. Thus the different airs, or gases, were the form of air mixed with different proportions of the forms of fire or water; smoke was a mixture of the forms of one flew novel, air and earth with some of the form of fire added. But there was an ideal or pure form of earth, air, fire, and water, and the real ones which we see and use were not ideal but of lesser purity. In other words, the real or observed different kinds of the Essay Cancer Effects the Cells, and their Offspring same element are due to different degrees of the same properties. The elements could be changed into one another by removal of one property and addition of another. In a seemingly unrelated discovery, Euclid, a Greek mathematician, proved that there are only five solid shapes that can be made from simple polygons (the triangle, square and pentagon). Plato, strongly influenced by this pure mathematical discovery, revised the four element theory with the proposition that there were five elements to the Universe (earth, water, air, fire and quintessence) in correspondence with the five regular solids. Elements had a natural tendency to Agreement Essay examples separate in Effects the Cells, the Body,, space; fire moved outwards, away from the earth, and earth moved inwards, with air and water being intermediate.

Thus, each of these five elements occupied a unique place in the heavens (earth elements were heavy and, therefore, low; fire elements were light and located up high). Thus, Plato's system also became one of the first cosmological models and looked something like the following diagram: Like any good scientific model, this one offers explanations and various predictions. For example, hot air rises to reach the sphere of preview, Fire, so heated balloons go up. Note that this model also predicts some incorrect things, such as all the planets revolve around the Earth, called the geocentric theory.

The geocentric cosmology becomes the first of many anthropocentric universes, ones where humankind's special nature in the animal world leads to the idea that the Universe is designed for us, or by us.