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, , - , , , . Poet Playwright Essayist Novelist Danny. List of poets - Wikipedia This is a list of notable poets . Contents : Top; 0Ė9; A; B; C; D; E; F; G; H; I; J; K; L; M; N; O; P; Q American experimental novelist , punk poet , playwright , essayist , postmodernist and sex-positive feminist writer .. (born 1940), American poet , and playwright; Arun Budhathoki (born 1986), Nepalese poet (aka Daniel Song) Daniel David Moses - Wikipedia Daniel David Moses (born February 18, 1952) is a First Nations poet and playwright from He has worked as an framework, independent artist since 1979 as a poet , playwright , dramaturge, editor, essayist , teacher, and writer -in-residence with institutions List of Uruguayan writers - Wikipedia A list of notable Uruguayan writers : This list is techaccess pakistan incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Figueroa's Definition! Julio Herrera y Reissig, 1875-1910, poet , playwright , essayist . Born Haber Cycle Chemguide! Juana de Ibarbourou Daniel Vidart, 1920-present, anthropologist, historian, Paysandu. Figueroa's! List of limited Welsh writers - Wikipedia List of Welsh writers is an incomplete alphabetical list of framework definition writers from Wales. It includes writers in all literary genres, writing in English, Welsh, Latin, or any other language. Description as a writer precedes other occupations. . W), essayist , children's writer and techaccess pakistan limited, minister; Gareth Alban Davies (1926Ė2009, EW), poet , scholar List of Czech writers - Wikipedia Below is an alphabetical list of Czech writers . Contents. A; B; C; D; E; F; G; H; I; J; K; L; M; N; O; P; Q; R; S; T; U; V; W; X; Y; Z. A[edit]. Definition! Daniel Adam z Veleslavina (1546Ė1599), lexicographer, publisher, translator Vaclav Dusek (born 1944), novelist . Viktor Dyk (1877Ė1931), poet , prose writer , playwright and politician Dan Schneider ( writer ) - Wikipedia Dan Schneider (born 1965) is an American poet and private limited, critic of literature and figueroa's framework, film, who runs the Schneider followed this by quoting from an essay Bly once wrote on Robert Lowell, in which Bly talked about the younger generation needing to List of Russian-language writers - Wikipedia This is a list of authors who have written works of pakistan private limited prose and poetry in the Russian language. . Semyon Babayevsky (1909Ė2000), novelist and short story writer , Golden Star Chavalier; Isaak Babel poet , essayist and framework, translator; Nikolai Bazhin (1843Ė1908), writer , journalist and critic, The History of One People's. Case Essay! List of English writers - Wikipedia. Definition! List of English writers lists writers in English, born or raised in England who already have A seminal work added to a writer's entry should also have a Wikipedia page. This is a . Himalayan Art Essay! Dikran Kouyoumdjian, 1895Ė1956), essayist , playwright and novelist ; John Arlott (1914Ė1991), cricket writer and commentator; Robert Armin (c.

WRITERS DATABASE WRITERS WHO ARVON HAS WORKED Dan created and was lead writer on definition the 36 part BBC radio drama series . Abdourahman A. Waberi is novelist , essayist , poet , academic and Accenture Analysis, short-story writer . Famous Writers - Biography Online Biographies of famous writers , authors, poets and playwrights . Swift was a prominent satirist, essayist and author . Wrote novels , The Mill on figueroa's framework the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871Ė72), and The Federal Government Individual, Daniel Deronda (1876). IMDb: Biopics of Writers , Poets and Playwright - a list by ursulahemard 19 Jul 2011 Voltaire was a prolific writer , producing works in almost every literary form including plays , poetry , novels , essays , and definition, historical and scientific English Authors of the Renaissance - Cn Here is a brief list of the major authors, playwrights , and poets of the English Renaissance. Tyndale, William (1492?-1536), translator, tract writer --New Testament (trans.). Cycle! (1561-1626), philosopher, essayist --New Atlantis; 'The Advancement of Learning, Essays . Figueroa's Framework Definition! Daniel , Samuel (1562-1619), poet --Defence of Accenture Analysis Essay Ryme. Figueroa's Framework Definition! Library Booklists and of personification, Bibliographies: Literary Births - April 1 Mar 2016 English journalist, essayist , political tract writer , and novelist Daniel Defoe (died this date 1731; birthdate unknown, in framework definition 1660? 1661? 1659?) Mexico's Finest Contemporary Writers : Tracing a Cultural Renaissance 17 May 2017 Poet , playwright , and Case, novelist , Carmen Boullosa's thoughtful and framework, eclectic works such as Leaving Tabasco . Novelist and private limited, essayist , Volpi is a writer synonymous with the infamous 'Crack Manifesto', a collection Daniel Sada. The MEDIA OBJECTS | EXHIBIT.A - Dan Murrell images 2011 Welcome to Exhibit A. An exhibition of framework new work from Hugh Tisdale and Dan Exhibit A/13 Wilde, Oscar / 1854-1900 / playwright , novelist , essayist , poet . Famous Poets from Sweden | List of Top Swedish Poets - Ranker. Born! Johan August Strindberg was a Swedish playwright , novelist , poet , essayist and Dan Andersson is figueroa's framework listed (or ranked) 5 on the list Famous Poets from Sweden Authors - 20th century poets and novelists - The British Library Find out more about the greatest authors of the 20th century, including Woolf, Orwell, Hughes, Carter and Kureishi. Of Personification! Writers - Spartacus Educational Main Index page of writers , novelists , poets , playwrights and essayist in the 18th, 19th and framework, 20th Century. Toni Morrison - Editor, Writer , Playwright , Literary Critic - Biography 28 Apr 2017 Toni Morrison's novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue and in poetry, Editor, Writer , Playwright , Literary Critic(1931Ė) outlawed languages flourishing underground, essayists ' questions . Ten years later, the book was turned into framework a movie starring Oprah Winfrey, Thandie Newton and Danny Glover. Writers , Poets and Philosophers, Andalucia | Southern Spain Novelist , essayist , and of personification, correspondent, 1899 - 1961.

More Javier Sierra. An exclusive interview with Javier Sierra, Spain?s rival to Dan Brown. Figueroa's! More . Born Haber Chemguide! Jose Maria Blanco Crespo. Writer , philosopher, and well known theologian 1775 Ė 1881.

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odd girl out essay Dasani’s Homeless Life data-summary=There are more than 22,000 homeless children in a city with the greatest concentration of wealth in America. Figueroa's Framework? data-pubdate=Published: December 9, 2013 S he wakes to the sound of breathing. The smaller children lie tangled beside her, their chests rising and falling under winter coats and wool blankets. A few feet away, their mother and father sleep near the mop bucket they use as a toilet. Two other children share a mattress by the rotting wall where the mice live, opposite the baby, whose crib is warmed by a hair dryer perched on Accenture Essay, a milk crate. Slipping out from her covers, the framework oldest girl sits at the window. On mornings like this, she can see all the way across Brooklyn to the Empire State Building, the first New York skyscraper to reach 100 floors.

Her gaze always stops at that iconic temple of stone, its tip pointed celestially, its facade lit with promise. “It makes me feel like there’s something going on out there,” says the 11-year-old girl, never one for Government Rights Essay patience. This child of New York is always running before she walks. She likes being first the definition first to be born, the first to go to school, the first to Himalayan, make the honor roll. Even her name, Dasani, speaks of framework a certain reach. The bottled water had come to Brooklyn’s bodegas just before she was born, catching the fancy of Art Essay her mother, who could not afford such indulgences. It hinted at a different, upwardly mobile clientele, a set of newcomers who over the next decade would transform the borough. Dasani’s own neighborhood, Fort Greene, is now one of gentrification’s gems. Her family lives in the Auburn Family Residence, a decrepit city-run shelter for the homeless. Definition? It is a place where mold creeps up walls and roaches swarm, where feces and vomit plug communal toilets, where sexual predators have roamed and The Federal Government Rights small children stand guard for their single mothers outside filthy showers. It is no place for children.

Yet Dasani is among 280 children at definition the shelter. Haber Cycle? Beyond its walls, she belongs to figueroa's framework definition, a vast and invisible tribe of more than 22,000 homeless children in New York, the highest number since the Great Depression, in haber the most unequal metropolis in America. Nearly a quarter of figueroa's Dasani’s childhood has unfolded at Auburn, where she shares a 520-square-foot room with her parents and seven siblings. As they begin to stir on this frigid January day, Dasani sets about her chores. Her mornings begin with Baby Lele, whom she changes, dresses and pakistan limited feeds, checking that the formula distributed by the shelter is not, once again, expired. She then wipes down the family’s small refrigerator, stuffed with lukewarm milk, Tropicana grape juice and containers of leftover Chinese. After tidying the dresser drawers she shares with a sister, Dasani rushes her younger siblings onto definition the school bus. “I have a lot on my plate,” she says, taking inventory: The fork and spoon are her parents and the macaroni, her siblings except for Baby Lele, who is a plump chicken breast. “So that’s a lot on my plate with some corn bread,” she says. “That’s a lot on my plate.” Dasani guards her feelings closely, dispensing with anger through humor.

Beneath it all is a child whose existence is defined by her siblings. Her small scrub-worn hands are always tying shoelaces or doling out peanut butter sandwiches, taking the Himalayan Art Essay ends of the loaf for herself. Framework? The bond is inescapable. In the presence of her brothers and sisters, Dasani has no peace. Without them, she is Himalayan Art Essay, incomplete. Today, Dasani rides the creaky elevator to the lobby and walks past the guards, the figueroa's definition metal detector and the tall, iron fence that envelops what she calls “the jail.” She steps into the light, and is met by the worn brick facade of the haber cycle chemguide Walt Whitman projects across the street. She heads east along Myrtle Avenue and, three blocks later, has crossed into another New York: the shaded, graceful abode of figueroa's definition Fort Greene’s brownstones, which fetch millions of dollars. “Black is Art Essay, beautiful, black is me,” she sings under her breath as her mother trails behind.

Dasani suddenly stops, puzzling at the pavement. Its condition, she notes, is clearly superior on this side of Myrtle. “Worlds change real fast, don’t it?” her mother says. In the short span of Dasani’s life, her city has been reborn. Figueroa's Definition? The skyline soars with luxury towers, beacons of a new gilded age. More than 200 miles of fresh bike lanes connect commuters to high-tech jobs, passing through upgraded parks and avant-garde projects like the cycle High Line and Jane’s Carousel.

Posh retail has spread from framework, its Manhattan roots to the city’s other boroughs. These are the effect of personification crown jewels of Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg’s long reign, which began just seven months after Dasani was born. In the shadows of this renewal, it is Dasani’s population who have been left behind. The ranks of the poor have risen, with almost half of New Yorkers living near or below the poverty line. Their traditional anchors affordable housing and figueroa's framework definition jobs that pay a living wage have weakened as the city reorders itself around the whims of the wealthy. Long before Mayor-elect Bill de Blasio rose to power by denouncing the city’s inequality, children like Dasani were being pushed further into the margins, and not just in New York. Cities across the nation have become flash points of polarization, as one population has bounced back from the Of Greek Art Essay recession while another continues to struggle.

One in figueroa's definition five American children is now living in born haber cycle chemguide poverty, giving the United States the definition highest child poverty rate of any developed nation except for Romania. This bodes poorly for the future. Decades of research have shown the staggering societal costs of children in poverty. They grow up with less education and lower earning power. They are more likely to born haber cycle chemguide, have drug addiction, psychological trauma and disease, or wind up in prison. Dasani does not need the proof of abstract research.

All of definition these plights run through her family. Her future is further threatened by the fact of her homelessness, which has been shown, even in short spells, to bring disastrous consequences. Dasani’s circumstances are largely the outcome of parental dysfunction. While nearly one-third of born haber chemguide New York’s homeless children are supported by a working adult, her mother and figueroa's framework definition father are unemployed, have a history of arrests and are battling drug addiction. Yet Dasani’s trials are not solely of her parents’ making. They are also the result of decisions made a world away, in the marble confines of City Hall. With the economy growing in 2004, the Bloomberg administration adopted sweeping new policies intended to push the homeless to become more self-reliant. They would no longer get priority access to public housing and other programs, but would receive short-term help with rent. Poor people would be empowered, the mayor argued, and homelessness would decline. But the opposite happened.

As rents steadily rose and low-income wages stagnated, chronically poor families like Dasani’s found themselves stuck in techaccess private limited a shelter system with fewer exits. Families are now languishing there longer than ever a development that Mr. Bloomberg explained by saying shelters offered “a much more pleasurable experience than they ever had before.” Just three days before the mayor made that comment at a news conference in August 2012, an inspector at Auburn stopped by Dasani’s crowded room, noting that a mouse was “running around and going into figueroa's, the walls,” which had “many holes.” “Please assist,” the inspector added. “There is Himalayan Art Essay, infant in room.” Dasani was about to start sixth grade at a promising new school.

This would be a pivotal year of her childhood one already marked by more longing and loss than most adults ever see. A tangle of three dramas had yet to unspool. There was the question of whether Dasani’s family would remain intact. Her mother had just been reunited with the children on the condition that she and her husband stay off drugs. Figueroa's? The city’s Administration for Children’s Services was watching closely. Any slips, and the siblings could wind up in foster care, losing their parents and, most likely, one another. The family’s need for a home was also growing desperate. The longer they stayed in that one room, the more they seemed to fall apart.

Yet rents were impossibly high in Influence Art Essay the city, and a quarter-million people were waiting for the rare vacancy in framework definition public housing. Families like Dasani’s had been leaving the state. This was the year, then, that her parents made a promise: to save enough money to go somewhere else, maybe as far as the Pocono Mountains, in Pennsylvania. Dasani could close her eyes and see it. “It’s quiet and effect of personification it’s a lot of grass.” In the absence of this long-awaited home, there was only framework definition, school. But it remained to be seen whether Dasani’s new middle school, straining under budget cuts, could do enough to fill the voids of her life. For children like Dasani, school is Himalayan, not just a place to figueroa's framework, cultivate a hungry mind. It is a refuge. The right school can provide routine, nourishment and the guiding hand of responsible adults. But school also had its perils.

Dasani was hitting the The Federal Government has Reduced Rights Essay age when girls prove their worth through fighting. Framework Definition? And she was her mother’s daughter, a fearless fighter. She was also on born cycle chemguide, the cusp of framework becoming something more, something she could feel but not yet see, if only the right things happened and the right people came along. D asani is a short, wiry girl whose proud posture overwhelms her 4-foot-8 frame. She has a delicate, oval face and luminous brown eyes that watch everything, owl-like.

Her expression veers from wonder to mischief. Strangers often remark on her beauty her high cheekbones and smooth skin but the comments never seem to register. What she knows is that she has been blessed with perfect teeth. In a family where braces are the stuff of fantasy, having good teeth is Accenture Essay, a lottery win. On the figueroa's framework definition subway, Dasani can blend in with children who are better off. It is an ironic fact of being poor in a rich city that the donated garments Dasani and her siblings wear lend them the Influence veneer of affluence, at figueroa's framework least from a distance. Used purple Uggs and Patagonia fleeces cover thinning socks and fraying jeans. Private Limited? A Phil Teds rain cover, fished from a garbage bin, protects Baby Lele’s rickety stroller. Dasani tells herself that brand names don’t matter.

She knows such yearnings will go unanswered, so better not to have them. But once in a while, when by some miracle her mother produces a new pair of Michael Jordan sneakers, Dasani finds herself succumbing to the same exercise: She wears them sparingly, and figueroa's framework definition only indoors, hoping to keep them spotless. It never works. Best to try to Case Analysis Essay, blend in, she tells herself, while not caring when you don’t. She likes being small because “I can slip through things.” In the blur of framework her city’s crowded streets, she is just another face. Has Reduced Essay? What people do not see is framework, a homeless girl whose mother succumbed to crack more than once, whose father went to Of Greek Art Essay, prison for selling drugs, and whose cousins and figueroa's framework aunts have become the anonymous casualties of Individual Essay gang shootings, AIDS and domestic violence. Dasani speaks with certainty. She often begins a sentence with “Mommy say” before reciting, verbatim, some new bit of definition learned wisdom, such as “camomile tea cures a bad stomach” or “that lady is a dope fiend.” She likes facts. Case Essay? She rarely wavers, or hints at doubt, even as her life is figueroa's definition, consumed by it.

When strangers are near, Dasani refers to Auburn as “that place.” It is of personification, separate from her, and distant. But in figueroa's framework definition the company of her siblings, she calls it “the house,” transforming a crowded room into an imaginary home. In reality, Auburn is neither. The forbidding, 10-story brick building, which dates back almost a century, was formerly Cumberland Hospital, one of seven public hospitals that closed because of the city’s 1970s fiscal crisis. In 1985, the Influence Art Essay city repurposed the figueroa's framework former hospital into a shelter for families. This was the dawn of the period known as “modern homelessness,” driven by wage stagnation, Reagan-era cutbacks and the rising cost of homes. By the time Mayor Bloomberg took office in 2002, New York’s homeless population had reached 31,063 a record for the city, which is legally obligated to provide shelter. Among the city’s 152 family shelters, Auburn became known as a place of last resort, a dreaded destination for the chronically homeless. City and state inspectors have repeatedly cited the shelter for deplorable conditions, including sexual misconduct by effect in poetry staff members, spoiled food, asbestos exposure, lead paint and vermin. Auburn has no certificate of framework definition occupancy, as required by law, and lacks an operational plan that meets state regulations.

Most of the shelter’s smoke detectors and alarms have been found to be inoperable. There are few signs that children live at Auburn. The Federal Government Has Reduced? Locked gates prevent them from setting foot on the front lawn. In a city that has invested millions of dollars in new “green spaces,” Auburn’s is figueroa's definition, often overrun with weeds. Inside, prepackaged meals are served in a cafeteria where Dasani and her siblings wait in one line for their food before heading to another line to heat it in one of two microwaves that hundreds of residents share.

Tempers fly and fights explode. The routine can last more than an hour before the of personification children take their first bite. The family’s room is the scene of framework debilitating chaos: stacks of dirty laundry, shoes stuffed under a mattress, bicycles and coats piled high. To the left of the door, beneath a decrepit sink where Baby Lele is bathed, the wall has rotted through, leaving a long, dark gap where mice congregate. A few feet away, Dasani’s legally blind, 10-year-old sister, Nijai, sleeps on a mattress that has come apart at the seams, its rusted coils splayed.

Hand-washed clothes line the guards on born chemguide, the windows, which are shaded by gray wool blankets strung from the figueroa's ceiling. A sticky fly catcher dangles overhead, dotted with dead insects. There is Accenture Analysis Essay, no desk or chair in the room just a maze of mattresses and dressers. A flat-screen television rests on two orange milk crates. To eat, the children sit on framework definition, the cracked linoleum floor, which never feels clean no matter how much they mop.

Homework is a challenge. The shelter’s one recreation room can hardly accommodate Auburn’s hundreds of children, leaving Dasani and her siblings to Art Essay, study, hunched over, on their mattresses. Sometimes it feels like too many bodies sharing the same air. “There’s no space to breathe ’cause they breathe up all the oxygen,” Dasani says. She carves out small, sacred spaces: a portion of the framework floor at mealtime, an upturned crate by the window, a bathroom stall. The children spend hours at pakistan the playgrounds of the surrounding housing projects, where a subtle hierarchy is at work. If they are seen enough times emerging from Auburn, they are pegged as the neighborhood’s outliers, the so-called shelter boogies. Nothing gnaws at Dasani more. A mucus-stained nose suggests a certain degradation, not just the absence of tissues, but of a parent willing to figueroa's, wipe or a home so unclean that a runny nose makes no difference. Himalayan Art Essay? Dasani and her siblings can get hungry enough to lose their concentration in school, but they are forever wiping one another’s noses. When Dasani hears “shelter boogies,” all she can think to say is what her mother always tells her that Auburn is “just a pit stop.” “But you will live in the projects forever, as will your kids’ kids, and definition your kids’ kids’ kids.”

She knows the battle is asymmetrical. The projects may represent all kinds of inertia. But to live at Auburn is to admit the ultimate failure: the inability of one’s parents to meet that most basic need. D asani ticks through their faces, the chemguide girls from the projects who might turn up at this new school. Some are kind enough not to figueroa's definition, gossip about where she lives. #9632; The others might be distracted by Himalayan Art Essay the sheer noise of this first day the start of sixth grade, the figueroa's framework new uniform, the new faces. Techaccess Private Limited? She will hopefully slip by those girls unseen. She approaches the school’s steps on a clear September morning. Fresh braids fall to one side of her face, clipped by bright yellow bows. Her required polo and khakis have been pressed with a hair straightener, since Auburn forbids irons.

Her heart is definition, pounding. She will be sure to take a circuitous route home. She will focus in Accenture Case Analysis Essay class and mind her manners in the schoolyard. She only has to climb those steps. “Come on, there’s nothing to be scared about,” her 34-year-old mother, Chanel, finally says, nudging Dasani up the stairs. She passes through the metal detector, joining 507 other middle and high school students at the Susan S. Framework? McKinney Secondary School of the Arts. Housed in a faded brick building two blocks from Auburn, McKinney is a poor-kids’ version of LaGuardia Arts, the elite Manhattan public school that inspired the television series “Fame.” Threadbare curtains adorn its theater. Stage props are salvaged from haber, a nearby trash bin.

Dance class is figueroa's framework definition, so crowded that students practice in intervals. An air of possibility permeates the school, named after the first African-American woman to become a physician in New York State. There is Officer Jamion Andrews, the of personification in poetry security guard who moonlights as a rap lyricist, and figueroa's Zakiya Harris, the dance teacher who runs a studio on the side. Effect Of Personification In Poetry? And there is Faith Hester, the comedic, eyelash-batting humanities teacher who wrote a self-help book titled “Create a Life You Love Living” and fancies her own reality show. The children also strive.

Among them is a voice that periodically lifts the framework school with a “Madama Butterfly” aria. When the born haber cycle students hear it, they know that Jasmine, a sublimely gifted junior, is singing in the office of the principal, Paula Holmes. The school matriarch closes her eyes as she listens. It may be her only framework definition, tranquil moment. Miss Holmes is a towering woman, by turns steely and soft. Case? She wears a Bluetooth like a permanent earring and tends toward power suits. She has been at McKinney’s helm for 15 years and runs the school like a naval ship, peering down its gleaming hallways as if searching the seas for enemy vessels. Students stammer in her presence.

She leaves her office door permanently open, like a giant, unblinking eye. A poster across the hall depicts a black man in sagging jeans standing before the White House, opposite President Obama. “To live in this crib,” the poster reads, “you have to look the part.” Miss Holmes has no tolerance for sagging sartorial, attitudinal or otherwise. McKinney’s roots run deep. Dasani’s own grandmother studied there as a girl. Most of the middle school students are black, live in figueroa's framework definition the surrounding projects and The Federal Government has Reduced Individual Rights Essay qualify for free or reduced meals. They eat in framework definition shifts in the school’s basement cafeteria, watched over by Art Essay the avuncular Frank Heyward, who blasts oldies from a boombox, telling students, “I got shoes older than you.”

For all of McKinney’s pluck, its burdens are great. In the framework last six years, the city has cut the school’s budget by a quarter as its population declined. Techaccess? Fewer teachers share a greater load. Figueroa's Framework? After-school resources have thinned, but not the needs of students whose families are torn apart by gun violence and drug use. The Federal Government? McKinney’s staff psychologist shuttles between three schools like a firefighter. And now, a charter school is angling to framework, move in. If successful, it will eventually claim McKinney’s treasured top floor, home to its theater class, dance studio and art lab. Teachers and parents are bracing for battle, announced by in poetry fliers warning against figueroa's definition the “apartheid” effects of Influence Of Greek a charter co-location. Dasani knows about figueroa's definition, charter schools.

Her former school, P.S. 67, shared space with one. She never spoke to those children, whose classrooms were stocked with new computers. Dasani’s own school was failing by the time she left. At McKinney, Dasani quickly draws the notice of the older students, and not because she is short, though the The Federal Government has Reduced Rights Essay nickname “Shorty” sticks. It is her electricity. Framework Definition? When they dote on Case Analysis Essay, her, she giggles. But say the wrong thing and she turns fierce, letting the four-letter words fly. It is still September when Dasani’s temper lands her in the principal’s office.

“Please don’t call my mother,” Dasani whispers. Miss Holmes is figueroa's framework definition, seated in a rolling pleather chair held together by duct tape. She stares at the anguished girl. She has been at born McKinney long enough to know when a child’s transgressions at school might bring a beating at home. The principal slowly scoots her chair up to Dasani and leans within inches of her face.

From that day forward, Dasani will be on her best behavior. In turn, Miss Holmes will keep what happens at school in figueroa's definition school. With that, she waves Dasani off, fighting the pakistan limited urge to smile. Framework? She can’t help but like this feisty little girl. D asani closes her eyes and tilts her head toward the Accenture Case Analysis ceiling of her classroom.

She has missed breakfast again. #9632; She tries to drift. Figueroa's Framework? She sees Florida. For a child who has never been to the beach, television ads are transporting. She is walking in the sand. She crashes into the waves. “Dasaaaaaani!” her teacher sings out. She opens her eyes.

There is Miss Hester, batting those lashes. Both she and Art Essay another teacher, Kenya Mabry, were raised in the projects. They dress and talk with a polish that impresses Dasani, who studies them. Miss Hester is also watching Dasani. She does not yet know where Dasani lives, or how hungry she gets.

But Miss Hester finds two things striking: how late she arrives some mornings and how capable this girl is in spite of it. Without even trying, she keeps up. Dasani possesses what adults at McKinney consider an intuitive approach to learning, the kind that comes when rare smarts combine with extreme life circumstances. Framework? Her intelligence is “uncanny” and “far surpasses peers her age,” one counselor writes. Private Limited? “Student is continuously using critical analysis to definition, reflect upon situations and interactions.” Principal Holmes is in poetry, also taking note.

She can already see in this “precocious little button” the framework definition kind of girl who could be anything even a Supreme Court justice if only effect, she harnesses her gifts early enough. “Dasani has something that hasn’t even been unleashed yet,” Miss Holmes says. “It’s still being cultivated.” For now, Dasani’s most honed skill might be obfuscation. She works hard to hide her struggles, staying quiet as other children brag about their new cellphones or sleepovers with friends. If there is one place she feels free, it is dance class. When she walks into McKinney’s studio, and the music starts, her body releases whatever she is feeling. “When I’m happy I dance fast,” she says. “When I’m sad I dance slow.

When I’m upset I dance both.” Dasani has been dancing for figueroa's definition as long as she can remember, well before she earned her first dollar a few years ago break-dancing in Times Square. Himalayan Art Essay? But the study of dance, as something practiced rather than spontaneous, this is new. She is figueroa's definition, learning to point her toes like a ballerina, and to Government Essay, fall back into a graceful bridge. Perhaps it is no accident that amid the bedlam of Dasani’s home life the missed welfare appointments and piles of unwashed clothes she is drawn to a craft of figueroa's definition discipline.

Here, in this room, time is kept and routines are mapped with precision and techaccess pakistan focus. Dasani never tires of rehearsing the figueroa's framework same moves, or scrutinizing more experienced dancers. Her gaze is often fixed on a tall, limber eighth grader named Sahai. Sahai is the middle school’s valedictorian. A breathtaking dancer, she has long silky hair and carries herself like a newly crowned queen. She is a girl with enough means to accessorize elegantly. When Dasani looks at Sahai, she is taking the measure of all she is not. You can be popular in one of three ways, Dasani’s mother always says. Dress fly. Do good in effect school.

Fight. The first option is out of the question. While Dasani clings to her uniform, other students wear coveted Adidas hoodies and Doc Marten boots. Framework Definition? In dance class, Dasani does not even have a leotard. So she applies herself in school. “I have a lot of possibility,” she says. “I do.”

Her strongest subject is Of Greek, English, where a poem she writes is tacked to a teacher’s wall. By October, she is on definition, the honor roll, just as her life at Auburn is coming apart. I t is something of an effect of personification, art to sleep among nine other people. Framework? One learns not to hear certain sounds or smell certain smells. #9632; But some things still intrude on Dasani’s sleep. There is the ceaseless drip of that decaying sink, and the scratching of hungry mice.

It makes no difference when the family lays out traps and Art Essay hangs its food from the definition ceiling in a plastic bag. Rights Essay? Auburn’s mice always return, as stubborn as the “ghetto squirrels,” in figueroa's framework Chanel’s lingo, that forage the trash for Chinese fried chicken. Dasani shares a twin mattress and three dresser drawers with her mischievous and portly sister, Avianna, only one year her junior. Their 35-year-old stepfather, Supreme, has raised them as his own. They consider him their father and call him Daddy. Supreme married Chanel nine years earlier, bringing two children from a previous marriage. The boy, Khaliq, had trouble speaking. He had been trapped with his dead, pregnant mother after she fell down a flight of stairs. The girl, Nijai, had a rare genetic eye disease and was going blind. They were the same tender ages as Dasani and Avianna, forming a homeless Brady Bunch as Supreme and The Federal has Reduced Individual Essay Chanel had four more children.

Two of Dasani’s half-sisters, 7-year-old Maya and figueroa's 6-year-old Hada, share the mattress to her right. The 5-year-old they call Papa sleeps by himself because he wets the bed. In the crib is Baby Lele, who is tended to by Dasani when her parents are listless from their daily dose of methadone. Chanel and Supreme take the synthetic opioid as part of their drug treament program. It has essentially become a substitute addiction. The more time they spend in this room, the smaller it feels. Nothing stays in order.

Everything is exposed marital spats, frayed underwear, the onset of puberty, the mischief other children hide behind closed doors. Supreme paces erratically. Chanel cannot check her temper. For Dasani and her siblings, to act like rambunctious children is to risk a beating. By late fall, Chanel and Supreme are fighting daily about Government Rights, money. It has been years since Supreme lost his job as a barber and figueroa's framework Chanel stopped working as a janitor for the parks department. He cuts hair inside the shelter and sells pirated DVDs on the street while she hawks odds and ends from discount stores. In a good month, their combined efforts can bring in a few hundred dollars. This is not one of those times. Supreme is techaccess, keeping tight control of the family’s welfare income $1,285 in food stamps and framework definition $1,122 in survivor benefits for his first wife’s death. He refuses to give Chanel cash for laundry.

Soon, all of Dasani’s uniforms are stained. At school, she is now wearing donated clothes and her hair is effect of personification, unkempt, inviting the dreaded designation of figueroa's “nappy.” Rumors are circulating about where she lives. Only six of the middle school’s 157 students reside in shelters. When the truth about Dasani emerges, she does nothing to Of Greek Art Essay, contradict it. She is a proud girl. She must find a way to turn the truth, like other unforeseeable calamities, in framework her favor. She begins calling herself “ghetto.” She dares the girls to fight her and challenges the effect of personification boys to arm-wrestle, flexing the biceps she has built doing pull-ups in framework Fort Greene Park.

The boys watch slack-jawed as Dasani demonstrates the push-ups she has also mastered, earning her the nickname “muscle girl.” Her teachers are flummoxed. They assume that she has shed her uniform because she is trying to act tough. Influence Of Greek? In fact, the reverse is true. A chilly, November wind whips across Auburn Place, rustling the plastic cover of a soiled mattress in a trash bin outside the shelter. #9632; Chanel and figueroa's Supreme stand nearby, waiting for their children to come from school. They are still short on cash. The children had pitched in $5.05, from collecting cans and bottles over the weekend. Chanel inspects the mattress. Clean, it might fetch $10. But it is haber, stained with feces. Janitors wearing masks and gloves had removed it from framework definition, a squalid room where three small children lived, defecating on the floor.

Their mother rarely bathed them, and they had no shoes on the day she gathered them in a hurry and born chemguide left. “You can smell it?” Chanel asks Supreme. “No, I can see it,” he says, curling his lip. “Those are the definition people that they need to be calling A.C.S. on,” Chanel says. At the shelter, the abbreviation for the Administration for Children’s Services is uttered with the same kind of alarm that the C.I.A. can stoke overseas. “Nasty girl,” Chanel says, scrunching her nose. Everyone knows Chanel. She weighs 215 pounds and her face is a constellation of freckles lit by a gaptoothed smile. She wraps her copper-hued hair in a tubular scarf. The street is her domain.

When she walks, people often step to the side not in deference to her ample frame so much as her magisterial air. Chanel is in everyone’s business, scoping out snitches, offering homeopathic remedies, tattling on a girl’s first kiss. A five-minute walk through Fulton Mall can take Chanel hours for all the greetings, gossip, recriminations and nostalgia. She has a remarkable nose for of personification people, sniffing out phoniness in seconds. Those who smile too much are wearing “a frown turned upside down.” She is often spoiling for figueroa's framework definition a fight, or leaving people in the stitches of has Reduced Rights laughter. While others want the life of the music mogul Jay-Z, Chanel would settle for being his pet. “Just let me be the dog. I don’t care where you put me.” When Chanel laughs, she tilts her head back and unleashes a thunderous cackle. Dasani can detect her mother’s laugh from figueroa's definition, blocks away. Today, she returns from school lugging a plastic bag of clothes donated by a security guard at Accenture Case McKinney.

Dasani begins rummaging through the figueroa's framework bag. She pulls out a white Nautica ski jacket and holds it up to her shoulders. Of Greek Art Essay? It is too wide, but she likes it. “It’s dirty,” she says forgivingly. “Look, Mommy!” she says, modeling her new coat. “That fits you real nice,” Chanel coos. Suddenly, Supreme leaps into the air. His monthly benefits have arrived, announced by a recording on his prepaid welfare phone. He sets off to reclaim his gold teeth from the pawnshop and buy new boots for the children at Cookie’s, a favored discount store in Fulton Mall. Figueroa's Framework Definition? The money will be gone by week’s end. Supreme and Chanel have been scolded about their lack of financial discipline in countless meetings with the city agencies that monitor the family.

But when that monthly check arrives, Supreme and Chanel do not think about abstractions like “responsibility” and “self-reliance.” They lose themselves in Accenture Case Analysis the delirium that a round of ice creams brings. Framework Definition? They feel the sudden, exquisite release born of Of Greek Art Essay wearing those gold fronts again of appearing like a person who has rather than a person who lacks. The next day, Dasani goes to school wearing her new Cookie’s boots. Feeling amped, she gets into a verbal spat with some boys in gym class and framework definition must spend her lunch hour in Himalayan Art Essay the principal’s office. Miss Holmes glowers at Dasani, who tries to framework, leaven the Himalayan Art Essay mood by bragging about her place on the honor roll.

The principal is figueroa's, unmoved. Dasani still has a B average. “I want the highest end of the honor roll,” Miss Holmes says. “I want more. You have to want more, too.” Dasani stares at her tray. Himalayan? The discussion returns to her behavior in gym class. “While we care for you, we’re not going to take any crap,” Miss Holmes says. “You understand?” Trying not to cry, Dasani examines her food a slice of cheese pizza, chocolate milk, a red apple. She wrinkles her nose.

Miss Holmes has seen it before, the child too proud to figueroa's framework, show hunger. “Can you hurry up?” Miss Holmes says. “The drama with the pizza is not working for me.” “I’ll feed you,” Miss Holmes says. “I will feed you. You don’t think I’ll feed you? Bring the tray.” Dasani slowly lifts the pizza slice to her mouth, cracking a smile. Miss Holmes has seen plenty of distressed children, but few have both the depth of has Reduced Individual Rights Dasani’s troubles and the height of her promise. There is framework definition, not much Miss Holmes can do about Accenture Analysis, life outside school. She knows this is a child who needs a sponsor, who “needs to see ‘The Nutcracker,’” who needs her own computer. There are many such children.

Here at school, Miss Holmes must work with what she has. “Apples are very good for you,” she says, smiling. “Bananas are, too.” When Dasani is finished, she brings her empty tray to the principal for inspection. Miss Holmes gestures at Dasani’s milk-stained mouth. T he tree is covered in Christmas lights that mask the lack of ornaments. Figueroa's Framework Definition? #9632; The children gather around it inside a dilapidated, two-story rowhouse in Analysis East New York, Brooklyn the closest thing they have to a home.

It belongs to Chanel’s ailing godmother, Sherry, whom the children call Grandma. Sherry’s day care center once occupied the first floor, where fading decals of Bambi now share space with empty liquor bottles. Chanel’s two unemployed brothers, 22-year-old Josh and 39-year-old Lamont, stay in the dark, musty basement. When the children visit, they spend most of their time upstairs, sleeping on a drafty wooden floor beneath a Roman-numeral clock that is permanently stopped at 2:47. Sherry’s electricity has been cut, but the tree remains lit and the heat stays on, via a cable illicitly connected to a neighbor’s power supply. Christmas gifts are scarce: coloring books, a train set, stick-on tattoos, one doll for each girl. A few nights later, the children are roused by shouts and figueroa's framework definition a loud crash. Uncle Josh has punched his hand through a window and is threatening to kill Uncle Lamont.

Josh lunges at Accenture Case Analysis Essay his brother with a knife. The men tumble to the floor as Chanel throws herself between them. Upstairs, the children cower and scream. Dasani calls out orders: “Nobody move! Let the adults handle it!” Sirens rattle the block.

Josh is taken away in handcuffs as an ambulance races Lamont to the hospital with a battered eye. They had been fighting over figueroa's framework, a teenage girl. January brings relief, but not because of the new year. It is the start of tax season, when Dasani’s parents and of personification everyone they seem to know rush to file for figueroa's framework definition the earned-income tax credit, a kind of bonanza for the poor. Their tax refunds can bring several thousand dollars, which could be enough to put down a rent deposit and leave the The Federal Government Rights shelter. On Jan. Framework Definition? 7, the Influence Of Greek family heads to Manhattan for a rare outing. They take the Q train, which barrels high across the East River. The city’s lights shimmer, making Chanel think of opportunity. They will start looking for a home soon, she says.

“I wanna go somewhere where it’s quiet,” Dasani says. “I wanna go somewhere where there’s trees,” Chanel says. “I just wanna see a bunch of trees and grass.” “Daddy say that he gonna buy this house with a lot of land with grass,” Dasani says, “so that each of us would get a part, so that you can do whatever you want with that part of the land.” Supreme sits far-off, listening to definition, music on his phone. Baby Lele wails. Suddenly, Chanel spots Chinatown. The children squeal. Dasani mentions a book she read about the Great Wall of China. “That’s not this town,” Chanel says. “It’s a big wall though,” Dasani says. “That’s the real Chinatown,” Chanel says. “This is the New York Chinatown, where they got Chinese people in Popeyes.”

Dasani presses her forehead against the window and cups her hands around her eyes, as if preserving the view for herself. O pportunity comes rarely, but Dasani is Government Individual Essay, always waiting. Framework? She wakes early on Jan. 18, hours in advance of a track competition known for rescuing girls from the ghetto. #9632; She has no running shoes, just a pair of imitation Converses. She is unknown in Case Analysis the rarefied world of athletic recruiters and private coaches. But ask anyone in her small corner of Brooklyn, from the crossing guards to framework definition, the drunks, and they will say two things about this tiny girl with the wayward braids: She is strong like a boy and can run like the wind. Dasani heads out in the icy cold with her mother and two of her sisters. Cycle Chemguide? They walk a mile before arriving at the manicured grounds of the Pratt Institute in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Clinton Hill, which is hosting the Colgate Women’s Games. The amateur track and field series is a magnet for athletic recruiters, and some of figueroa's definition its champions have gone as far as the Olympics.

Dasani will compete in the 200-meter dash. She heads to Case, the bathroom to change. “She got shorts to put on?” one of the definition organizers asks. Dasani reaches for her leggings. “Those are the sneakers?” the woman frowns. Wearing no socks, Dasani ties her rainbow laces and walks to the track. When her number is called, she takes her place among four other girls. The blank fires and she is off, ahead of the pack. Win, Dasani tells herself. Win.

At the first bend, she trips and falls behind. By the second turn, Dasani has caught up with the lead runner. They are in a dead heat for the finish line. Dasani comes in second. It hardly matters that her time is Accenture Case Analysis Essay, insufficient to make it past the framework definition preliminaries. They leave the stadium feeling euphoric. “My baby’s going to the Olympics,” Chanel crows. As they walk west along Willoughby Avenue, they talk of finding a trainer.

Chanel starts singing her favorite Luther Vandross song, “A House Is Not a Home.” The girls have heard it enough times to sing along. A chair is haber, still a chair. Even when there’s no one sittin’ there. But a chair is not a house. And a house is not a home.

When there’s no one there. to hold you tight. They turn north on figueroa's, Carlton Avenue, passing a renovated brick townhouse with sleek, metal window frames. A skinny brunette is unloading her station wagon. At the sight of Dasani’s family, she freezes. Born Haber? She smiles nervously and moves slowly to her car, grabbing an infant from the car seat. The mood shifts. “She thinks we gonna jump her,” Chanel says as she keeps walking.

The shelter is only three blocks away. “Why do they feel like they’re so apart? She’s just two steps away from us. Figueroa's? If you got jumped out here, a black man would be the first to Influence Of Greek Art Essay, save your ass. Figueroa's Framework Definition? That’s what I feel like telling her.” When they reach Myrtle Avenue, Chanel goes searching for a beer at Government her favorite corner store. Definition? Dasani trails her.

Inside, the in poetry short-order cook, a Mexican girl, stares at Chanel suspiciously. “You so nice, that’s why I see you,” the girl responds cockily. “You better watch that grill,” Chanel says. Figueroa's? “I don’t want to The Federal Government Essay, scare you.” “You think you scare me?” the girl yells. “Let’s fight right now!” Chanel shouts. “Wait for me outside!” the figueroa's girl calls back. Chanel moves toward her, reaching for a mop. The owner, Salim, races toward Chanel. “I’ll crack her with a stick!” Chanel yells as Salim holds her back. Dasani is frozen.

“I’ma wait for your ass when you come out,” Chanel says. Born? “What time she get off?” “You run your mouth,” Salim says, gently leading Chanel away, as he has done before. As they leave, Dasani turns to framework definition, the cook. “She gonna knock you stupid, Chinese lady,” Dasani says. “Don’t use those words,” Salim cries out. “You’re not supposed to turn out like your mother.” The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool.

The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. Andrea Elliott Talks to Chanel About Interviewing. G racie Mansion is something of an oddity. In a city with a 2 percent vacancy rate and a shortage of chemguide public housing, the mayoral residence sits uninhabited on 11 pristine acres of the Upper East Side. #9632; It has been more than a decade since Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg chose to figueroa's framework, remain in his opulent townhouse, consigning Gracie Mansion to the status of a museum and venue for civic events. Dasani knows none of these particulars when she steps through Gracie’s doors on Accenture Essay, a school trip in February. She is looking for definition the mayor. She wants to see him up close, this mysterious “Wizard of Oz” figure who makes decisions about her life from behind a curtain of political power.

It never occurs to Dasani that the mayor does not live there. Who could have a mansion and not live in it? “Look at that fireplace!” she marvels as her classmates step into Art Essay, the parlor where Mr. Bloomberg has given news conferences. Definition? The tour guide, a woman wearing gold-clasp earrings and effect tangerine lipstick, moves the children along, reminding them not to touch. They shuffle into the library. Still no mayor.

Dasani scans for clues like the F.B.I. agents of her favorite television show, “Criminal Minds.” She inspects a telephone. “His last call was at framework 11:15,” she whispers. The tour guide opens French doors onto the veranda where New York’s mayors have entertained dignitaries from Himalayan, around the world. “It’s a very gracious way of figueroa's framework definition living,” she says. “Very elegant.” What impresses Dasani most are not the architectural details or the gold-bound volumes of Chaucer and Tolstoy, but the astonishing lack of dust. She runs her hand lightly over the top of a Steinway piano. “I tell you,” she says. “This house is Himalayan, clean.” Dasani was still an infant when Mr. Bloomberg took office in framework definition 2002. Declaring Gracie Mansion “the people’s house,” he gathered $7 million in in poetry private donations much of it his own money to rehabilitate the pale yellow 18th-century home, which overlooks the East River. In came new plumbing, floors, lighting and ventilation, along with exquisite touches like an framework, 1820s chandelier and a four-poster mahogany bed.

Facing that same river, six miles away on the opposite side, is the Himalayan Art Essay Auburn Family Residence, the figueroa's framework definition squalid city-run homeless shelter where Dasani has lived for more than two years. She shares a crowded, mouse-infested room with her parents and haber chemguide seven siblings, who sleep doubled up on torn mattresses. Dasani spends her days in the care of framework another city institution: her public school in Fort Greene, Brooklyn. The Susan S. McKinney Secondary School of the Arts has suffered its own troubles under the Bloomberg administration: a shrinking budget and fewer teachers. Dasani shuttles between Auburn and McKinney, just two blocks apart. Case Analysis Essay? They form the core of her life and the bedrock of her future, one that is in peril.

Adults who are homeless often speak of feeling “stuck.” For children, the figueroa's framework definition experience is more like a free-fall. With each passing month, they slip further back in every category known to predict long-term well-being. They are less likely to Influence Of Greek, graduate from the schools that anchor them, and more likely to end up like their parents, their lives circumscribed by definition teenage pregnancy or shortened by crime and Accenture Analysis Essay illness. In the absence of framework a steady home or a reliable parent, public institutions have an outsize influence on the destiny of children like Dasani. Whether she can transcend her circumstances rests greatly on the role, however big or small, that society opts to play in her life. The question of public responsibility has gained urgency in recent decades. By the time Mr. Bloomberg was elected, children made up 40 percent of shelter residents. “We’re not walking away from taking care of the homeless,” the mayor said early on. Haber? “I have a responsibility, the city has a responsibility, to make sure that the facilities we provide are up to some standards.”

The Bloomberg administration set out to revamp the shelter system, creating 7,500 units of temporary housing, a database to track the shelter population and a program intended to prevent homelessness with counseling, job training and figueroa's definition short-term financial aid. The new system also made it harder for families to be found eligible for shelter. For a time, the numbers went down. But in the wake of profound policy changes and a spiraling economy, more children wound up in shelters than at any time since the creation of the shelter system in the early 1980s. While the Bloomberg administration spent $5 billion on shelter services, the conditions at Auburn remained grim. Dasani and her siblings have grown numb to life at Essay the shelter, where knife fights break out and definition crack pipes are left on the bathroom floor. In the words of their mother, they have “become the place.” She has a verb for born cycle it: shelternized. For Dasani, school is everything the provider of meals, on-the-spot nursing care, security and substitute parenting.

On the Gracie trip, Dasani wears the Nautica coat donated by a school security guard and definition matching white gloves bestowed to her that morning by pakistan private the principal. A school like McKinney can also provide a bridge to figueroa's, the wider world. It does not matter that Dasani’s entire sixth grade must walk a mile to effect of personification, the subway in icy winds, take two trains, then walk another 10 minutes before arriving. This round-trip journey, which occupies much of the day, is a welcome escape. As Dasani leaves Gracie that afternoon, she refastens her neon-pink snow hat. Figueroa's Framework? She has given up on the mayor. “He lives somewhere else,” she says, waving an arm along East End Avenue before heading back to the subway.

T here is no sign announcing the shelter at 39 Auburn Place, which rises over the neighboring Walt Whitman Houses like an accidental fortress. Its stately, neo-Georgian exterior hints at the shelter’s former life as a city hospital. Two sweeping sycamores shade the entrance, where smokers linger under brick arches, flicking cigarette ashes onto an empty, untended lawn. A concrete walkway leads to born cycle, the heavily guarded front door, where residents pass through a metal detector and their bags are searched for forbidden objects like canned food, hair dryers and irons. Visitors are restricted to figueroa's, the bleak lobby. Essay? Upstairs, cries and laughter echo along the dim corridors that Dasani’s legally blind sister, Nijai, has learned to feel her way around. The shelter is framework, ill equipped to handle the needs of its numerous disabled residents, among them premature infants and severely autistic children. Yet the manual given to incoming families boasts a “full complement of professional and born chemguide support personnel” who are “available to framework, assist you 24 hours a day, seven days per pakistan limited week.” The booklet guarantees residents “protection from harm” and “the right to live in a secure, safe facility.” A starkly different Auburn the framework definition one to which Dasani is has Reduced, witness emerges from stacks of handwritten complaints, calls to 911, internal staff reports and dozens of inspections over the last decade. It is less a haven than a purgatory.

There is the 12-year-old boy who writes, on framework definition, Oct. 29, 2012, that a female resident touched “my private area and I didn’t like it.” His mother also files a complaint, saying the woman was showing pornography to children. The police are never notified. Nor do they hear about a 15-year-old girl who says she was sexually assaulted by a security guard one year earlier. Accenture Analysis? The complaint, written by her mother in Spanish, never appears to have been translated.

The pleas of a 12-year-old girl that same month also go unreported to the police. She writes of a man who exposes his genitals in a girls’ bathroom, making her too afraid to figueroa's definition, go back without a parent: “I am still scared that someone will come in.” It stands to reason that the complaints of children would be ignored, given how often the warnings of inspectors go nowhere. Over the Accenture Analysis last decade, city and state inspectors have cited Auburn for figueroa's definition more than 400 violations many of them repeated including for Influence inadequate child care, faulty fire protection, insufficient heat, spoiled food, broken elevators, nonfunctioning bathrooms and the presence of figueroa's framework mice, roaches, mold, bedbugs, lead and asbestos. Dasani can pick out the Himalayan inspectors by their clipboards and focused expressions. They work for the State Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance, which supervises homeless housing around the state. Given that Auburn is partly funded by the state, these inspectors should presumably hold sway. Year after year, their reports read like a series of unheeded alarms. Figueroa's Framework Definition? Responses by the city’s Department of Homeless Services attribute Auburn’s violations to a lack of money.

To the Influence Of Greek Art Essay state’s complaint, in 2003, that only one staff member is figueroa's, tending to 177 school-age children in the shelter’s recreation room, the agency responds: “We lack resources for teenagers!” Auburn’s children have yet to assume their parents’ air of defeat. The children’s complaints recount their fear or discomfort as reason enough for action. Influence Of Greek Art Essay? The adults write as if no one is listening. Many sound like the parent in April 2012 who has spotted a dead mouse in the cafeteria and asks a janitor to remove it. The next day, the mouse is still there. “A child could have touched it,” the definition parent recounts telling the janitor, to which the janitor laughs and responds, “Well then you should have cleaned it up.” There is no place on the inspection forms for the most common complaint: the disrespect accorded to residents by the shelter staff. Were there such a box to check, it could never capture how these encounters reverberate for days, reinforcing the rock-bottom failure that Auburn represents. Even egregious incidents are sometimes mentioned in passing. One mother summarizes her grievance, at the top of the form, as “All of my belongs went in garbbage.” In explaining how her possessions were discarded, she mentions, tangentially, that her caseworker had “groped” her. She ends the born haber chemguide complaint on a conciliatory note: “Peace.”

The signature at the bottom belongs to Dasani’s mother, Chanel. Figueroa's Definition? After she filed the complaint in techaccess pakistan private September 2011, the worker was taken off her case, but kept his job and recently got a raise. Chanel never told Dasani, for figueroa's framework fear of passing on the shame she feels whenever she sees the man. Like most children, Dasani absorbs more than her mother would like. Effect In Poetry? She can see how the shelter shrinks Chanel’s self-regard. Dasani is there when the guards rip through her mother’s carefully folded laundry in figueroa's definition the name of “inspection,” or when a caseworker dresses her down like a cheeky adolescent. Techaccess Pakistan Private? “Sometimes it feels like, ‘Why you guys messin’ with my mom?’” Chanel is figueroa's definition, not the first woman to in poetry, encounter sexual advances by an Auburn employee. Another resident complains that a security guard is “having sex with clients in the restrooms and in his black Dodge Charger.” A 2012 letter by state inspectors to the Department of framework definition Homeless Services mentions a security supervisor and guards having “improper sexual contact” with a resident.

This environment is especially punishing considering that some of Accenture Case Analysis Auburn’s women have fled violent men. After a caseworker touched his 46-year-old client on the breast in February 2012, another male employee smiled at her the next day and asked “if I was being good,” she wrote in a complaint, adding, “I walk around every day feeling violated.” Auburn initially suspended the framework definition caseworker, Kenneth Durieux, for 30 days. But he kept his job for nearly a year, even after the police charged him with sexual abuse. He was dismissed last January, before pleading guilty to Influence Of Greek, forcible touching. Just this year, there have been some 350 calls to 911 from the shelter including 24 reported assaults, four calls about possible child abuse and one reporting a rape. City officials declined to comment on the reports of sexual abuse. They attribute other lapses to the building’s aging infrastructure, saying plans are in the works for an upgraded fire safety system, bathrooms and enhanced security.

Since Mr. Bloomberg took office, the city has spent nearly $10 million on repairs and renovations at framework Auburn. In the past decade, Auburn’s directors have fared well, receiving raises even as the shelter’s problems persisted. One former director, Susan Nayowith, was promoted to head of effect client advocacy at the Department of Homeless Services. These kinds of facts are lost on the shelter’s children, who see only figueroa's definition, what is before them like the Swedish meatballs that come frozen in prepackaged trays or the Cheerios served one night for private dinner. And then there are the framework definition elevators, which frequently break down.

Even when they are working, children cannot ride them unless accompanied by an adult. A month before the Influence Of Greek Art Essay trip to Gracie Mansion, when Dasani’s sister Avianna walks into the shelter gasping from an asthma attack, a guard refuses to take her up in the elevator. Dasani lifts her wheezing sister, twice her girth, and carries her up four flights of stairs to their room. Six months later, it will be Dasani who falls gravely ill when the elevators are broken. She rocks and vomits bile one evening, trying to distract herself by watching television. At 3:02 a.m., Chanel calls 911. She helps Dasani down four sets of figueroa's stairs before she collapses on a row of chairs in the lobby. There is no ambulance, so Chanel calls again. One of the guards gets nervous, making a third call to report that the child “is in severe abdominal pain.” Two more calls are placed. At 4:02 a.m., a full hour later, an ambulance finally arrives to Influence Of Greek Art Essay, take Dasani to Brooklyn Hospital Center, where her doctor asks what she last ate.

Her answer: a shelter dinner of spinach lasagna. In the years that Dasani has lived in figueroa's framework Room 449, city and state inspectors have cited at least 13 violations there, including the born chemguide presence of roaches, mice and a lead paint hazard. Yet when Auburn’s staff members conduct their own inspections of 449, they focus on the family’s transgressions. The room is found to be chaotic and insufficiently clean. There are few mentions of Auburn’s own lapses the absence of framework dividers for privacy or assistance with permanent housing. Influence? Instead, inspectors focus on the family’s forbidden turtle or hidden microwave.

Dasani finds this curious: “They not talking about putting us in a house; they looking for a microwave that don’t work.” Lately, it is the family’s sink, with its rotting wall and leaky pipe, that fails to framework definition, get fixed. For weeks, the pipe drips through the night. Finally, Dasani is born cycle, fed up. She crouches down and examines the pipe as her siblings watch. “Nobody thought about figueroa's framework, pushing it in and twisting it,” she says in her cocksure manner.

A few quick jerks and she triumphs. The children squeal. It goes unremarked that here, in this shelter with a $9 million annual budget, operated by an agency with more than 100 times those funds, the plumbing has fallen to Influence, an 11-year-old girl. D asani’s homeroom at McKinney is a cozy haven of book-lined shelves and inspirational words scrawled in chalk, like “Success does not come without sacrifice and struggle.” #9632; Every morning, she quietly tucks her coat and backpack in the classroom closet, a precious ritual for a girl who has no other closet. She then slips into her small wooden desk, opposite figueroa's, her humanities teacher, Faith Hester.

Miss Hester can best be described as electric. She paces the room, throwing her arms in the air as her booming voice travels along McKinney’s hallways. Long after she gave up dreams of Influence acting, her class is the stage and her students, a rapt audience. Sometimes she arrives in figueroa's framework an Audrey Hepburn updo; other days, she dons the brightly patterned prints procured in techaccess limited Senegal on a trip to “learn the truth about my motherland.” She favors expressions like “Oh my gooney goo hoo!” and figueroa's framework “Okie pokie dokie shmokie!” If a student is stumped, she will break into improvised song, with the class soon chanting along: “I know you know it!” clap, clap “I know you know it!” clap, clap. Miss Hester knows that students learn when they get excited. It bothers her that McKinney lacks the sophisticated equipment of other public schools. She shelled out more than $1,000 of her own money, as a single mother, to give her classroom a projector and document camera. When Miss Hester looks around her classroom, she sees a glimpse of her younger self. She was raised by a single mother in the Marcy projects of Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, a monotonous spread of 27 brick buildings with the singular distinction of being where Jay-Z grew up.

She could never quite numb herself, like other children did, to the addicts shooting up in the elevator or the dead bodies on gurneys. Techaccess Pakistan Limited? Her salvation came at figueroa's definition church and school. In 1979, Miss Hester was one of the first black students to be bused from Marcy to Influence, the predominantly white Edward R. Murrow High School in Midwood, Brooklyn. Outside, children would chase after her, yelling, “Go back to your neighborhood!” Inside the school, she applied herself fastidiously. A teacher made all the difference, guiding her to college applications. She was only 16 when she graduated, bound for definition SUNY Cortland. Thirty-three years and two master’s degrees later, it is Miss Hester who searches for the student in Influence need of framework definition saving.

She sees promise in Dasani, who landed on the honor roll last fall. But lately, she is has Reduced Individual, skipping homework and arriving moody and tired, if she makes it to school at all. New York’s homeless children have an abysmal average attendance rate of 82 percent, well below what is typically needed to advance to the next grade. Since the definition start of the school year, Dasani has already missed a week of class and arrived late 13 times. Her attendance is being closely tracked by a social worker in the school whose nonprofit organization, Partnership With Children, offers counseling and other services to some of the city’s most vulnerable students.

Miss Hester told Partnership about Dasani. She saw no point in turning to pakistan private limited, the school’s guidance counselor or psychologist, who serves two other schools. They jump from crisis to crisis, like E.R. doctors in framework triage, treating problems that have become acute or irreversible. Prevention is a luxury reserved for schools with enough counselors. In their absence, McKinney turns to Partnership, which has weathered its own post-recession budget cuts and layoffs. Graduate students are filling in as interns. This is how Dasani finds herself sitting across from Roxanne, who is pursuing a master’s degree in Art Essay social work at Fordham University. She has been assigned to lead one-on-one counseling sessions with Dasani.

Dasani has never had a counselor. They meet once a week, passing the time playing Mancala as Roxanne tries to draw Dasani out, which proves far more difficult than any board game. Dasani knows how to deflect questions with humor, avoiding talk about her family and the shelter. She is also studying Roxanne. There is something soft about this Minnesota native, who uses words like “sweetie” and framework melts into giggles. Dasani is techaccess private limited, puzzled by Roxanne’s attire the rumpled shirts and distressed boots that pass for figueroa's framework definition hip in other Brooklyn quarters. Nothing she wears seems to match, and Case Analysis yet her clothes are spotless. This leads Dasani to conclude that Roxanne lives in a clean, suburban home like the kind shown on “Criminal Minds,” where detectives search for murder clues. It is not the figueroa's framework murders themselves that intrigue Dasani so much as the pakistan limited enormous, orderly closets of the crime scenes closets big enough to framework, live in. Miss Hester wonders about these counseling sessions. She finds Roxanne bright and devoted, but worries that Dasani will run circles around the Accenture Case Essay intern, whose overriding quality is figueroa's, sweetness.

B ack at Himalayan the shelter, Dasani spends countless hours with her siblings playing games on a Nintendo Wii. Definition? #9632; If Dasani could design her own video game, she would call it “Live or Die.” The protagonist would be an techaccess private limited, 11-year-old girl fighting for her own salvation. In the first round, she confronts the easy villains her chores scrambling to bathe, dress and feed her siblings. She cannot find Baby Lele, who is crying. The baby’s tears turn into lethal rocks that fall from the framework sky, which the haber girl must dodge. Next, she encounters her parents battling social workers in figueroa's framework the guise of angry pirates.

Chanel tosses magical powers to the girl, who defeats the pirates, melting them to the ground. In the third round, she goes to school, finding danger and deliverance. Her math teacher is a supervillain whose weapon is numbers. The Federal Government Has Reduced Individual? “Ten” turns into 10 charging porcupines. Down the hall, the girl must rescue Miss Hester from giant, rolling cans. Figueroa's Definition? “If she dies, all the Accenture Analysis Essay kids die, too.” Finally, the girl faces off against her longtime rival from the projects, a purple hulk who picks up cars and figueroa's framework definition hurls them.

If the Art Essay girl survives, she reaches the queen the principal, Paula Holmes who decides her future. Figueroa's Framework? Winning brings the prize of a new house. Techaccess Pakistan? Losing means returning to the shelter, “which is figueroa's framework definition, death.” “My goal is to make it to the end, but I keep dying,” Dasani says. It is easier for Dasani to think of Auburn as the worst possible outcome because the alternative winding up on the street is unfathomable. She knows that if she and her siblings were to Essay, lose the shelter, they might land in foster care, losing one another. So as bad as it is, the children try to make the place their own. When the lights are on, their room is flatly fluorescent, which prompts them to climb a dresser, remove the plastic lamp cover from the ceiling and color it in with crayons the shades of a rainbow. When the lights are off, the room assumes a gray aura not unlike, Dasani imagines, the hospital ward it once was. “This was where they put the crazies,” she declares, citing as proof a rusted intercom by the door. The communal bathroom closest to Dasani is, indeed, reminiscent of “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” Tiled in steely green, its centerpiece is an old, industrial bathtub with no partition. A limp plastic curtain divides the sole shower from the rest of the figueroa's framework bathroom, which is marked by vulgar graffiti and shared by dozens of women and girls, though men sometimes intrude. The floor is filthy.

The children routinely wipe it down with bleach stolen from the janitors, as residents are forbidden to techaccess, bring the cleaning solvent into Auburn. A changing table hangs off its hinge, pointing to the floor like a slide. At night, the figueroa's definition children hear noises. Born? They are sure Auburn is haunted. Five-year-old Papa calls the ghost in figueroa's framework definition their room “I-it.” When it is dark, they are far too afraid to haber chemguide, use the bathroom, so they relieve themselves in a bucket. Yet that bathroom has become Dasani’s makeshift sanctuary. Figueroa's? She practices hip-hop routines across the floor. Effect Of Personification In Poetry? She sits alone in the toilet stall, the lid closed beneath her. Sometimes she reads, or just closes her eyes.

Her mind feels crowded anywhere else. Lately, she is figueroa's, worried about techaccess private, her mother, who has been summoned on Feb. 13 to an urgent meeting at the Administration for Children’s Services, the agency tasked with protecting the children. Photographs of smiling children line the walls of the definition agency’s lobby in Bedford-Stuyvesant, where Chanel is pakistan, greeted by her caseworker, who uses the nickname “Mr. James.” “We’re not having this meeting because we want to take your kids away,” he says cheerfully. Figueroa's Framework Definition? “We’re having this meeting because we want you to move to an apartment.” Chanel stares at him. “Why don’t you ever tell my lawyer about these meetings?” she asks, even though she cannot recall the name of the last public defender to represent her. “You don’t need a lawyer to attend an A.C.S. meeting,” he responds.

They ride the elevator up to a conference room, where Chanel is jarred to Government Rights, find the director of Auburn, Derrick Aiken, waiting. Figueroa's Framework? He is there to issue a warning: If Chanel and her husband, Supreme, do not comply with the Department of Homeless Services’ requirements, the of personification family may be forced to leave the framework shelter system. At issue is techaccess private, their public assistance case, which has closed because Supreme failed to report to a job placement program, one of framework definition dozens of such lapses in the past decade. Accenture Analysis? Currently, the family receives only food stamps and survivor benefits. An open public assistance case allows the agency to be reimbursed with federal funds, while also making the family eligible for child care and job training the kind of supports that could help in finding a home. But the figueroa's framework definition problem for Chanel and Supreme comes down to Government Individual, basic math: Even with two full-time jobs, on minimum wage, they would have combined salaries of only $2,300 per month just enough to framework definition, cover the average rent for a studio in Brooklyn. New York, it often strikes Chanel, has no place for the poor.

Auburn offers plenty of The Federal Government has Reduced Individual Rights proof. Residents like Jenedra, a home health aide, and her daughter, who works at a Pinkberry in Park Slope, Brooklyn, cannot afford city prices. The gap between income and housing costs was widening when Mayor Bloomberg took office in 2002. The homeless population was also growing. For decades, the city had tried to stem the numbers by definition giving homeless families priority access to public housing, Section 8 vouchers and Rights subsidized city apartments. While the policy was in place, only 11.5 percent of the definition families returned to shelters within five years. To Mr.

Bloomberg, priority referrals were an Essay, incentive to enter the shelter system. “Our own policies needlessly encourage entry and prolong dependence on shelters,” he said in framework 2004. Mr. Bloomberg’s approach to homelessness mirrored his views on poverty at effect of personification large. The mayor’s best-known effort was the Center for figueroa's framework definition Economic Opportunity, which spent $662 million on poverty prevention programs that emphasized education and in poetry job training as a means to self-reliance. In line with that agenda, the mayor ended the priority-referrals policy in figueroa's framework November 2004. Of Greek? Instead, the city began offering homeless families time-limited rental assistance, including through a program called Advantage. Yet more than a quarter of them wound up back in shelters once their subsidies ran out. Among them was Dasani’s family.

After their $1,481 rent subsidy expired in 2010, they returned to a shelter system that spends roughly $3,000 per month on framework, every family. Himalayan Art Essay? It would end up costing the city $400,000 to house Dasani’s family over a decade. In 2011, Mr. Bloomberg ended Advantage after the state withdrew its funding. Six months later, the city’s homeless population hit a record that included more than 16,000 children, many of figueroa's whom had been homeless before. These children have come to be known, among the city’s homeless advocates, as “the lost generation.” D asani is well versed in city politics, but not because she follows the news. She is of personification in poetry, simply forced to notice what other children miss. #9632; When Mr. Bloomberg tried to ban the sale of large, sugary drinks, Dasani began calculating what two sodas would cost in place of the supersize cup that, in figueroa's definition her family, is typically passed among eight small mouths. Now it is the citywide bus strike that has called Dasani’s attention, by virtue of the fact that she must walk three of Himalayan Art Essay her younger siblings to school.

It is definition, no small feat to corral Papa, Hada and Maya, who form a tempestuous gaggle of untied shoelaces, short tempers and yogurt-stained mouths. Dasani shepherds them five long blocks to Public School 287, stepping around used condoms and empty beer cans. “Double up!” she yells in the manner of her mother. The children go silent and Accenture Case reach for each other’s hands, waiting for the traffic to framework definition, pause. Suddenly, they dash like spirits across the six-lane street that runs under the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. The strike has worn on for a month when, on Valentine’s Day, Dasani stops into Himalayan, a corner store outside McKinney. She scans the aisles before settling on an iced honey bun, a bag of nacho-flavored sunflower seeds and some red gummy bears a rare $3 breakfast earned as part of her allowance for definition watching Baby Lele all weekend. She glides into class only techaccess, a few minutes late. Today’s lesson is about context clues, in preparation for standardized tests that are coming. “You come across an unfamiliar word,” Miss Hester explains. “You look at the surrounding words and ideas and definition you unpack that word.” The theatrics begin. “Flabbergasted,” she says. Himalayan? “I was flabbergasted when I found a million dollars in my purse.”

The class erupts in figueroa's framework laughter. “A million dollars!” Miss Hester hoots. “I know that that’s a lot of money. And it’s in Influence my purse. And I’m supposed to be broke,” she says, batting her long lashes. “‘Flabbergasted’ means ‘delightfully surprised.’” Dasani is delightfully surprised whenever she is in Miss Hester’s presence. It does not matter that her mother finds the teacher “weird.” She makes Dasani want to learn.

One can only imagine the heights Dasani might reach at framework a school like Packer Collegiate Institute, just 12 blocks west of the pakistan limited shelter. Its campus has a theater with computerized lighting, “green” science labs and a menu offering chipotle lime tilapia and roasted herb chicken. Figueroa's Framework? Its middle school cultivates the interests of the “whole child,” for whom doors will open to the “public arenas of the world.” Packer’s students might learn something from Dasani, too. Parents from haber chemguide, five private Brooklyn schools recently filed into Packer, where tuition is over $35,000, to hear a clinical psychologist give a talk on framework definition, how to of personification, raise “self-reliant, appreciative children in a nervous and entitled world.” That world is unlikely to become Dasani’s. She is not the kind of child to land a coveted scholarship to private school, which would require a parent with the wherewithal to seek out such opportunities and see them through. For the same reason, Dasani does not belong to New York’s fast-growing population of charter school students.

In fact, the reverse is happening: a charter school is coming to McKinney. Definition? Approved last December by the Education Department, Success Academy Fort Greene will soon claim half of McKinney’s third floor. This kind of co-location arrangement has played out in schools across the Himalayan city, stoking deep resentments in poor communities. The guiding ethos of the charter school movement has been “choice” the power to choose a school rather than capitulate to a flawed education system and definition a muscular teachers’ union. The Federal Government Has Reduced Rights? But in communities like McKinney’s, the experience can feel like a lack of choice. Dasani watched, wide-eyed, during a protest last December as McKinney’s parents and teachers held up signs comparing the co-location to apartheid. Charter schools, which are publicly funded but privately operated, serve fewer students with special needs, and are sometimes perceived as exclusive. A web posting for Success Academy Fort Greene does little to figueroa's definition, counter that notion. Parents, it says, “shouldn’t have to trek to other Brooklyn neighborhoods or spend $30,000+ on a private school in Case Essay order to find excellence and rigor.”

By late February, Dasani’s grades have plummeted. On her wrist is a bite mark left by a classmate whom she had fought after the girl called her “musty.” The next day, Dasani lunges at a girl in gym class. Miss Hester has had enough. “I’m really not happy with the way that you are victimizing others,” she says sternly. Framework? “I need it to stop immediately. Government Rights Essay? Do you understand me?” She nods at figueroa's framework definition Miss Hester, her eyes dropping.

For Dasani, school and life are indistinguishable. Of Greek? When school goes well, she is whole. When it goes poorly, she can’t compartmentalize like some students, who simply “focus” on figueroa's, their studies. It is a place to love or leave. Minutes later, Dasani is sitting in Art Essay McKinney’s packed auditorium for an assembly on Black History Month. She hates Black History Month. “It’s always the same poems,” she says.

The new honor roll is framework definition, called out. Influence Of Greek Art Essay? Dasani’s name is figueroa's, missing. It must be a mistake, she tells herself. But when she hears all the other names, the truth sinks in. She slumps in her chair as a group of boys takes the stage to effect, recite Langston Hughes. What happens to a dream deferred? like a raisin in the sun? Dasani knows this poem well. They read it every year. Figueroa's Definition? She stares blankly at the stage.

Maybe it just sags. Like a heavy load. Or does it explode? The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool. The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights her family regularly recorded interviews and figueroa's definition other candid moments. O n the Brooklyn block that is Dasani’s dominion, shoppers can buy a $3 malt liquor in an airless deli where food stamps are traded for cigarettes. Or they can cross the effect street for a $740 bottle of chardonnay at an industrial wine shop accented with modern art. It is a sign outside that locale, Gnarly Vines, that catches Dasani’s notice one spring afternoon: “Wine Tasting Tonight 5-8.”

Dasani is hardly conversant in the subject of libations, but this much she knows: A little drink will take off her mother’s edge. Framework? Without further ado, Chanel heads into the wine shop on Of Greek, Myrtle Avenue, trailed by four of her eight children. They are lugging two greasy boxes of pizza and a jumbo pack of diapers from Target. The cashier pauses. The sommelier smiles. “Wanna try a little rosé?” she asks brightly, pouring from a 2012 bottle of Mas de Gourgonnier. “I would describe it as definitely fruit forward at figueroa's the beginning.”

Chanel polishes it. “Not refreshing,” Chanel says. “I just think dry.” “No, it’s very dry,” says the sommelier, a peppy blonde in wire-rim glasses. “It’s high acid, a little citrusy.” Chanel sticks out her tongue. She finds the woman’s choice of words unappetizing. To the side of the wine display is a large, silver vase that recalls the family urn, prompting Chanel’s son Khaliq to ask if it contains the ashes of a dead person. “Oh my gosh, for cremation?” the Government has Reduced Rights sommelier asks, shaking her head. “We just use it for spitting in.” “For spitting?” Chanel says with horror. “Yeah, it’s got rejected wine in it,” the sommelier says. Chanel scoffs.

She might not like the wine, but she sees no reason to spit it out. Definition? She moves on to a Tuscan sangiovese. Ignoring the spectacle, Dasani scans the room, frowning at a sign on techaccess private, the wall: Liqueur. Framework Definition? “They got liquor spelled wrong,” she yelps victoriously. Actually, the sommelier interjects, that is the French word for Himalayan Art Essay the delicate, liquid spirits derived from fruits such as pomegranates and raspberries. “But you’re very right,” she offers sweetly. “That is not how you spell liquor.” “Not the hood liquor,” Chanel says. D asani’s neighborhood is one of the most unequal pockets of definition New York City, the Accenture Essay most unequal metropolis in framework America. #9632; Fort Greene occupies less than one square mile.

On the map, its boundaries form the shape of a pitcher tilting at the northwestern edge of Brooklyn. Just north of Fort Greene Park are the projects and, among them, the homeless shelter where Dasani lives. Just south of the park are some of Brooklyn’s finest townhouses and Of Greek cultural gems, including the Brooklyn Academy of Music, where theatergoers were lining up to see “Julius Caesar” on the day that Dasani led her mother to the wine shop. If one thing distinguishes Dasani’s New York from that of her antecedents, it is definition, a striking proximity to the wealth that eludes her. She routinely walks past a boho-chic boutique on has Reduced Essay, Lafayette Avenue where calfskin boots command $845. Heading north, she passes French bulldogs on leashes and infants riding like elevated genies in Uppababy strollers with shock-absorbing wheels. Three blocks away is an ice cream parlor where $6 buys two salted-caramel scoops. Like most children, Dasani is oblivious to the precise cost of such extravagances. She only knows that they are beyond her reach. Nor can this 11-year-old girl be expected to grasp the subtle gradations of figueroa's Fort Greene’s elite, whose creative class feels pushed out of a neighborhood it once considered more gritty than tony. Dasani sees the chasms of Fort Greene more plainly, reasoning that wealth belongs to “the whites” because “they save their money and pakistan private don’t spend it on drinking and smoking.”

Such perceptions are fed by the contrasts of figueroa's this neighborhood, where the top 5 percent of residents earn 76 times as much as the effect of personification bottom quintile. Dasani spots addicts gathering outside a food pantry a block from figueroa's framework definition, $2 million brownstones. She notes that few people in the projects use the Citi Bikes stationed nearby. The celebrated bike sharing program, unveiled this year, requires a credit or debit card for a $101 security deposit. Dasani also knows that not everyone in private the projects is poor. Her Uncle Waverly, who lives in the Walt Whitman Houses across from her shelter, the definition Auburn Family Residence, works as a supervisor for the parks department and has a Lexus S.U.V. When he drives past Dasani and her siblings, he pretends not to know them. Dasani charts the Government Rights Essay patterns of Fort Greene Park by skin color. The basketball courts are closest to the projects, drawing black children to that northwestern corner. Definition? On the techaccess pakistan rare occasion when Dasani ventures to figueroa's definition, the opposite Accenture, quadrant, she sees white women sunbathing in bikinis or playing tennis near a water fountain outfitted for figueroa's definition dogs. She never finds those women at the nearby Bravo Supermarket for Values, where thieves are photographed in Polaroids that fill the store’s “Wall of Shame.” Wearing naked expressions, they are forced to Rights, pose with their stolen items things like Goya beans and Kraft cheese.

A woman named Mary holds a can of tuna in a photograph titled “Catch of the Day.” Dasani is more likely to encounter shoppers of another stratum at figueroa's framework definition the local Target, where they can save on items that for her family represent a splurge. Fort Greene’s two economies are an experiment born of meteoric gentrification. In the last decade, the neighborhood has been remade, with the Influence Of Greek Art Essay portion of white residents jumping by 80 percent as real estate prices more than doubled despite the recession. Just the word “gentrification” is figueroa's, remarkably divisive. Art Essay? It derives from the Middle English word “gentrise,” which means “of noble descent.” The word has become shorthand for definition an urban neighborhood where muggings are down and espresso is in poetry, roasted a place that has been “discovered,” as though no one had been living there. Dasani’s Fort Greene reaches deep into the last century. Her grandmother Joanie grew up in the Raymond V. Figueroa's Framework? Ingersoll Houses, next to the Walt Whitman Houses. Both projects opened in 1944, an era of has Reduced Individual Rights Essay New Deal reforms that gave rise to white flight and figueroa's definition urban decay.

Fort Greene, like other black areas, was redlined, allowing banks to disinvest and The Federal has Reduced Rights Essay property values to plummet. The neighborhood’s prospects started to change in figueroa's framework 1978, after the city declared part of Fort Greene a historic district. By the time Dasani was born there in haber cycle 2001, a billionaire was preparing to run for mayor. A year after taking office, Michael R. Bloomberg announced an ambitious redevelopment plan for Downtown Brooklyn. Fort Greene’s transformation came swiftly.

Through aggressive rezoning and generous subsidies, the city drew developers who, in the span of three years, built 19 luxury buildings in the surrounding area that catered across racial lines to the educated elite. Dasani and her siblings routinely pass the Toren, a glistening, 38-story glass tower on Myrtle Avenue offering a 24-hour concierge, gymnasium, pool and movie theater. In June, a condominium there sold for $1.4 million. Just blocks away stand the Ingersoll and Whitman projects, which engulf Dasani’s shelter and, like Auburn, have fallen into disrepair. It is the juxtaposition of these neglected time capsules to Fort Greene’s luxury towers that seems to definition, mock the neighborhood’s effort at ascension. For the arriviste investor, the projects present a rude visual interruption, an pakistan private, inconvenient thing to walk around, but never through. For Dasani, these faded buildings hold a legacy so intricate and rich it could fill volumes were it ever told. The homeless shelter where she lives is the definition very building where Grandma Joanie had been born, back when it was Cumberland Hospital. Of Greek Art Essay? Just across the framework definition way is the fifth-story apartment where Joanie grew up, helping her own mother raise seven other children in the clasp of poverty.

Three generations later, little has changed. Even as the fortunes of this neighborhood rose, Dasani’s matrilineal line, from her great-grandmother to Case, her mother, has followed a trajectory of teenage pregnancy, addiction and figueroa's framework violence. Fort Greene is now a marker. The Federal Individual Rights Essay? For one set of figueroa's framework definition people, arriving signals triumph. For another, remaining means defeat. Dasani will do better, she tells herself. “People don’t go nowhere in Brooklyn,” she says. Chanel promises they will move this spring, after the tax refunds arrive.

Yet as Dasani walks through her grandmother’s streets, it is Case Analysis, not with the sense of imminent departure so much as melancholic return. C hanel was 8 when she found her mother’s crack pipe in a jewelry box. She held it up to the light and showed it to her brother. #9632; We gonna toss it, he said. #9632; They opened the window and watched as the brown glass vial soared through the figueroa's air, crashing onto the sidewalk. It was the mid-1980s, and crack had swept the streets of Brownsville, Brooklyn, where Chanel’s mother, Joanie, now lived. Himalayan? Chanel visited on weekends. The rest of the figueroa's framework definition time, she stayed with her godmother, Sherry, who had been the common-law wife of Chanel’s father. Chanel’s mother was his lover. Stranger things had happened in Brownsville, and now that Chanel’s father was dead, the two women made peace, despite their differences. Joanie relied on welfare to support her habit. Sherry ran a day care center and shunned drugs.

“It was like two different people trying to raise one kid,” Chanel says. At Sherry’s rowhouse in Case East New York, Brooklyn, Chanel minded her chores and did her homework. At Joanie’s, the child watched dance parties meld into a predawn haze. Worried that Joanie would unduly influence Chanel, Sherry sent the 10-year-old girl to live with a relative in Pittsburgh and figueroa's definition attend Catholic school. Has Reduced Individual Rights Essay? But Chanel longed for her birth mother and began to act out. Within a few years, she returned to New York and moved in with Joanie.

They soon wound up in figueroa's a shelter in Queens, where both were exposed to Himalayan Art Essay, tuberculosis. Over the definition next few years, they drifted apart. Joanie turned her life around after President Bill Clinton signed legislation in 1996 to end “welfare as we know it,” placing time limits and work restrictions on recipients of government aid. She got clean and joined a welfare-to-work program, landing a $22,000-a-year job cleaning subway cars for Himalayan the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. “This is the framework happiest day of my life,” she told Chanel. By then, Chanel had dropped out of high school and was addicted to crack. She had joined a sect of the violent Bloods gang, tattooing her street name, Lady Red, in curly letters across her right arm. She was a regular in the crack dens of Bedford-Stuyvesant. Chanel first noticed white people in “the Stuy” after a snowstorm swept Brooklyn in the late 1990s. Out of nowhere, two cross-country skiers appeared along Franklin Avenue like “a pair of aliens.” She watched as the skiers coasted by, carving a trail through virgin snow. She sensed that Brooklyn was on the cusp of change. Accenture Case? But she could not have imagined that just five blocks from that spot, people would one day line up to buy blood orange and hibiscus doughnuts at an artisanal shop called Dough.

The first commercial signs of Brooklyn’s transition were simpler. In 2001, Chanel spotted a new brand of bottled water Dasani on the shelves of her corner store. Definition? She was pregnant again, but unlike the miscarriages of pakistan limited her teens, this baby was surviving. Chanel needed a name. For a 23-year-old Brooklyn native who had spent summers cooling in the gush of hydrants, the name “Dasani” held a certain appeal. It sounded as special as Chanel’s name had sounded to her own mother, when she saw the perfume advertised in a magazine. Definition? It grasped at Influence Art Essay something better. Dasani was born on definition, May 26 at Brooklyn Hospital Center in Essay Fort Greene. The doll-faced infant weighed only 5 pounds 6 ounces. She was strikingly alert and had, the figueroa's framework definition nurse noted, a “vigorous cry.” Three days later, Chanel left her with Joanie and took off.

Even as a baby, Dasani was awake to techaccess pakistan private, the world. She leaned out of her stroller and definition stared at passers-by, who called her “Batman eyes.” She was tiny, but never frail, and began walking at only 8 months. Chanel would surface from time to techaccess private, time, but Dasani latched on to Joanie. A year later, Chanel had a second daughter by the same man, naming her Avianna, inspired by the more expensive brand of Evian water. Joanie had hit her limit, so Chanel turned to figueroa's framework, the city’s shelter system. With both babies, she reported to the Department of Homeless Services intake office in the Bronx.

They were sent to 30 Hamilton Place, a family shelter in Harlem. Down the born chemguide hall, a single father had moved in definition with his own two children. He called himself Supreme. Effect? He had sad, knowing eyes that made him look older than his 26 years. He never talked about the past. S upreme was born to figueroa's definition, heroin addicts in Art Essay the Cypress Hills projects of East New York.

By age 7, he knew how to shop with his mother’s food stamps and cook grits for his four younger siblings. When the pantry was empty, he made sugar sandwiches. He was 9 when he came upon figueroa's definition the lifeless body of his baby sister. She had been left near the entrance of the projects, wrapped in Case Essay a blanket. Supreme stroked her head and framework kept saying her name, Precious. “She didn’t wake up,” he says. Investigators for Child Protective Services thought the 2-year-old girl had swallowed sleeping pills, though the medical examiner concluded that she had died of Art Essay sudden infant death syndrome. The father had left Precious alone when she died.

When her mother found her, Supreme recalled, she panicked, leaving the girl’s body outside as she ran for help. Later that day, the agency’s workers removed Supreme and his siblings from the home. For the next three years, Supreme bounced from foster care to group homes. Figueroa's Framework? He soon dropped out of school and left for North Carolina to join the crack trade. By 17, Supreme had a felony drug conviction and was serving time at a maximum-security prison in Walpole, Mass. It was there that he discovered the Five Percent Nation, a growing movement whose followers believe they are the chosen “5 percent” of effect in poetry humanity. The Five Percenters were shaping urban culture and music, while spreading the figueroa's framework word that the black man is God. That message that God was within him filled Supreme with a sense of power over his destiny, one that until now had been steered by Art Essay outsiders. Supreme left prison in 1997 with a high school equivalency diploma. He married and moved to Washington, finding work as a barber. Six years later, his wife pregnant with their third child had a heart attack and framework fell down a flight of Influence Of Greek Art Essay stairs to her death.

Chanel took pity on this solemn widower, who came to the shelter a few months after his wife’s passing. Dasani and Avianna were the exact same ages as his children. He seemed different from the other men. He was always reading, and had a way with words. “I fell in love with his brains,” Chanel says. Two incomplete families soon became one.

Chanel embraced the Five Percent, wrapping her head in a scarf and vowing to stay off drugs. They married at the city clerk’s office on Feb. 4, 2004. For Chanel, it was a moment of triumph. Women in her family almost never married. “We were the figueroa's product of split-up families,” she says. “We always wanted a big family. One family. One full family.” But Supreme and Chanel had a temperamental love.

Their biggest fights led to brief separations, even as three more children were born. Chanel could not stay off drugs for Essay long. When she gave birth to Papa in 2007, the hospital detected marijuana in figueroa's his blood. In an instant, everything changed. Chanel and Supreme were summoned to the Administration for Children’s Services office in Bedford-Stuyvesant the same brick building where Supreme had been escorted as a child. Standing there, in Art Essay the lobby, the memory came rushing back. Supreme was 9 again, losing his sister, then his parents, then his other siblings, all in the course of a day. Soon his own children became accustomed to knocks at figueroa's definition the door as the agency’s caseworkers, responding to a handful of haber complaints about possible neglect, began to monitor the family. Figueroa's Framework? They inspected the children from head to toe, searching for signs of abuse. Dasani learned to spot a social worker on Government has Reduced Individual, the street by framework the person’s bag (large enough to hold files).

She became expert at the complex psychic task of managing strangers of reading facial expressions and techaccess pakistan private interpreting intonations, of knowing when to say the definition right thing or to avoid the Art Essay wrong one. “They can use that in a court of law against the parent,” she says, back in the voice of “Criminal Minds.” “I love my parents. They’re tough, but I should not be taken away from them.” Dasani remained tethered to Grandma Joanie, who had proudly kept her job as a sanitation worker. She now lived in a cozy apartment in Bedford-Stuyvesant.

On weekends, Joanie would fix the children B.L.T. sandwiches and meticulously braid their hair before snuggling up to watch Beyoncé videos. Dasani was Joanie’s favorite. With this child, Joanie could finally be a mother. With Joanie, Dasani could be a child. A few months shy of Dasani’s eighth birthday, Joanie fell gravely ill with leukemia. On March 7, 2008, she died in the same hospital where Dasani had been born.

She was 55. “Why she had to go away so quickly?” Dasani asks. At the funeral, mourners gasped as the tiny girl flung herself on the open coffin. Dasani kicked and wailed as Chanel tore her away. Joanie was cremated and framework definition her ashes placed in a black and silver urn that remained with Dasani’s family, accompanying them like a talisman. Her death brought a rebirth. Analysis Essay? Chanel inherited $49,000 of Joanie’s pension savings.

At the time, the family had been renting a small apartment in figueroa's framework East New York through a city program offering time-limited subsidies to the homeless. That month, the family’s subsidy expired. Chanel’s inheritance saved them from homelessness. Months later, the city began a new rent subsidy program called Advantage. With its help, Chanel leased a duplex on Staten Island, and in Art Essay summer 2008, boarded the figueroa's framework Staten Island Ferry with Supreme and the children. It was their first time on a boat. They raced to the back and leaned into the salty mist. Staten Island was quiet and Case green. In their new apartment on North Burgher Avenue, the figueroa's framework children rolled around on the wall-to-wall carpet. Art Essay? There they lay, pressed together, that first night. It was their first real home.

The children’s euphoria steadily rose with that of their parents. “When they’re happy, I’m happy,” Dasani says. Figueroa's? “When they’re sad, I’m sad. It’s like I have a connection, like I’m stuck to them like glue.” Chanel and Supreme talked giddily of born starting a youth center that would teach the Five Percent ethos known as the “Five P’s”: proper planning prevents poor performance. Supreme landed a job at Heavenly Cuts, a barbershop a few blocks away. Chanel bought a used, cherry-red Dodge Durango and a rolling kitchen island at Home Depot. She decorated the girls’ room with pink Barbie curtains, sheets and matching TVs. The children ran barefoot in the backyard, racing across a Slip ’N Slide as Supreme grilled burgers. Joanie’s urn occupied a place of honor in the living room. This was, without question, the high point of their collective life. It would take years for Chanel to understand why things so quickly fell apart.

It was not obvious, in that blinding moment, that money could be useful only if they knew how to spend it. To think it would bring salvation was as quixotic as expecting a set of keys to framework definition, drive a car. Money was not going to heal a father who had never been a child. When customers took a seat in Himalayan Supreme’s chair at the barbershop, they saw a pair of hands expertly at work. Framework Definition? They did not see the boy who, at age 7, had learned that very skill by cutting his brothers’ hair while his parents were strung out on heroin.

What money brought was a quick escape from all that. Over the next two years, Supreme and Chanel bobbed and Influence Of Greek Art Essay wove through a fog of definition addiction. Supreme started doing heroin. Techaccess Pakistan Private? Chanel became hooked on figueroa's framework definition, painkillers during an extended stay at Staten Island Hospital, where she was being treated for a recurrence of the tuberculosis she contracted in a shelter. Children’s Services hovered over techaccess, the family, ensuring that Chanel and framework definition Supreme submit to random drug tests. Eventually, Supreme and Chanel stopped working. By August 2010, bedbugs had infested the family’s house, just as their rent subsidy once again expired.

The city’s shelters were filling with former Advantage recipients families who had been homeless before taking the rent subsidy, only to become homeless again. On Aug. 20, Dasani’s family boarded the ferry to Manhattan, where they headed to Accenture Case Analysis Essay, the Department of Homeless Services’s intake office in the South Bronx. As Dasani’s family approached the entrance, Chanel spotted two abandoned baby turtles in a cardboard box. She stuffed them in her pockets. Six days later, the family arrived at Auburn, along with its two forbidden pet turtles and framework Joanie’s urn. C hildren are said to be adaptable. Accenture? On outward appearances, Dasani and her siblings became inured to the dehumanizing ways of Auburn the security checks at the entrance, the framework grimy bathrooms, the long waits for rancid food. Yet nothing prepared them for what happened on Sept. 7, 2011, a year after they arrived. Chanel and Art Essay the children had been “logged out” of figueroa's framework definition Auburn, the official description of Art Essay what happens when residents who have been absent for more than 48 hours are sent to the Bronx intake office to figueroa's framework definition, fill out forms and answer questions.

The entire family must make this onerous trip, even on school days. That evening, tired and hungry, they returned to Influence Of Greek Art Essay, their room. It looked ransacked. Almost everything was gone: their clothes, shoes, books, television, toys, Social Security cards, birth certificates, photographs, love letters the traces of their existence. Joanie’s urn had also vanished. Chanel raced down to the security guards, Dasani chasing after her.

“Where are my mother’s ashes?” she screamed. Figueroa's Framework Definition? The story soon emerged: An Auburn employee had paid a resident $10 to techaccess private, clean out the room, as other residents looted the family’s valuables. Everything else was tossed in the garbage. Chanel bolted to the back of the shelter, where a large, metal incinerator holds Auburn’s rotting trash. She waded in, the garbage reaching her waist.

She searched frantically. This could not be Joanie’s final resting place, she kept telling herself. She cursed. She wept aloud. Finally, she stopped. The truth was setting in.

Fifty-seven years after Joanie had been born, here in this very building, her remains were dumped in figueroa's framework definition the garbage. Upstairs, the born haber cycle chemguide room felt cursed. Joanie had always protected the children, in figueroa's framework life and in death. Haber Chemguide? Even after the inheritance disappeared, her ashes had remained a steady guardian. But now Joanie was gone. In her absence, a devastating chain of events unfolded. Chanel paced the room that evening, desperate and broke. Framework Definition? Supreme was gone after another fight. She expected no help from Auburn. Still, she had gone to Accenture Analysis, the trouble of filing a complaint, writing in hurried print, “I don’t know what to do my kid start school tomorrow and I have nothing.”

The next day, Chanel left the children alone in the room, defying the shelter’s rules, and hit the streets in figueroa's framework search of Art Essay cash. A man approached her on Myrtle Avenue asking where he could buy drugs. He did not look like an undercover officer, so she steered him to the projects. Definition? She was arrested and Himalayan Art Essay later pleaded guilty to drug possession charges, though Chanel maintains she was innocent. When Chanel did not return that night, Dasani felt something in the air. There was a knock at the door. Dasani shushed the kids.

They pretended to be asleep. Framework? Then the door opened as an Auburn supervisor and Homeless Services police told the children to get dressed. The Administration for Children’s Services had known for months that Chanel was getting high on opiates, but had been trying to keep the techaccess pakistan private family together. After her arrest, a family judge ordered new drug tests for both parents, revealing that Supreme had also been smoking marijuana. With that, the figueroa's agency went to court to have the children removed. Influence? In a hearing on framework, Sept. 20, the children’s lawyer objected, arguing that to divide them among foster homes “who knows where in the city” would “present a greater imminent risk to the children than remaining where they are.” The judge struck a compromise: Both parents needed to comply with a drug treatment program.

The children were to remain with Supreme, but Chanel temporarily lost custody. She had suffered all kinds of losses, but nothing compared with this. Who was she if not a mother? She had always tried to has Reduced Individual Rights, be there, rarely missing a school play or a parent-teacher conference. On Sunday afternoons she would braid hair until her fingers turned numb. At bedtime each night, she flipped through the family dictionary to framework definition, teach her children a new “word of the day.” Now, Chanel would be living with Sherry, only seeing the children on supervised visits. She broke the news to Influence Art Essay, the children on a park bench. “Take care of your siblings,” she instructed Dasani.

Dasani was silent. Supreme ruled by fear. If the children laughed too loud, he only had to figueroa's definition, yell “Shut up!” and they froze, a silent dread passing among them. Born Haber Chemguide? He had an old-fashioned approach to child rearing: Break the figueroa's definition rules and you get the belt. Chanel’s presence had tempered him. When she left, Supreme wrote two words on the wall in black marker: “King Me!” Under the agency’s supervision, both Chanel and Supreme made steady progress in a treatment program that required taking daily doses of methadone, a synthetic drug meant to of personification in poetry, control addiction.

Nearly a year later, on Aug. 2, 2012, the figueroa's judge allowed Chanel to return to her family at Auburn under supervision from the Administration for Children’s Services. She came with a promise: They would save enough money to leave. C hanel spreads the cash across her bed, all $2,800. The children stare in awe. Pakistan Limited? #9632; “I don’t know why I feel so happy,” Avianna says. Chanel quickly stashes it, announcing no intention of spending her long-awaited tax refund, which arrived Feb. 13. “Once you start to break them bills, that’s it, they’re gone,” Chanel says the next morning. She is walking through the projects, the money bulging from her pocket.

She does not know where to put it, so she holds onto it and, more than anything, the feeling of having it. She pushes Baby Lele’s creaky stroller toward Downtown Brooklyn, whose street names mockingly suggest riches. Figueroa's Framework? Gold. Tillary. Bond. She takes an inventory of chemguide all the things she could but won’t buy: a new stroller, sneakers, a hair-braiding session for the girls. Chanel knows that unless she finds a way to save her money, and definition persuades Supreme not to spend his own tax refund, they will never leave Auburn. And yet, planning has never been their way. “To plan something is to plan to fail,” she says. “My plan is to do some goddamn laundry.” Tax season brings a sudden reprieve for a family that, with food stamps, has about $75 a day to spend. Effect Of Personification? This amounts to $7.50 per person in a city where three subway trips cost as much.

They survive because they live rent-free and have access to three meals a day. Chanel is reminded of framework this when she stops to Art Essay, look at listings in the window of a real estate office near her methadone clinic. A one-bedroom in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, is going for $1,300 a month. She sees no option but to leave New York. Framework Definition? In a show of effect in poetry commitment, Chanel gives $800 of her tax refund to Grandma Sherry in exchange for a used Chevrolet minivan, which is sitting in the driveway with no permit. Now they must wait for figueroa's framework definition Supreme’s tax refund. If only Art Essay, life imitated Monopoly, Supreme’s favorite board game, which he plays with the framework children on a mattress in their crowded room. “I like building up property and collecting rent,” he says. But becoming a real renter, he finds, is far more challenging than claiming Park Place on techaccess private, a cardboard square.

Auburn no longer has a housing specialist on staff the last one died four years ago and framework definition was never replaced. Supreme has learned to haber cycle chemguide, navigate the framework web on his prepaid Android from Boost Mobile, but the phone is often disconnected. Chanel feels like a fumbling fool on pakistan, the shelter’s computers. And then there is the problem of Baby Lele. Investigators have repeatedly cited Auburn for figueroa's definition providing no on-site child care, which hinders residents from searching for jobs or housing. Chanel is reluctant to leave Lele with other mothers at Auburn, many of whom have their own Children’s Services cases.

If anything were to happen, Chanel’s custody could be in jeopardy. Instead, Chanel begins leaving Lele under the watch of a friendly counselor at her methadone program, where children are not allowed. The counselor stands outside with Lele as Chanel darts in to swallow her orange liquid dose. When a clinic supervisor discovers the arrangement, Chanel is Of Greek Art Essay, exposed. Figueroa's? If she keeps leaving Lele with acquaintances on the street, Children’s Services might find out. Art Essay? So Chanel stops going, and the clinic alerts the agency that she has fallen out of treatment. Figueroa's? In March, the agency steps up its scrutiny, placing the family with a “prevention worker” who requires twice-weekly meetings. By now, Supreme has learned that his tax refund was seized by the government for child support owed to two other children he had before meeting Chanel.

Dasani knows before her mother says a word. They will not be leaving. D asani has learned to Analysis, let disappointments pass in silence. Objecting does nothing to change the facts. #9632; But she reveals herself through the questions she asks. “Mommy, if these projects was your only choice, would you take it?” she asks Chanel one day in March as they are out walking. Chanel nods reluctantly. Dasani lets it go. She knows not to push. Spring has brought a new set of worries. For the wealthier children in figueroa's framework definition Fort Greene, it is a season to show off new wardrobes. For Dasani’s family, it is a time of scrambling.

Appearances are more easily kept when the same coat is all that people see. The project kids begin to ridicule Dasani’s pink sweatsuit, calling it “pajamas.” On March 19, she agrees to fight a girl from school at nearby Commodore Barry Park. A crowd gathers as they establish the Accenture Case Analysis Essay rules: No one can film it or tell a parent. They pull back their hair and Dasani punches her rival as they tumble to definition, the ground. A man walking his dog pulls them apart. That evening, Chanel inspects the cut on Dasani’s lip.

Chanel may fail in all kinds of ways, but she holds Dasani’s esteem in one powerful regard: The woman can fight. Dasani has grown up hearing her mother’s stories of Case Analysis Essay street-battle glory, and framework definition watching her in the throes of countless slug matches with anyone who crosses her, including the owner of a local laundromat. Chanel dismisses Dasani’s tussles at school as “kitty-cat fighting.” Back in her day, girls cracked one another over the head with bottles. No one wasted time pulling back their hair. “You gotta keep your hood credit up,” she tells Dasani. “You take the biggest, baddest one down first and Of Greek Art Essay the rest of ’em will back up off of you.

That’s just how it works.” The next day, Chanel and Dasani wander up their favorite block of figueroa's definition Myrtle Avenue, passing the Red Lantern, a bike repair shop that sells vegan cookies. They stop at a juice store that serves a hybrid clientele Fort Greene’s organic-forward newcomers and its health-conscious old-timers. There, Chanel spots an old flame. He wears a long leather jacket and dark shades. She wonders if he is Of Greek Art Essay, still dealing.

Dasani eyes him closely. “That was her name from back when she was in figueroa's the hood,” she says, forever cataloging the details of her mother’s past, even as Chanel tries to effect of personification in poetry, part with it. “I’m good now, see?” Chanel crows, waving a hand over herself, as if motioning a transformation: clean, married, mother of eight. She nods proudly at figueroa's definition her children. It is Dasani’s belief that she and her siblings are the cause of her mother’s ruin. Art Essay? It never occurs to her that, for Chanel, the children represent her only accomplishment. The next day, Chanel escorts Dasani to school. In the hallway, she spots the girl Dasani fought in framework the park. Influence Art Essay? “You can fight my kid,” she says hotly, taking the girl by surprise. “I’m with that.” Minutes later, the principal, Paula Holmes, sits Dasani down. Figueroa's Framework Definition? “I believe you can change, but you’re not showing me that,” she says.

Dasani returns to Himalayan, class feeling jaunty. The wrong message Chanel’s permission, rather than Miss Holmes’s prohibition has sunk in. Framework Definition? “I’ma fight you,” she tells another girl. “My mother said she’ll let me fight.” With that, Dasani is suspended. Miss Holmes knows it is a risky move, but nothing else has worked. Himalayan Art Essay? The girl needs to figueroa's, be shocked out of her behavior. Case Analysis? The alternative is to fail in school and beyond. “Get your things and definition leave,” Miss Holmes tells her. Dasani will be out of school for effect in poetry a whole week.

She cannot speak. To be suspended is to be truly homeless. The Times used small video cameras as an framework definition, additional reporting tool. The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. C hildren are not the face of New York’s homeless. They rarely figure among the panhandlers and of personification bag ladies, war vets and untreated schizophrenics who have long been stock characters in this city of contrasts. #9632; Their homelessness is hidden. Figueroa's Framework Definition? They spend their days in school, their nights in shelters. They are seen only in glimpses pulling overstuffed suitcases in the shadow of The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights Essay a tired parent, passing for tourists rather than residents without a home. Their numbers have risen above anything in definition the city’s modern history, to a staggering 22,091 this month. Influence Of Greek? If all of the city’s homeless children were to framework definition, file into Madison Square Garden for born haber chemguide a hockey game, more than 4,800 would not have a seat.

Yet it is the adult population that drives debates on poverty and figueroa's framework homelessness, with city officials and others citing “personal responsibility” as the Of Greek Art Essay central culprit. Children are bystanders in this discourse, no more to blame for their homelessness than for their existence. Dasani works to keep her homelessness hidden. She has spent years of figueroa's her childhood in the punishing confines of the techaccess private limited Auburn shelter in Brooklyn, where to framework definition, be homeless is to be powerless. She and her seven siblings are at the mercy of forces beyond their control: parents who cannot provide, agencies that fall short, a metropolis rived by inequality and born haber cycle indifference. The experience has left Dasani internally adrift, for figueroa's the losses of the homeless child only Government has Reduced Individual Rights, begin with the home itself. She has had to part with privacy and space the framework kind of quiet that nurtures the mind. Essay? She has lost the dignity that comes with living free of vermin and chronic illness. Figueroa's Framework Definition? She has fallen behind in school, despite her crackling intelligence. She has lost the simplest things that for other children are givens: the freedom of riding a bicycle, the safety of a bathroom not shared with strangers, the ease of being in school without stigma.

And from all of these losses has come the Influence Of Greek departure of faith itself. God “is somewhere around,” she says. Figueroa's? “We just can’t find him.” To trust is to be caught off guard. Dasani is unmoored by her recent suspension from the Susan S. McKinney Secondary School of the Arts. For months, this new school was her only haven. She had grown so attached to her principal, Paula Holmes, that she expected a measure of tolerance despite her outbursts, the kind of forgiveness she never gets at home. Her forced departure from born chemguide, school overlaps with spring break, plunging Dasani further into the morass of her family’s troubles. Her parents’ resolve to leave Auburn has vanished now that their savings plan fell apart, yet the shelter is pressing the definition family to leave while offering no assistance in Art Essay finding a home. Meanwhile, the Administration for figueroa's framework definition Children’s Services has stepped up its scrutiny of Dasani’s parents, who are increasingly despondent. As pressure mounts from all sides, Dasani braces herself. She has seen this before the storm of familial problems that suddenly gathers force.

“It’s a tsunami, just spinning around, nothing going right,” she says. “And I’m like, ‘Put my life back together!’ and it doesn’t happen. Your life doesn’t go the of personification way you want it to figueroa's definition, go.” O n April 3, Dasani climbs up the born haber cycle chemguide steps of McKinney wearing her best cardigan. She lingers in the hallway, keeping an eye on Principal Holmes’s door. Framework? She is of personification, eager to try out the figueroa's definition script her mother has drilled into her. Private Limited? #9632; How was your spring break, Miss Holmes? (Pause, wait for Miss Holmes to ask the same question.) Oh, it was good. I’m staying out of trouble! (Wait for Miss Holmes to laugh and then head for the door, showing new determination.)

Gotta get to class! Instead, Dasani hangs back. Too many other students are ahead of figueroa's framework definition her, vying for the principal’s attention. In class, she is quiet and focused. Of Greek? “It’s a new Dasani,” observes Officer Jamion Andrews, the security guard, his eyebrow dubiously cocked. If she can avoid fights, Dasani tells herself, the rest will fall into place.

It is the taunts that she cannot resist. Her body gets “hyped.” She loses control. And that is precisely the behavior that Roxanne, her counselor at school, is trying to disrupt. In those moments, Dasani must learn to breathe in for 10 seconds through her nose and framework then breathe out for 10 seconds through her mouth. Influence Of Greek? Roxanne demonstrates. Dasani practices on her walk home from school. The two blocks of figueroa's definition sidewalk between McKinney and the shelter can be a minefield. Accenture Case Analysis Essay? This week, one of Dasani’s classmates, Sunita, begins to stalk her along the way. Sunita is a foot taller than Dasani and easily twice her 70 pounds.

Their rivalry dates back three years to framework definition, fourth grade, when Sunita, who lives in Himalayan Art Essay the projects, began teasing Dasani about living at Auburn, prompting Dasani, then 9, to throw her first punch. For days, rumors have been flying that the two will fight again. As school lets out on April 9, Dasani steps onto the sidewalk and is surrounded by figueroa's framework definition a sea of girls. “You gonna fight her?” one of Individual Rights Essay them asks breathlessly. “No!” Dasani yells loud enough for Sunita to definition, hear. “Miss Holmes says if I get in another fight I get suspended.” Dasani’s restraint only emboldens Sunita, who walks up and slaps Dasani hard across her left cheek. The crowd is hushed. Dasani tries to breathe. “You think that hurt?

I eat those,” Dasani says, using one of her mother’s put-downs. The girl glares at Dasani. Breathe in 10 seconds. Suddenly, out of nowhere, Dasani’s 10-year-old sister Avianna jumps between them. Himalayan? “You better back up off my sister’s face before I hurt you,” Avianna yells. The girls might as well be twins. Figueroa's Definition? They share the techaccess pakistan private same pillow, the same dresser, the same absent, biological father. It is figueroa's framework, usually Dasani who comes to Avianna’s rescue, carrying her up four flights of stairs to their room when her asthma strikes. But today, Avianna rises to the occasion, mouthing off fiercely at Sunita as the crowd disperses. Dasani is Of Greek, soon surrounded by all of her siblings, a familial force field.

Their bond presents itself physically. Definition? When they walk, ride the bus, switch trains, climb steps, jump puddles, cross highways and file into Auburn, they move as a single being. Of Greek Art Essay? In all things, they are one. The sheer size of the family draws the notice of figueroa's framework strangers, who shoot looks of recrimination at the mother, Chanel. Yet she sees fortitude in this small army of siblings, something she and her husband, Supreme, never had growing up. “That’s why the street became our family,” she says. “I didn’t want the street to become their family, too.” The children’s solidarity is striking enough that social workers frequently make note of it. “Family close knit,” reads one social worker’s report in March. They live in dread of the The Federal Government Individual Rights Essay Administration for Children’s Services. They survived their mother’s absence for a year and take Supreme’s periodic disappearances almost in stride, but they cannot imagine losing one another.

They know the figueroa's foster care system can split up siblings across the city’s boroughs. Dasani is haunted by the thought of losing her baby sister, Lele, who just turned 1 and sometimes calls her Mommy. All the children dote on Lele, but Dasani speaks her language, discerning hunger or a wet diaper in Of Greek the baby’s cries. The 11-year-old girl responds with the instinct of a mother but not the training. She pours artificially sweetened grape juice into Lele’s bottle as if it were liquid gold. What would happen to Lele in the hands of strangers? “Some people don’t know how to take care of babies,” she says. The children have heard their father’s story how Supreme was torn from his siblings and figueroa's framework definition years passed before he was reunited with them in born haber the Marcy projects, in figueroa's framework Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn.

Supreme soon left home to born, join the figueroa's framework definition crack trade. By then, another child of the Marcy projects had also escaped. She chose an alternate path. “I was different, and I don’t regret it,” Faith Hester says, standing before her class in early May. #9632; She is not one to dwell on Influence Of Greek Art Essay, the past. But today, a student prompts Miss Hester to talk about figueroa's definition, her education. She was only 16 and haber chemguide living in definition the Marcy projects when she won a scholarship to SUNY Cortland. She packed a large orange suitcase. Her mother refused to private, take her to the train station. Girls married their way out of the projects. Going to college, the neighbors sneered, was trying to “be white.” So Miss Hester left alone that day, dragging her suitcase along Park Avenue.

In college, she cleaned houses to figueroa's, help pay her way. Her mother did not speak to her for six months. “Sometimes you have to be alone,” she says, looking around the room. “I don’t regret it for one second,” she says, slamming her hand down on a desk. “That was the path!” The class is motionless. “Do you understand what I’m saying?” Miss Hester continues, her voice trembling. “There are going to be some places in your life where you feel bizarre. You feel outstanding. And remain that way.

Stay just as you are.” Dasani stares at her teacher, mesmerized. “It takes a lot of courage to Himalayan Art Essay, be different,” Miss Hester says. When Dasani looks into figueroa's definition, the future, she sees who she won’t be. She won’t be a dropout. Limited? She won’t do drugs or smoke or drink.

She won’t get married, unless she finds “a gentle man, not a harsh man.” She won’t have children unless she can support them. She won’t end up on the street. “Spare some change?” she says, mocking a panhandler. Figueroa's Definition? “Nuh-uh. Not me.” It is Government has Reduced Individual, harder for Dasani to imagine who she might become. She has been told she must reach for college if she wants a life of choices, but who will pay? Her mother is quick to ask that question whenever Grandma Sherry tries to figueroa's definition, encourage Dasani with the shining example of a niece who graduated from Bates College in Maine on born cycle chemguide, scholarship. Other children talk of becoming rap stars or athletes, escaping their world with one good break. Dasani subscribes to the logic of those fantasies.

Her life is figueroa's, defined by extremes. In order to transcend extreme poverty, it follows that she must become extremely rich or extremely something. What exactly she cannot see. To dream is, after all, an act of born haber cycle faith. She believes in framework definition what she can see, and Accenture Analysis Miss Hester is real. Framework? Her lecture that day leaves Dasani feeling uplifted. As she walks home with a classmate later that afternoon, they talk about a coming history project on Art Essay, ancient Egypt.

Dasani does not see Sunita coming. “I’m gonna fight you!” Sunita calls out from the framework definition underpass, shedding her sweatshirt. Dasani pivots and in poetry starts walking against the traffic along Tillary Street. This time there are no siblings to come to her rescue. Get back on school property, she tells herself.

She crosses over figueroa's definition, toward McKinney as Sunita charges up behind her. “Move before I punch you!” Dasani says. But Sunita grabs Dasani’s shirt and The Federal has Reduced Individual pulls as Dasani takes a roundhouse swing. They fall to the ground, biting and scratching. Suddenly, another big girl piles on, kicking Dasani in the face and laughing while Sunita holds her down. Somehow Dasani manages to throw Sunita off balance, scrambling on figueroa's framework, top and pummeling her face before they pull apart, bleeding and crying. “I’m saying it right in front of your face,” Dasani yells, her chest heaving. “You wanna fight me some more ” “I will jump you in Case your face!” “I want you to!

I want you to!” Sunita’s brother orders her to definition, retreat. “Take your ass in the house!” he yells. She turns obediently toward the effect of personification Whitman projects as Dasani runs into figueroa's framework definition, Auburn. Minutes later, Dasani emerges with Chanel, who heads to The Federal has Reduced Essay, the projects ready to go. She will wait for Sunita’s mother all night if needed, and framework they can settle this themselves. But as Chanel presses for Case Essay details, she learns that Dasani is hardly innocent: She had thrown Sunita’s book bag on the floor earlier that day and commented unfavorably on her “$2.99 sweater.” Chanel cools down and decides to handle the matter at framework definition school. The next morning, the two mothers and their daughters meet with Karen Best, an assistant principal who cuts to the chase. “Had Dasani been seriously injured, we wouldn’t be sitting here having this conversation,” Miss Best says. “And that’s what you need to understand: Children as young as you go to jail. Himalayan? O.K.? Real simple.”

The mothers nod. Figueroa's Definition? The girls stare at the floor. “She could have had a concussion,” Miss Best says. The Federal Government Rights Essay? “You want to do something? Prove how smart you are.” “There you go,” Chanel says approvingly. “Everyone knows the negativity,” Miss Best says, looking at both girls. “You got that down pat. Figueroa's Framework Definition? Show the brains.” B ack at Auburn, nothing is going well.

The city’s shelters are packed with families, whose average length of stay 13.5 months is longer than ever. #9632; Dasani’s family is among the outliers. It will soon be three years since they landed at Auburn. Accenture Case Essay? While the Department of Homeless Services cannot limit a family’s time in the shelter system, the agency can resort to punitive measures when residents are found to be uncooperative. On May 14, Supreme and Chanel are called to a meeting at Auburn with two agency officials and the family’s shelter caseworker. “I’m asking you: What have you been doing to move out?” one of the officials asks Chanel and Supreme in a recording they made of the meeting. The official points at the family’s independent living plan with the agency. “You both signed it, O.K.?” the official says. Framework? “It says, ‘This shelter is temporary housing.’ You must look for permanent housing for yourselves.” Violating the effect in poetry plan enough times means a family can be given an “involuntary discharge,” barring them from returning to figueroa's, the city’s shelters for 30 days. During the meeting, Chanel and Supreme admit they have not searched for apartments. They say there is no point, since they cannot afford city rents without the kind of subsidy that the department once offered.

They complain that their room is Case, miserable and ask if they can be transferred to definition, a better shelter. “It’s really hard,” one of the officials says. Effect In Poetry? “Listen, you are not the only family in shelter.” “Tens of thousands,” the figueroa's definition official says. “Right, well, I have a different question,” Supreme says. “Do y’all fall under the guidelines of the New York City Housing standards?” “Excuse me?” one of the Case Analysis Essay officials says. A few weeks earlier, the framework definition family had been walking the elegant streets south of Fort Greene Park, searching “white folks’ trash” for discarded books and clothes. A thin, black volume caught Supreme’s eye: “McKinney’s Consolidated Laws of New York Book 52 A.” He began leafing through hundreds of pages of laws, noting the violations that his living arrangement presents: the lack of hygienic conditions, dividers for privacy and sufficient living space. “I think it’s inhumane,” Supreme mumbles. “I think one of you all need to Himalayan Art Essay, try it. Figueroa's Framework? Your husband, eight children, all in one room.

No bathroom. I want to see how you all manage that for born cycle chemguide three years.” He might as well be talking to himself. “With the documentation we can move forward, O.K.?” one of the officials says. Supreme seems not to hear her either. “You never got no peace of figueroa's framework definition mind.

You and your husband can never have a moment because your children are always in your face. You’d go crazy!” The meeting is wrapping up. “Even now, they got the bathrooms closed, so where you gotta go? All the way to the next floor,” Supreme continues. “I got a child who is legally blind. I gotta monitor her every time she go to the bathroom. It’s, like, bananas. It’s really bananas.” T he children’s birthdays come in Accenture Analysis Essay a mad springtime rush: Lele’s in March, Avianna’s in April, the framework remaining six in the span of three and a half weeks. #9632; Expectations are calibrated based on The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights Essay, where a birthday falls in figueroa's the monthly cash flow. Those at the start of the month bring hope, while those at the end of the month are luckless. So it goes for Avianna.

Supreme hands her $11, one for each year of her life, but the next day, he asks for $5 back. Pakistan? She waits for a cake. Days pass. Finally, the children give up and light two small candles. Framework? Like carolers, they hold them beneath Avianna’s face and sing.

Avianna savors everything. Private Limited? While her siblings inhale their food, she will linger over each French fry. She spends her $6 slowly. A week later, she takes her last dollar bill and folds it delicately, like a Japanese fan. She then places it inside a homemade card that Chanel opens on figueroa's framework, Mother’s Day. They pass that afternoon at the laundromat.

There is only $190 left on Chanel’s debit card, the balance of a tax refund that was supposed to The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights Essay, rescue them from the shelter. In times like these, Chanel sees fit to figueroa's, steal groceries. She tells the children to wait for her at a store’s entrance. She hides the habit from them. They hide their knowingness from The Federal Government Individual Rights, her. Except for definition Papa, a gaptoothed 5-year-old buzzing with energy. “You stealin’!” he squeals one day as Chanel makes off with two prepackaged burgers from Target. “You crazy!” “Shut up, man!” Chanel says, before composing herself. “Look,” she tries more softly. Of Personification In Poetry? “It’s not right to steal. But God knows when it’s for framework a good reason.”

This year, birthday season has the misfortune of colliding with four of the children’s grade-school graduations. They need new outfits, and money for class photos and parties. Chanel is private, accustomed to saying no when she has to, but she also recognizes the framework definition small luxuries that will separate her children from their peers. By the time Dasani’s birthday arrives at Art Essay the end of May, she knows better than to expect $1 for figueroa's framework each of her 12 years. She has already pressed her mother too many times to pay for a school trip to Washington. Dasani has never been farther than Pennsylvania. She will hold out for The Federal has Reduced Rights Essay that and let the birthday pass quietly. Chanel has no such intention. Dasani is her jewel. Over the weekend, the figueroa's framework definition family retreats to the rowhouse in East New York belonging to Grandma Sherry. Art Essay? The mood is light.

The children skip about as Supreme stands over the stove, tending to his honey-barbecue wings. The time has come to sing. Chanel gently lifts a vanilla sheet cake out of its plastic casing as Dasani stares in wonder. The top of the cake is still blank, awaiting inscription. Figueroa's Definition? Her mother covers it with candles and dims the lights. Dasani closes her eyes. If I could grant you three wishes, what would they be? her school counselor once asked her. A house of Himalayan Art Essay our own, a lot of money and three more wishes, was Dasani’s answer.

She blows out the candles as the framework children clap. Chanel fetches a long, serrated knife. Has Reduced Essay? “Let me show you how to figueroa's, cut a cake,” she says, gingerly placing her hand over Dasani’s. Together, they move the knife through the buttercream frosting. “Doesn’t have to be perfect,” Chanel says. Dasani bestows a sugar-flowered slice on each of her siblings, taking a plain piece for herself. They race to the basement, where their two uncles are blasting the Black Eyed Peas. Screaming in delight, Dasani and her sisters leap onto Accenture Analysis Essay a rickety, wooden platform and dance beneath a disco ball to “I Gotta Feeling” as Papa bounces around them. They barely register the hard-faced young men shuffling through the figueroa's basement, exchanging elaborate handshakes, their heads hung low. Some play video games. Others mill about with girls in Art Essay their teens wearing too much makeup and too little clothing.

One of figueroa's framework definition these girls, a baby-faced Dominican who works at the supermarket across the street, hangs on Art Essay, Uncle Josh, flashing braces when she smiles. To curry favor, she hands Dasani a $20 bill as a birthday present. Like other things in her life, Dasani could not have predicted such luck. She is still giddy, long after the girl has left in a huff, offended by Josh’s waning interest. It is now late and the other children have collapsed on figueroa's definition, a sagging beige couch. Of Greek Art Essay? Dasani is dancing to Alicia Keys. She’s living in a world and it’s on fire. Filled with catastrophe. But she knows she can fly away.

Dasani reaches up, her arms bathed in blinking lights, as if saluting an imaginary audience. Oh, she got her head in the clouds. And she’s not backing down. This girl is on figueroa's definition, fire. Dasani has never had a better birthday. It feels like perfection. It hardly matters that the cake was stolen from Pathmark. T hree days later, it is raining as the children spill down Sherry’s steps. They are hungry and short on sleep. The Federal Has Reduced? #9632; In theory, they are heading to the thing they most need psychotherapy. Chanel signed them up after learning that she can reap $10 per figueroa's framework child in carfare through Medicaid, at a clinic in effect of personification the Kensington section of framework Brooklyn.

Chanel needs the cash. The Federal Government? She is figueroa's definition, still hoping to find a way to born haber chemguide, send Dasani on her school trip to Washington, and the $75 deposit is due tomorrow. So despite the pelting rain, Chanel instructs the children to meet her at a subway station. Only Hada is figueroa's, wearing a raincoat. Papa’s hoodie slips off as he tips back to The Federal Government Essay, catch raindrops on his tongue. The children cross Lincoln Avenue holding hands. Dasani is in a foul mood. There is no telling how her anger will reveal itself today. Sometimes it comes as a quiet kind of rage.

She will stare at framework an indefinite point, her eyes blinking, her mouth set. Pakistan Private Limited? Other times, it bursts like thunder. Nijai trails behind, her glasses fogging over. She has always been the odd orchid in this bunch of daisies, the most delicate and figueroa's definition sensitive child, made more frail by her advancing blindness. She can make out only vague shapes and Influence colors. Soon she will have to use a cane, but for definition now she often rests a hand on Lele’s stroller to guide her. Today, Lele and the stroller have been left at Sherry’s. “I said move it!” Dasani yells at Nijai. She starts shoving Nijai, harder and Accenture Case Analysis Essay harder, knocking her sister into a metal fence. Figueroa's? Then she punches her in the arm. “You stupid!” Dasani screams. “You think you smart, but you stupid! Now keep walking!”

Nijai begins to sob as Khaliq yells, “Double up!” In pairs, they sprint across a six-lane highway and effect of personification in poetry enter the figueroa's Grant Avenue subway station, ducking under the Accenture turnstile to meet their mother. After they board the figueroa's framework A train, she hands them a bag of lukewarm Popeyes chicken, furnished by effect in poetry a stranger. By the time they get off at Jay Street, their stomachs are full and figueroa's definition the mood is lifted. Dasani spots an of personification, umbrella on figueroa's, the ground. It still works, opening to reveal an intricate pattern of white and black flecks.

She twirls it around and, when the 103 bus pulls up, carefully closes it. Dasani and Nijai race to the back of the bus, where the motor keeps the seats warm. They sit pressed together, newly reconciled. Dasani is soon asleep. The little ones watch, thumbs in mouth, as their mother closes her eyes. Every time the effect of personification bus slows, she snaps awake.

At Church Avenue, the figueroa's children and their mother pile off. Born Chemguide? The street looks familiar, but Chanel is unsure. “We got off at the wrong stop,” Dasani announces. Chanel fixes her gaze on Dasani. “Shut the fuck up,” she says. “You know, that’s one thing I don’t like about you your negativity. You always talkin’ about the problem. You got a solution?” Dasani carries a singular burden among her siblings. Figueroa's Framework Definition? Chanel has vested enormous authority in Dasani. Chemguide? Her competence, agility and strength the attributes that could rescue Dasani from her life’s miseries also threaten to keep her mired in figueroa's framework the problems that her mother cannot meet alone. At times, Chanel seems taunted by her dependence on her daughter, which reminds her of her own failings.

They walk single file toward Coney Island Avenue. Dasani tries to recover. “It’s this way, Mommy,” she says, gesturing hopefully toward a florist shop. They take a few steps before Chanel turns on her heel, remembering the way. “If you want to go somewhere, don’t listen to Dasani,” she says. Dasani freezes under her new umbrella. “I’m sick of your attitude,” she seethes. “There’s only like 15 kids going on this trip because people can’t pay. Effect? And me, who got nothing, is definition, trying to send you and you gonna give me attitude?” Dasani keeps walking. Chanel’s fury mounts.

She reaches for the same words every time, the kind that echo for days in Dasani’s head. Dasani always gotta have the answer. She think she special. She think she some-fucking-body. Dasani’s face remains frozen as the tears begin to fall, like rain on a statue. “I don’t give a shit if she’s crying,” Chanel says loudly as they approach a small green house, marked by a gold-embossed sign that reads “Advanced Psychotherapy Behavioral Health Services.” “It’s only one goddamn chief,” Chanel says. “I’m the techaccess pakistan limited only chief.” Inside, the children file into their fourth “group therapy” session with a woman who asks vague questions like, “What are your hobbies?” She sounds more like a distant aunt than a counselor. Khaliq knows the difference. Earlier in the year, a Children’s Services caseworker had sent him to figueroa's, a therapist after he acted erratically in school. That therapist had asked questions like, “Do you want to kill yourself?” Those sessions felt like they never ended; these lasted only Himalayan, 20 minutes roughly two and a half minutes per child. At the door, Chanel collects her $80 in carfare and framework the children head back into the rain.

The cash instantly settles the Case Analysis family, leaving the children calm and Chanel introspective. By the time they reach the bus stop, Chanel’s gray T-shirt is definition, soaked through. She is thinking about Supreme, whom she could not rouse from bed this morning. “What gets me down is the Himalayan responsibility,” she says. “They got shoes on but no socks. I come all this way, on the bus, in the rain, to get the money so she can go on her trip.” She is shivering now. “Those are the definition things you are supposed to provide,” she scolds her absent husband. Pakistan Private Limited? “You are the man. You made this family, but you don’t provide.” Dasani watches her mother silently. She wants to fix it. She can only feel empty.

The day’s weight has passed from her sister to herself and figueroa's definition now to The Federal Individual Essay, their mother, who is weeping in the rain. The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool. Figueroa's? The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and born cycle chemguide her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments. Miss Hester Speaks to Dasani’s Class. A mob of spectators presses in, trying to see the tiny girl. Rap stars circle. The cameras roll. The crowd chants her name. Framework Definition? #9632; “Da-Sa-Neee!” #9632; Her heart is racing. She looks up at the sky and Influence Of Greek extends her fingers, but cannot reach high enough to grasp the metal bar. A powerful man hoists her up by the waist.

In an figueroa's definition, instant, she is midair, pulling and twisting acrobatically as the audience gasps at the might of this 12-year-old girl. “She’s a giantess,” the man had announced to the audience. “She’s tomorrow’s success, I’m telling you right now.” Dasani blinks, looking out at the smiling faces. She cannot make sense of the Accenture Case Analysis serendipity that has brought her here to Harlem, on this sparkling July day, to figueroa's framework, make her debut as a member of an Influence, urban fitness group teamed up with Nike. But there is her beaming mother, Chanel; her father, Supreme; and all seven siblings. Framework Definition? They are cheering and clapping as well. “I thought it was a dream make believe like this wasn’t happening,” she says. “You know, like in movies, people pinch themselves like this ain’t real.” It was only two months earlier that Dasani stood at the bus stop as her mother wept in the rain.

Summer was fast approaching, a season that, in this family, always brings change. The markers of Dasani’s life her first months in the care of Grandma Joanie, the day her family moved into of personification in poetry, their first real home, the loss of that home two years later, when they landed in the Auburn shelter these all came in summertime. There was no telling what this summer might bring. Dasani could no sooner predict landing a spot on the Harlem team than she could foretell the abrupt changes that still lay ahead. Already, the court-mandated supervision of the family by child protection workers had run its course. Chanel’s nine-month trial period was suddenly over, leaving her custody secure, just as new problems came along. School was winding down when the children learned that their only other refuge Grandma Sherry’s rowhouse in East New York, Brooklyn had gone into foreclosure. Sherry could end up homeless as well, at a time when New York’s shelter population had surpassed a historic 50,000. As the days grew hotter, Dasani and framework definition her family remained stuck in the same miserable room at Auburn. And yet summer, no matter how stifling, also carried a certain promise, the Art Essay kind that comes of chance encounters on the street. I t is a muggy night in Harlem, but the figueroa's children do not care.

They savor any chance to visit. Born Cycle? #9632; This is the place where, a decade earlier, Chanel and Supreme fell in love. They have returned over the years, pulled by the Five Percent Nation, the movement spawned 50 years ago by a contemporary of Malcolm X who broke from the Nation of Islam. Tonight, people swarm into the Harriet Tubman Learning Center on West 127th Street for the organization’s annual gathering, pushing past security guards and a vendor with pins that declare, “I ♥ being God.” Supreme mills about in the foyer, greeting old friends with tight hugs. Chanel trails him, her chin high, her daughters’ hair freshly braided. It is a rare moment of belonging in figueroa's a year of rootlessness. As the Art Essay sun sets, Dasani and figueroa's framework definition her family step out for some air. Has Reduced? A man brushes past them, walking along West 127th Street. Definition? His hooded sweatshirt is pulled low over his face, which is dusted by a salt-and-pepper beard. He moves with the purposeful air of a celebrity in hiding. “I seen your videos,” Chanel says, stopping him in of personification in poetry his tracks.

For years, Dasani’s family had been watching the DVDs of this former convict turned fitness guru who calls himself Giant. His team, Bartendaz, combines pull-up acrobatics on city playgrounds with a militaristic message of self-improvement, steering followers away from drugs and alcohol to “the bars of health.” Giant looks Chanel up and down, noting the open beer she has sheathed in a brown paper bag. “Bud don’t make you wiser,” he observes, flashing a smile that reveals a perfect row of teeth. Chanel ignores the comment. She is already thinking through the figueroa's framework possibilities presented by chemguide this accidental meeting. Definition? She steers Dasani to some empty pull-up bars at a nearby playground. “Show him what ya got!” she calls out. Giant, whose name is Hassan Yasin-Bradley, accepts the impromptu audition the way a famous film director takes the waiter’s latest screenplay. While Giant remains on The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights Essay, the fringe of prime-time America, he has his share of acolytes in Harlem.

Dasani springs to the bars and begins to knock out an impressive set of framework definition pull-ups, her shoulders popping with the limited muscles of an action figure. Giant is still chatting with Chanel when he looks over and pauses. Chanel senses that she may be on to something. She explains that Dasani has been doing pull-ups in Fort Greene Park for years. She can also dance, do gymnastics, run track. Figueroa's Framework Definition? All she lacks is born haber cycle chemguide, training of any kind. Now it is definition, Giant’s mind that races through the possibilities.

The girl is uncommonly strong. She has a telegenic smile. She’s spunky. “She seems like just the kind of girl we could use on our team,” he says, grinning at Dasani, who grins back. Giant quickly explains how his team works: It has a limited partnership with Nike that will hopefully lead to bigger things. In the meantime, the team earns modest pay in exchange for holding training clinics, and performing at concerts and other events. At the has Reduced Individual Essay very least, he concludes, Dasani merits a proper tryout. “Meet me at definition the park next Saturday,” he says, leaving his number before disappearing.

Dasani lies awake that night. It is the effect in poetry first time in her life she can see a path to something else. Definition? What exactly, she is techaccess pakistan private limited, not sure. She has not even had her tryout. But for figueroa's framework definition a girl who has spent her life tempering expectations, she cannot stop herself from dreaming just a little. “I’ma save all my money so we can get a house,” she tells her mother. M oney is especially tight. Accenture Analysis Essay? This might explain why, in Dasani’s words, Mommy goes “loco” during an inspection of the family’s room at Auburn. #9632; There is figueroa's definition, a knock at the door.

Chanel lets in the inspector, who promptly demands that she surrender the family’s forbidden microwave oven. Chanel refuses. She cannot afford to buy a new one, nor can she fathom having to wait in line every night to effect of personification in poetry, reheat 10 dinner trays in one of the shelter’s two microwaves. The inspector leaves, and by the time two security officers with the Department of Homeless Services arrive to confiscate the microwave, Chanel has hidden it in a friend’s room. As for the inspector, Chanel offers to “punch that bitch in the face.” Dasani believes that her mother’s biggest problem is her mouth. She reflects on this as her homeroom teacher, Faith Hester, delivers a lesson that week on personal responsibility. “I don’t ever wanna hear, ‘Well, my mother told me to figueroa's framework definition, do this,’ unless you know that that’s the right thing,” Miss Hester tells the class. The teacher has shimmied into an empty desk next to Dasani.

“I am telling you, as sure as I’m sitting here,” Miss Hester says, her arm resting across Dasani’s desk, “you’re gonna be held responsible for the choices you make.” Hands shoot up in Art Essay the air. Dasani recounts how her longtime rival, Sunita, began following her after school, and slapped her. “And so, my mom is a violent parent, so you can’t tell her anything about figueroa's, fights because then she gonna want to Government, get a stick and tell you to knock the chick out.” Miss Hester arches her brows. “O.K.,” Miss Hester says. “Now, let me ask you: Do you think that was the figueroa's framework definition right thing to do?” The class erupts in haber chaos. “O.K., O.K.!” Miss Hester yells. Figueroa's Framework? “I’ma tell you what I would have told my kid.” They fall silent. “Not everybody has something to lose,” Miss Hester says. “You care about your life,” she continues. “There are people out there who are so hurt they don’t care about leaving here.

They are looking for an opportunity to do something crazy and ridiculous. They have nothing to has Reduced Individual Rights, live for.” Dasani ponders this. “I am telling you to figueroa's framework, listen to your internal barometer,” Miss Hester says. “Think about Influence, your next move before you make your next move.” Dasani is still in bed the next morning when her mother rises from a fitful sleep and definition heads to the corner store with her sister Avianna. All around, men are leaving the techaccess pakistan private projects to report to early work shifts. Chanel stands in the cold, watching them. “Your father should be doing that,” she says.

Just that week she had stopped a flag waver at a construction site. It seemed like a job that Chanel could perform beautifully. The woman told her about an organization that helps people with G.E.D.’s find work. For Chanel, words like “G.E.D.” end a conversation. It has been 20 years since she sat in framework definition a high school classroom. She can feel like a foreigner in her own country, unable to speak the language of bank accounts and loan applications. When filling out medical forms, she stops at the box requiring a work number, frozen by its blankness.

“I want my kids to be able to come see me at my job, pick up my paycheck,” she says that afternoon, standing with Dasani outside Au Bon Pain, where the day’s pastries will soon sell at a discount. “Just be reliant on Of Greek, my money, you know what I’m sayin’?” Dasani stares at her mother anxiously. “I’m tired of my kids seeing me dull,” Chanel says. Figueroa's Definition? “It’s my time to shine.” “I don’t see you dull,” Dasani says quietly. “I see you shine.” D asani spends the born cycle week before her tryout for Bartendaz in focused preparation, training on figueroa's framework definition, the fitness bars next to the basketball court in pakistan private limited Fort Greene Park in Brooklyn. At night, she replays the figueroa's team’s DVDs over and over, studying the members closely. At school, she tells no one. This new dream is carried on practical terms. It is less about helping herself than about making her parents whole.

In the meantime, Dasani worries about the born chemguide most immediate challenge, which is to get to figueroa's framework, Harlem on time. Private? Punctuality is a miracle in her family. On Saturday morning, there is no sign of Dasani as the Bartendaz start to framework definition, warm up at pakistan limited the playground at 144th Street and Lenox Avenue. Soon they are causing a commotion that slows the traffic. One after another, they fly onto the bars, whipping through moves that seem to defy gravity. Figueroa's Framework Definition? Some of them wear black T-shirts with the logo of a man bending a bar, his brain lit by a bulb.

“Salute that mind!” Giant calls out to his followers. There is The Federal Government Rights, Cinderblock, Honey Bee, Sky, Earth, Water, Blaq Ninja, Salubrious and Mel Matrix. Giant’s second in framework definition command is Dr. Good Body, a self-described athletic alchemist (“the library is my alma mater”) who transforms the “base metal” of a person’s character into haber cycle, “gold.” Giant orbits around his team, issuing commands in definition a lyrical code that is impenetrable to outsiders. Of Personification In Poetry? He is especially fond of abbreviations. Figueroa's? A favorite is “C.A.P.” Character, Attitude and Personality.

His nickname, Giant, stands for Accenture Analysis Growing Is a Noble Thing. It is a bold name for framework a man who stands just 5-foot-7. Born Warren Hassan Bradley, he grew up in Influence the Baruch projects on the Lower East Side, where in his teens he became known as a D.J. and street fighter skilled at hiding razors in his mouth and spitting them out in combat. He started selling drugs, and was sent to prison in 1989 on two felony drug charges. Like Dasani’s father, Giant left prison transformed. He had earned a high school equivalency diploma and devoted himself to Islam. (He looks askance at the teachings of the figueroa's framework Five Percent.) He also found a way to capitalize on the pull-up bar routines that he taught himself in prison yards. Influence Of Greek? By the time he started Bartendaz in 2003, he was already drawing crowds to Harlem’s playgrounds.

Dasani finally arrives, her mother and two siblings in tow, as the team’s practice winds down. Dressed in framework bright-pink shorts and matching flip-flops, she is a dwarf among titans. “What’s your name again?” Giant says. “Like the water,” Chanel says. He turns to the group. The tryout begins with a set of pull-ups, demonstrated by limited Blaq Ninja and Sky. Dasani coasts through the exercise. “Damn!” a team member says as the figueroa's framework definition others whistle. Influence Art Essay? Giant remains cool to the newcomer, telling Dasani “stay there, breathe” as she pedals her feet in figueroa's framework definition the air while holding her head level with the bar.

Her next test comes on Case Analysis Essay, the parallel bars, where she knocks out a set of framework dips in good form, and Himalayan then pedals again as Giant counts aloud, shaking his head incredulously. Figueroa's Framework? Next, they hit the floor for push-ups. “Do some diamonds!” Chanel calls out. Dasani connects her hands in the shape of a diamond as she dives into a set of flawless push-ups. Then she goes for broke, clapping her hands behind her back, mid-push-up. Honey Bee captures the image on the team’s iPad before Dasani comes crashing to the ground, promptly dusting herself off. “Look at effect this! Look at this!” Giant says, running over to framework definition, show Dasani the iPad photo. “You tellin’ me I can’t sell this poster for $100?” A young boy sidles up. Effect In Poetry? The team has drawn spectators who live as far away as Norway and figueroa's Japan.

This one is a local. “Excuse me,” he says to Dasani. “Can you do a pull-up again?” She nods gamely as he calls out to his friends: “Yo! Come here! She about to has Reduced, do it!” “Wait till they see you in three weeks,” he says. The family is ecstatic. Supreme runs to the corner store for a dozen roses. He hands them to Chanel. “Dag, I love it here,” he says, looking at her tenderly. “We should come back to Harlem.”

C hanel soon finds reason to be suspicious of Giant. He is charming, she thinks, but confusing on details like payment and a promised contract. Giant, too, can spot a hustler, and he seems wary of Chanel. Framework Definition? #9632; On the day of the tryout, he treats her children to haber cycle chemguide, lunch at a local bodega, joined by Malcolm X’s grandson Malik, a friend of the team. Malik congratulates Dasani, handing her a bottle of peach-flavored Snapple. She carries the bottle with both hands, later writing “Malcolm X grandson” on the label before stashing it in her dresser at Auburn. The next day, when Dasani’s siblings tag along to practice again, Giant senses that Chanel expects him to repeat the invitation. He skips the meal, but reassures Chanel that her daughter, like his other team members, will be compensated for events. The first one is a training clinic this Thursday. All Chanel needs to do is bring Dasani. Figueroa's Framework? The rest is Dasani’s job.

“That’s why we got the word ‘responsibility,’” Giant tells Dasani in front of Chanel. “Response” he holds up his right hand “Ability” then his left hand. “So respond to what? Your ability. Not your mom’s ability.” On Thursday afternoon, Dasani asks if her mother has heard from Giant. Chanel is tired after a long day and cannot imagine taking Dasani all the way to effect in poetry, Harlem. “He never called,” Chanel tells Dasani. Up in framework definition Harlem, Giant had been calling repeatedly. He checks his phone, looking for a response.

He shakes his head. Dasani goes to effect, sleep feeling crushed. She wakes at 5 a.m. for figueroa's framework the long-awaited school trip to Himalayan, Washington. Still feeling glum, she boards the bus on an empty stomach, sitting alone with a thin blue blanket laid carefully across her legs. Five hours later, as they approach the figueroa's framework definition Capitol, Dasani presses her face to the window.

It looks different here. People walk slower. There is space everywhere trees, monuments, water. She can see off into the distance, her view unobstructed by skyscrapers. She is paying special attention, trying to record what she sees so she can describe it later to Accenture Case, her sister Nijai. Remember every single detail, Nijai had implored. It is not just that her blindness prevents her from seeing it herself. It is that Washington represents Nijai’s roots, the city where she was born and framework last saw her mother alive. After a tour of the memorials, the bus stops near the The Federal Individual White House. Dasani runs to the tall, wrought-iron gate and looks between the bars.

On the sidewalk, a group of protesters wearing orange suits and figueroa's framework black hoods are chanting foreign-sounding names. Dasani has never heard of Guantánamo. But she knows what a jail uniform looks like from of personification in poetry, visiting her Uncle Carnell. These people, she concludes, are supposed to figueroa's framework, be prisoners, and they want President Obama to close their jail. She shakes her head. “I don’t know why they protesting in front of Obama’s house like he gonna be in here,” she says. There is hardly a trace of the child who had once scoured Gracie Mansion for a glimpse of the mayor. A week has passed with no word from Giant.

Dasani keeps doing her pull-ups. Tucked in the top drawer of Case her dresser is the figueroa's framework empty Snapple bottle given to her by born haber cycle chemguide Malcolm X’s grandson. #9632; “It’s all right,” Dasani tells her mother. “I didn’t get attached.” Detachment is figueroa's definition, as much a rite of Dasani’s summers as sunbaked afternoons in the park. She bids farewell to Miss Hester and born haber cycle the principal, Paula Holmes, bracing herself for a 10-week absence from the Susan S. Figueroa's Framework? McKinney Secondary School of the Arts. Summers also bring more regular visits to Grandma Sherry’s, where the children can ride up and down Lincoln Avenue on rusted bikes. Effect In Poetry? But this year, Sherry has bad news.

The bank is coming for her house. In another month, a court marshal will see her out the door if she is not gone. Sherry has two bad choices: She can enter the figueroa's framework shelter system or she can leave her children and grandchildren behind in New York and move in with her sister in Pittsburgh. If Sherry leaves, Chanel will have lost her only support, the Himalayan woman who partly raised her. Chanel copes in a way that puzzles Sherry: She stops taking Sherry’s calls. Figueroa's Definition? It is Chanel’s way of detaching, of effect of personification in poetry leaving a relationship before it leaves her.

Sherry finally decides to definition, go to Pittsburgh. Individual Rights? When she does get the children on the phone, she tells them that she is not sure when she is leaving, but that “the Lord will take care of framework you.” In the midst of this, Dasani finds herself thinking about Bartendaz. Accenture Analysis? A month after her tryout, she resolves to give it another chance: She will report to practice by definition herself, as if nothing has changed. But as she announces her departure one morning, Supreme stops her at born haber cycle chemguide the door. “Not before this place is figueroa's, straightened up,” he says. Art Essay? By the time Dasani finishes, practice is over.

The next morning, she gets up feeling defiant. Framework Definition? She looks at Supreme, who is still asleep. How you gonna take my destiny away from me? she thinks. Born? Dasani turns to her mother, and Chanel waves at her to leave before he wakes. Accompanied by her siblings Khaliq and Avianna, she jumps the train to Harlem. “Long time no see,” Giant says by way of a greeting. He gives Dasani a stern lecture: “If you know you’re not gonna be consistent, then I need to figueroa's framework, know so I can invest in someone else.”

Dasani is Influence Of Greek, confused. Her parents say that he never called. His version of framework definition events is quite the opposite, but he thinks it best to Influence Of Greek, simply say that “there must have been a miscommunication.” Dasani does not know what to believe, but she begins training with Giant every weekend, accompanied by her twin in all things, Avianna. They are in Harlem on the day a moving truck pulls up to Sherry’s house. Alerted by framework definition phone, Chanel arrives moments before Sherry’s departure. “I’ma hide in the truck,” 8-year-old Maya says. Chanel walks through the The Federal has Reduced Rights house she has known since she was born. Figueroa's Definition? She pauses at the bathroom’s worn wooden door, which reminds her of her father.

He is there at that door, some flicker of effect a memory. Those are the things one loses with a house, not the shelter itself but the irretrievable belonging it brings. On the stoop, Sherry and Chanel hold each other for a long time. Dasani does not get to say goodbye. T he sadness of figueroa's framework Sherry’s departure is eclipsed a week later when Dasani makes her big Bartendaz debut.

Her routine is captured on video for the opening sequence of Giant’s forthcoming DVD, and Dasani receives her first earnings: $70. She is Case Essay, too excited to think twice when Supreme asks if he can borrow some of it. He buys pizza for the children and keeps the rest. Definition? Dasani is distracted by Case Essay the day’s other gifts the definition cheering crowd, the chance to Accenture Case Analysis, pose with the rappers Jadakiss and Styles P. She is definition, still floating two days later, when Giant summons her to a basketball clinic for boys. He wants her to Influence Of Greek, “mentor” them. Definition? It seems like an odd request for Art Essay a girl who was recently suspended from framework definition, school. But that is effect of personification, Giant’s point: She needs to act like a mentor before she can feel like one.

She soon takes to the task, guiding boys several inches taller as they struggle into feeble pull-ups. When Dasani orders them to figueroa's, line up, one of the boys smirks, saying, “You not staff.” “Oh yes I am,” Dasani shoots back. She is Accenture Analysis, bonding with her team most of all with Sky, a nursing student, and Earth, who just got her bachelor’s degree in psychology at framework Queens College. “I’ma take all of Sky’s moves,” Dasani says jauntily as she hits the low bars. They laugh and laugh, never ceasing to delight in their youngest member. Influence? But when Chanel comes striding up, offering unsolicited tips, they go quiet.

Later that afternoon, Dasani tells Giant about figueroa's framework definition, her loan to Supreme. Influence Art Essay? Long after she leaves practice, he is framework definition, still livid. Can this even work, he wonders. Born? “You’re fixing a child to send back to figueroa's definition, broken parents.” S ummer’s end marks the effect third anniversary of Dasani’s arrival at Auburn, on Aug. 26, 2010. #9632; Three years a quarter of framework her life most of it spent in one room.

She has gotten so used to the smallness of it that she can scarcely recall how to live with more space. To Dasani, sometimes it seems like only tragedy brings change. The next morning, on Himalayan, Aug. Framework Definition? 27, she wakes to a high-pitched scream. It is her neighbor in Room 445, a single mother named Aisha.

Her 3-month-old daughter, Casshanae, has turned blue. “My baby’s not breathing!” she wails. A petite 27-year-old from Pennsylvania, Aisha had come to Auburn in early May, seven months pregnant with Casshanae. She was born premature with respiratory distress syndrome and developed feeding problems, all of which was noted in Influence Art Essay the records that Auburn received. The infant’s problems were serious enough that a hospital social worker asked the Department of Homeless Services to transfer the baby, Aisha and her 1-year-old son to another shelter equipped to handle medical needs. The agency declined to do so, even after Aisha filed a complaint that a male resident had sexually assaulted her in her room at definition Auburn on June 18. Nor did the shelter’s staff members heed Aisha’s repeated complaints when they gave her a damaged metal crib for the infant, with a loosefitting sheet and a mattress permanently stuck in the lowest position. But now she is screaming, and everyone hears her.

A security guard calls 911. None of the staff members try to resuscitate the baby, even though they are certified in CPR. Aisha fumbles to breathe air into her baby’s lungs as paramedics rush into The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights Essay, the lobby. They race to figueroa's framework definition, Brooklyn Hospital Center, where a doctor pronounces Casshanae dead at 8:10 a.m. Later that morning, Aisha returns to the fourth floor to pack her things. Her screams rattle the shelter again.

As she leaves, Dasani lingers by the door. Art Essay? She hears a security guard telling a superior that Aisha left the framework children alone the previous night. The official asks the cycle guard to file a report. Dasani shudders and closes the figueroa's framework door. Accenture Case? That will never happen to Baby Lele, she tells herself. The next day, the Administration for Children’s Services takes custody of Aisha’s son pending the results of an investigation into the baby’s death. Soon after, Dasani sees inspectors walking through the shelter as new cribs are delivered to residents and framework definition crib-safety posters are slipped under doors. Aisha is Case Analysis, summoned back to Auburn by investigators from the medical examiner’s office. At their request, she re-enacts the morning of her baby’s death, when she says she found Casshanae lifeless in the crib.

They take pictures of the crib, its sheet still crumpled. An autopsy was unable to determine the figueroa's framework cause of death. D asani tries not to think about the dead baby. #9632; Her room is sweltering. The children want nothing more than to get out and cool off. They put on of personification, their bathing suits. They have gone swimming only once this summer. First, they stop into Chanel’s methadone clinic in Red Hook, Brooklyn, a dim brick building sandwiched between a highway overpass and a garbage dump. Chanel waves at Dasani to come inside. She has been bragging to the staff about Giant, who continues to work with Dasani on the condition that she is paid in figueroa's framework definition kind, not cash. “No one can take a pair of techaccess pakistan limited sneakers,” he reasons. “He just stingy,” Chanel says. But she has gone along with it, proud as a stage mother.

“So look out for figueroa's framework Dasani, man,” Chanel tells a woman behind the desk. “She gonna be out soon.” “I believe I am already out,” Dasani says. Chanel leads her children three more blocks to the same Depression-era building where she passed her summers as a child. They carry one thin towel to limited, share. Dasani squints at the Olympic-size pool, a turquoise expanse that glistens in the sun. She dives in first.

All is figueroa's framework, cool and silent. She comes up for air, releasing a rapturous cry. The uncertainty of Influence Of Greek Dasani’s life is deepening. Supreme is now gone, having checked into a residential treatment program to try to get off methadone. Right before school starts in September, Chanel uproots Dasani from McKinney, reasoning that she will be less likely to framework, fight in techaccess pakistan private limited the company of Avianna and Nijai at a neighboring school. Dasani is unsettled. Every afternoon, the framework definition three sisters turn up at McKinney like stray puppies, passing the time with Miss Holmes and Of Greek Art Essay Miss Hester. Figueroa's Framework? The principal offers to effect, enroll all of them. Finally, on Sept.

25, Chanel relents. “Oh my gooney goo hoo,” Miss Hester squeals as Dasani, Avianna and figueroa's definition Nijai skip up the hallway. “I’ve been praying on haber chemguide, this.” Back at Auburn, residents begin to notice small changes. In the wake of Casshanae’s death, the shelter is providing a steadier supply of formula, diapers and other items to framework, mothers, and the cafeteria has a few more items on its menu. These fixes hardly address the systemic breakdown that state inspectors are uncovering. On Oct. Accenture Case? 1, they inform the Department of Homeless Services of a devastating litany of violations.

The fire safety system is virtually inoperable. The shelter has no certificate of figueroa's definition occupancy. Its record-keeping is a mess. Art Essay? The registration cards of 25 of its security guards are expired or missing. Black mold is framework definition, spreading in the shelter’s bathrooms, many of which spew exhaust thick with dust and debris. During one visit, inspectors see an born chemguide, asthmatic 3-year-old child coughing and figueroa's definition vomiting so much that 911 is called.

With no air-conditioning, the born haber cycle chemguide rooms reach dangerously high temperatures. A month before she died, Casshanae was living in a room where temperatures reached 102 degrees. The state’s conclusion: No child with chronic breathing problems should be at the shelter, and no children under age 2 should live there at all “due to figueroa's framework, the lack of amenities for Influence Of Greek Art Essay this young and vulnerable population.” In other words, Dasani’s family with a 1-year-old, two asthmatic children and another who is legally blind should never have been living at Auburn in the first place. I n the early afternoon of Oct. 17, Chanel is summoned to the office of the definition shelter’s administrators. #9632; They have stunning news: The family can finally leave Auburn. A space has opened at another shelter an apartment with a kitchen. But they must go today.

They have a few hours to Government has Reduced Individual, pack. Other families are also moving, and the Department of Homeless Services has arranged for vans. Chanel has longed for this moment. Figueroa's? But now that it is Himalayan, here, she feels wholly unprepared. Supreme is still in rehab. Her food stamps have been stolen. She has $9 in cash. How will she instantly produce three meals a day for eight children? She has no frying pans, dishes, utensils or toilet paper.

She does not even have the address of this new shelter. “I don’t know what to do,” Chanel says. She returns to Room 449 and tells the children. Dasani is in shock. Chanel rushes them off to therapy. Whatever happens, she needs the figueroa's framework cash. It is Accenture Analysis, drizzling out, and Dasani’s head is spinning.

All she can think about is her school. Just after willing her way back to McKinney, she is figueroa's definition, poised to lose it again. It is strange, this feeling of heading toward an address they don’t yet have, while having to say goodbye in techaccess private the span of a few hours to the place where they have lived for framework years. After therapy, it is effect in poetry, getting dark. The shelter’s lights blaze from definition, within.

Chanel orders the children to Himalayan Art Essay, pack only the most essential things. Auburn has given them 20 clear plastic bags. That is the limit. They will have to come back for Turtle. At 9:26 p.m., Chanel and her children board the last van just before it pulls away. An hour later, the van approaches their new residence. They are in Harlem. Of the 152 shelters where Dasani’s family could have landed, they have somehow wound up at a six-story brick building on West 145th Street. It is one block from the Bartendaz base. “I am right next to the park,” Dasani tells Giant on framework definition, the phone, enunciating each word. “I’m here!

I’m in Harlem!” Chanel grabs the phone, eager to Himalayan, hear his reaction. “You see?” Giant tells Chanel. Figueroa's Framework? “The Lord sent you right here next to me.” The children wait on Influence, the front steps as Chanel fills out paperwork in definition the office. It feels different here. Born? The block is awash in figueroa's framework streetlights and teeming with pedestrians.

There are fewer trees. But in other ways, Harlem is like Fort Greene. Nearby is a new bistro called Mountain Bird that offers a foie gras soup and a shrimp-bisque mac and cheese. One by one, the children peek in on their mother, anxious for updates. They will be living on the third floor, Avianna announces.

She locates the silver button on the intercom, gently running her finger over it. Finally, Chanel appears with the keys. Of Greek Art Essay? They climb three flights and step inside. It is a real apartment, with clean, beige walls and hardwood floors. There are two bedrooms, a full bathroom and framework a kitchen joined to a living room. Art Essay? Metal blinds hang from the windows, and clean sheets are folded on the bunk beds. Fresh, home-cooked meals again, Dasani thinks to herself as the figueroa's framework children race about maniacally. Art Essay? Hada opens a closet to find a diaper on the floor.

Chanel smells it, declares it clean and stashes it for Lele. She inspects the framework mattresses, which are in good condition. She opens the refrigerator, looks at the stove and sink, and then turns toward the living room. She clasps her hands in front of her face, as if in prayer. “Oh, man, I’m happy!” she says, her eyes shining. “I thank God for this. Himalayan Art Essay? Thank you.” C hanel cannot sleep that first night. #9632; She keeps checking the locks as her children lie deep in figueroa's framework slumber. Influence Art Essay? The five older girls share two bunk beds alongside Lele’s crib. The boys sleep in the living room. Chanel reserves one bedroom for figueroa's framework definition herself and Supreme.

It will be their first privacy in years, whenever he comes back. Chanel is of personification in poetry, feeling more panicked than celebratory. “I got to framework, make sure I provide,” she says. The move has plunged Chanel into the ice-cold waters of independence. She now has $39, counting the money gleaned from Government Individual Rights, therapy. It will be more than two weeks before her next food-stamp allotment arrives. When the framework children wake, Chanel drags a rolling cart onto the subway and returns to Auburn to retrieve more of their belongings. Thankfully, the techaccess private room has still not been cleared.

Chanel leaves with Turtle hidden in an empty baby-wipes container. By the figueroa's framework definition next morning, Supreme has left rehab and Art Essay rejoined the family. Now they are almost broke. Chanel can think of only one solution. She heads downtown to Macy’s, where she tries to steal a stack of men’s Polo briefs and undershirts, planning to sell them on the street for quick cash. A security guard intervenes, leading Chanel to the store’s private jail, along with Nijai, Avianna and Baby Lele, who toddles about the small, enclosed cell saying, “Out, out.” After Supreme collects the children, Chanel is arrested by the police and spends the night in jail. When she comes home, Supreme declares that the stealing is over.

If they have to, they can beg. “Better to ask than take,” he says. It doesn’t quite feel like “begging” to Dasani, the figueroa's way she has seen it in the movies, with peasants holding out hands for coins. It is a little more dignified, how Supreme stands outside the local Pathmark, his children silently lined up next to him. As shoppers enter the store, he asks them to buy a few extra groceries “so I can feed my babies.” Dasani runs in techaccess limited with a woman who pays for Froot Loops and Corn Flakes. And so it goes, until a particularly generous man tells them to just “get what you need,” and framework they fill up the cart. Back in the apartment, the family’s spirits begin to lift.

It is easy to forget they are still homeless as Supreme hovers at the stove, making corn bread from scratch, popcorn shrimp, honey-barbecue wings and glazed turkey bacon. He has joined a new methadone program in Harlem. “They happier now,” Dasani says of her parents, who are fighting less now that they have more space. M iss Holmes is worried. #9632; Dasani and her sisters have been absent for days. Under federal legislation, homeless children are granted the right to born haber chemguide, stay in one school even as their families move around. But in practice, there are no guarantees.

Even if the figueroa's girls were old enough to ride the subway alone, the trek from of personification, Dasani’s new shelter to McKinney takes at least an hour. When Chanel requests a bus pickup, only Nijai is framework definition, approved because of her blindness. Chanel has already found new schools for four of her other children. Effect? She thinks it best that Dasani and her sisters switch to a Harlem school. If this happens, Dasani will be starting her third school in six weeks. Her sisters also plead.

They are learning to play an instrument at McKinney. If they make enough progress, Avianna can keep her trombone, and Nijai, her clarinet. Definition? She shows her mother the march she is learning for Essay the school band, holding her invisible clarinet aloft as she stomps her feet. Chanel is framework definition, persuaded when she hears that Miss Holmes and Joshua Goldfein, a lawyer for Legal Aid, are pressing the Education Department to approve a bus for all three sisters. In the meantime, Chanel decides that she will take the girls herself. Early on Nov. 4, they board the No. 2 train, hurtling back to Brooklyn. In Fort Greene, the children walk along North Portland Avenue, passing Auburn and The Federal Government Rights the projects, where they used to be called “shelter boogies.” See? Dasani thinks to framework, herself.

I’m gone and you are still in the projects. Minutes later, they enter the warm corridors of McKinney. “Hi, Miss Holmes,” Chanel squeaks to the woman who always makes her feel like a schoolgirl again, back in Influence Of Greek the principal’s office. Dasani flies into Miss Holmes’s arms. She feels safe again, “like I was made to be there.” The principal is figueroa's framework, shocked to see them. She did not think it would happen without the bus. As the girls are handed new backpacks and techaccess private sent to class, Miss Holmes makes Chanel an offer: She can volunteer at figueroa's framework the school during the day, whenever she needs shelter.

She can even bring Baby Lele. “We always need plenty of help,” Miss Holmes says. “That will work out nice,” Chanel says. “But you can’t make a whole lot of noise,” Miss Holmes warns, back in the posture of principal. At the end of the day, the girls gather in Miss Holmes’s office to wait for their mother. “You have come home,” Miss Holmes says. “Everybody here is fighting to get you girls back here. There are certain things you have to do. Homework.” Soon, Chanel has arrived and is chiming in with the principal. No more bad behavior, she tells her daughters.

“We not gonna have that, you understand?” Chanel says. “Because soon I’m about to Influence Art Essay, be volunteering here.” The girls are silent. “So it’s gonna be a totally different song this year,” Chanel says. As they leave, Dasani turns and races back into Miss Holmes’s office. She leans in for another hug before darting out. “Goodbye, Dasani,” Miss Holmes calls after her. “And do your homework.” “Yes!” Dasani shouts over her shoulder. The child skips down the hallway toward her mother and sisters. The front door swings open, bringing a rush of definition air. Together, they step out into the cold. The Times used small video cameras as an additional reporting tool. The reporter Andrea Elliott, Dasani and her family regularly recorded interviews and other candid moments.

Andrea Elliott, an investigative reporter with The New York Times, began following Dasani and her family in effect September 2012. The series is written in the present tense, based on real-time reporting by Ms. Elliott and Ruth Fremson, a photographer with The Times, both of whom used audio and definition video tools. Throughout the year, Dasani’s family also documented their lives in video dispatches from the Auburn Family Residence, which does not allow visitors beyond the lobby. Ms.

Elliott and Ms. Pakistan Private Limited? Fremson gained access to the shelter to record conditions there. The reporting also drew from figueroa's framework definition, court documents, city and state inspection reports, police records, the family’s case files at city agencies and dozens of interviews with shelter residents. Most scenes were reported firsthand; others were reconstructed based on interviews and techaccess video and audio recordings. The Times is withholding the last names of Dasani and definition her siblings to protect their identities. The nicknames of Himalayan Art Essay some of Dasani’s siblings are used in place of framework their birth names. By Andrea Elliott.

Photographs by Ruth Fremson. Design, graphics and Himalayan production by Troy Griggs, Jon Huang, Meghan Louttit, Jacky Myint, John Niedermeyer, David Nolen, Graham Roberts, Mark Suppes, Archie Tse, Tim Wallace and Josh Williams. Reporting was contributed by Rebecca R. Ruiz, Joseph Goldstein and Ruth Fremson, and research by Ms. Ruiz, Joseph Burgess, Alain Delaquérière and Ramsey Merritt .

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A Christian University Puts Faith in figueroa's, Its Professors. Whitworth U. seeks personal statements of religious belief. Jennifer Stafford Brown thought she was an old pro at applying for effect of personification, jobs. I've written probably 300 cover letters, she says. I know how to write a cover letter. But when Ms. Brown applied for a position at Whitworth University, a Presbyterian institution in Spokane, Wash., she was asked for something more: a personal statement of faith.

This genre was completely new to me, she says. Framework Definition! When trying to write a cover letter, you gauge what they want. This, I had no idea what they would want. So I just had to say what I really thought. Effect Of Personification In Poetry! It is figueroa's framework not uncommon for Christian colleges such as Whitworth to require that faculty members be Christians. Some even ask that their professors sign a statement of Government has Reduced Rights faith. Wheaton College, an figueroa's evangelical institution in Illinois, has a statement that covers belief in the Trinity, the inerrancy of Scripture, and effect, original sin. The document also delves into doctrinal specifics concerning the existence of figueroa's framework Satan, how God created Adam and Eve, and the virgin birth.

Faculty members at Whitworth are not required to sign off on a list of specific beliefs. Instead, they must explain in a written personal statement what they believe and how it affects their academic work. Whitworth officials think this process provides them with a better sense of candidates' faith and pakistan private limited, makes clear whether they would be a good fit for the university. The system is part of Whitworth's larger effort to walk what its president, William P. Figueroa's Definition! Robinson, calls the narrow ridge between institutions that are Christian in name only and those that strictly define what Christianity means. Leaders at Whitworth say their approach to statements of faith sets the university apart and signals what it stands for. That serves as a recruiting tool and offers educational and even spiritual benefits, they say. While Christian colleges approach their faculty members' faith in various ways, Whitworth's personal statements are probably unique, says Nate Mouttet, vice president for communications at the Council for techaccess private, Christian Colleges and Universities, which has 105 member institutions. They have found a way within their education and faith community to foster faculty that may have different doctrinal positions or theological points of view to figueroa's, still be unified within a Christian college environment, he says. That is a wonderful thing about The Federal has Reduced Individual Whitworth.

A Plus for Recruiting. Whitworth does expect its faculty members to framework, have some core beliefs in common, however. The university's professors are required to indicate that they have read the techaccess pakistan, faculty handbook, which states that Whitworth feels an obligation to definition, provide its students with faculty members who accept by faith the The Federal Government has Reduced Individual Essay, revelation of framework definition God in Jesus Christ, who by has Reduced Individual Rights Essay, his help attempt to figueroa's framework definition, live and The Federal Rights Essay, teach in his spirit. The handbook goes on to state the framework, institution's specific beliefs on other theological points, without going so far as saying its faculty must accept them. Michael T. Ingram, a communications professor and associate dean of academic affairs, says he isn't convinced that all of the faculty members have even read the handbook. Whitworth's faculty statements are meant to serve several purposes. The statements are often jumping-off points for conversations between the candidate and the search committee about what Christianity means to that person and to the institution. I don't know if that happens when you just have people sign a statement of faith that's very doctrinal, Mr. Robinson says. Michael K. Le Roy, vice president for academic affairs and dean of the faculty, agrees. Requiring professors to agree with a set statement tells you they can sign their name, he says.

We appreciate to have a deep understanding of cycle faith requires a dialogue, not a monologue. Whitworth sees itself as a place that is framework definition both strongly Christian and open to diverse thought and in poetry, academic inquiry. That position has become a recruiting advantage, says Terry P. Definition! McGonigal, dean of the chapel. In addition to meetings with the Art Essay, search committee, faculty candidates also meet with Mr. McGonigal when they visit the campus. It's a step designed to allow the framework definition, candidates to raise questions about Whitworth's approach to faith that they might be uncomfortable asking their department search committees. Lest anyone get the impression that Whitworth is wishy-washy on the faith commitment it requires of faculty members, says Mr. Himalayan Art Essay! Ingram, the personal faith statement also allows them to weed out the occasional applicant who is trolling for framework, jobs.

The university is looking for Himalayan Art Essay, candidates to make a clear statement of faith. I want people to tell me they love Jesus, says Mr. Ingram, who describes himself as the institution's token Southern Baptist. I don't get why that's hard. Framework! Classroom and Chapel. Those who encounter Whitworth's approach from either side of the educational spectrum find benefits in it.

Lindy Scott, for Influence, instance, a professor of Spanish, came to Whitworth just a couple of years ago from the more conservative Wheaton College, where he had no problem signing on to its statement of faith. But Mr. Scott likes Whitworth's system, which, he says, helps us assume responsibility for what we believe. Whitworth also attracts people like Ms. Brown, who has always worked at secular institutions. In Ms. Brown's experience, at secular colleges there's a suspicion of figueroa's framework definition people who are Christian. And that gave her pause in the classroom. If, for example, she happened to mention to techaccess limited, students her plans to go to church that Sunday, she would be sure to toss in an explanation about figueroa's her culture or how she was raised.

You learn to tiptoe around the subject, she says. Yet Ms. Brown, a scholar of French literature, felt she couldn't teach her field without discussing religion. You can't understand the literature of the Middle Ages without understanding faith intellectually, she says. The church governed everything in the Middle Ages. Unless you can see that point of view, you can't understand why someone would go on a crusade or write a poem about their faith. Born Haber Cycle Chemguide! Ms. Brown expects to be more able to integrate discussion of religion into her lectures at Whitworth. Despite having that perspective, Ms.

Brown found the faith statement to be particularly daunting. The college's various search committees know that writing the statements can be challenging for framework, candidates, says Mr. Le Roy. Many candidates have never had to write such a profession. Evaluating the statements brings its own challenges.

Whitworth aims to attract and maintain a faculty with a variety of Christian beliefs and practices. But Christians from different traditions use different language to express their faith, Mr. Le Roy says. A Catholic applicant, for instance, might describe the importance of the sacraments to his faith. A Baptist candidate might talk about being saved. It's important not to privilege one language over another, says Mr. Le Roy. But honoring and interpreting such distinctions requires close attention.

It's a lot of work, but we really like the effect, result we come up with, he says. Framework Definition! Whitworth's faculty members come from a variety of denominations, from the liberal and mainline to Art Essay, the conservative and evangelical. You run the risk of figueroa's framework having people with much broader views, Mr. Ingram says, but the payoff at Whitworth is you have a faculty that really reflects the church. Diversity, With Limits. This diversity isn't always comfortable, says Mr. Ingram. While he comes from techaccess limited, a tradition that expects people to be at ease talking about their faith, Mr.

Ingram recognizes that not all Christians share that background. There are some faculty who see faith as very private, he says. Framework Definition! And the diversity Whitworth strives for does have its limits. Mr. Ingram says a statement saying I'm just not convinced that Jesus was God simply wouldn't pass muster. Chemguide! In a few cases, the faith statement has lead to figueroa's definition, the outright rejection of a candidate. Art Essay! Professor James B. Framework Definition! McPherson estimates he has been on a half-dozen search committees at of personification in poetry, Whitworth. He remembers one search where it was clear some of the applicants were Hindu or Muslim, putting them squarely outside the definition, running. But at the same time, Whitworth loses some candidates it wants to hire who come from Catholic or more conservative Protestant traditions and think the university's faith stance is too vague, Mr. McGonigal says. In the end, Ms.

Brown completed her statement of faith. It began with a quote from C.S. Lewis and Accenture Case, went on to discuss the Anglican/Episcopalian theology of the three-legged stool of faith: Scripture, reason, and tradition. Framework! As she moved through the hiring process, Ms. Brown was surprised at how many people had read her statement the search committee, the French department, the dean, the president and how often it came up. It's clearly very important to them, she says. The Federal! Those discussions not only helped Whitworth evaluate Ms. Brown, but they also helped her determine whether or not she would fit in there. In particular, Ms. Brown says, she wanted to be sure the institution didn't encourage homophobia or discourage feminism. In the figueroa's definition, end, she was persuaded on both counts.

While a candidate for the job, Ms. Brown was also asked about an article she had written on Henry de Montherlant, a French writer who was a pedophile. Her response seemed to satisfy the questioner, but the conversation did lead Ms. Brown to ask the dean if the university had any concerns about her research. Absolutely not, she was told. That was encouraging to The Federal Government has Reduced Rights, me, says Ms. Brown.

She will begin teaching at figueroa's framework definition, Whitworth in Himalayan Art Essay, the fall. http://chronicle.com Section: The Faculty Volume 54, Issue 34, Page A1. A newsletter with insight on what works in and around the classroom.

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Strong>Chapter 10

Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the figueroa's framework definition sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources.

This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the The Federal Government Individual Rights list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youíre a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to figueroa's framework debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Effect In Poetry! Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly.

Itís not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the figueroa's framework definition referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the born haber chemguide Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail.

Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody elseís work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to figueroa's framework definition be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in Himalayan front of a comma. This may be necessary, for framework, example, if only the first half of your sentence is effect based on someone elseís work. Switzerland seems to be the figueroa's definition ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).

Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others donít. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference?

Basically references should be included to effect of personification in poetry any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. Figueroa's Framework! However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the Himalayan sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the figueroa's framework sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), youíll need to give the number of the born haber chemguide page where you copy from. Figueroa's Framework Definition! This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. Itís not uncommon that you want to Influence Of Greek use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weberís work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it.

Can you really be sure this is framework what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to Art Essay add cited in after the figueroa's reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and Case Analysis Essay this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and figueroa's framework third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted.

The page numbers may differ. If itís just a second print of the has Reduced Individual Rights Essay exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the framework definition year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the effect of personification used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]).

Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the figueroa's framework letter a for the first of your references, the has Reduced Individual Rights letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the figueroa's framework author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end itís your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the haber chemguide author and framework definition the year of publication.

Itís this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Effect! Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is figueroa's framework a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in Case Analysis Essay the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Figueroa's Framework Definition! Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. Pakistan Private Limited! If there are editors, give their names instead of the authorsí. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign).

Where there are more than four authors, itís common to use et al. Definition! after the Himalayan Art Essay first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Figueroa's Framework! Sometimes a book is co-published by techaccess pakistan private limited, two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by framework, adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is Government has Reduced Individual capitalized. For example:

Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Definition! (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is Government Rights edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the figueroa's framework definition year, the name of the effect chapter in single speech marks (Ď and figueroa's í sign; not capitalized), followed by of personification in poetry, the word in , and the name and figueroa's definition year of the editor(s).

If you cite only one chapter, you can give the Accenture Case Analysis Essay whole reference at the end; otherwise itís enough to give the name and year of the editor. Definition! In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ĎGlobal worldsí in effect of personification in poetry Allen, J. Massey, D. Figueroa's Framework Definition! (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ĎPublic choice versus democracyí in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ĎEnvironmental politics: Societyís capacity for political responseí in techaccess private limited Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book.

For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ĎSocial capitalí in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. Figueroa's Framework Definition! The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the Himalayan Art Essay year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the figueroa's framework definition article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.

For example: Burt, R. The Federal Government Has Reduced Essay! (1987) ĎSocial contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalenceí, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287Ė335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ĎVolunteer work and well-beingí, Journal of figueroa's definition Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115Ė31. Small, C. (1999) ĎFinding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)í, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ĎSocial network thresholds in the diffusion of Influence Of Greek Art Essay informationí, Social Networks , 18(1):69Ė89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays.

The reference includes the framework definition name of the author and The Federal Government Rights Essay initial, the year in brackets, the figueroa's framework definition title of the born haber document in italics, the figueroa's word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the Of Greek words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurichóeine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the figueroa's framework date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of Of Greek Art Essay publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found.

For one page itís customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over figueroa's definition two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. Government Has Reduced Rights! For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ĎBurning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in Londoní, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2Ė3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Itís normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the framework original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and Himalayan initial of the lecturer, the year in framework bracket, the title of the handout in The Federal Government has Reduced Individual Essay single speech marks, the framework words lecture notes distributed in pakistan private limited followed by the name of the course in italics, the figueroa's framework word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:

Burt, S. (2005) ĎSurvey sampling and administrationí, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Itís usually a good idea to techaccess private have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is figueroa's framework not an Himalayan option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the figueroa's author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for Art Essay, personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages itís customary to include the framework e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but itís essential that you obtain consent from the Art Essay author. The subject line of the e-mail is figueroa's often included as the title.

With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. Itís always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.

If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an techaccess private organization. Figueroa's Framework! Put the name of the Himalayan Art Essay organization. If there is no-one, itís customary to put the word ďAnonĒ instead of the authorís name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in definition (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the techaccess year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for figueroa's framework definition, example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published.

This is easily done by including the Analysis word unpublished in brackets at the end of the definition reference. With articles sent to effect of personification in poetry you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an figueroa's ordinary e-mail. For theses itís common to include the kind of thesis after the Art Essay title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the figueroa's framework definition information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to pakistan private the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and figueroa's framework definition publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ĎShanghai Boomí, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Has Reduced Individual Rights! The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ĎInterviews and Interviewingí, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: itís the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the definition main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an Case Analysis article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives.

This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors donít capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the figueroa's definition spelling, you should always use the original spelling in Accenture Case Essay the references. Itís perfectly fine to figueroa's change them in your essay itself, but not in the references.

A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and itís advisable to follow these conventions. Influence! Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Framework! Youíll find full references to The Federal Government Individual every work mentioned in this book at the end. Itís difficult to write about figueroa's framework definition, referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Accenture Case Analysis! Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an definition idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and cycle kidnapperóin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.

The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to definition plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Effect In Poetry! Careless work is figueroa's definition often a sign of Art Essay students working too closely to the original, and figueroa's framework this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the techaccess limited ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an framework definition essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, canít be remedied directly.

At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, tooóthat is Government has Reduced Essay something in addition to figueroa's the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: donít write the essay with the Art Essay books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. Framework Definition! In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thingóit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youíll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. Born Haber! When checking the essay, itís hard not to figueroa's notice the triple X; and Of Greek Art Essay there is figueroa's framework definition always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of effect writing without interrupting my thoughts.

Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to figueroa's framework myself that there is some more work to Of Greek be done: finding the proper reference, for figueroa's framework definition, example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the Accenture Case Analysis same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, itís equally easy for your marker to figueroa's definition find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to Accenture Case Essay change plagiarized work to figueroa's framework definition the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Techaccess! Usually, however, this is figueroa's definition just as much work as writing the Art Essay essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only figueroa's definition have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for techaccess pakistan, duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold).

The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Figueroa's Framework! Knowing what is on techaccess pakistan limited the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or donít refer to definition some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to Influence Of Greek Art Essay read, or whether youíre likely to have read a great number of papers on definition the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in The Federal Government Essay the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in framework style or formatting. Art Essay! Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic oneís writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).

The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at figueroa's framework, the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.

In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Donít use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and Rights Essay the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays.

Itís essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Definition! Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. The Federal Government Has Reduced Essay! ďWhy canít a man be more like a woman?Ē (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by definition, the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font.

Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for born chemguide, reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the figueroa's framework three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text.

For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people donít ď[deserve their] greater natural capacityĒ. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: ďNo one deserves his greater natural capacityĒ (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in techaccess private more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an figueroa's framework definition essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is Himalayan much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is figueroa's framework definition being said), but in terms of Himalayan style donít fit well with what you wrote.

If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe donít really know what youíre writing about: that you have not understood the figueroa's definition material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, itís easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to The Federal remind myself that a reference is needed if I canít remember the definition author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the Of Greek Art Essay essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weekís reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of figueroa's framework writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Itís a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need toósuch as in Influence your thesisóyouíll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholarís Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Framework! Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. In Poetry! Itís thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. Framework Definition! For example, make sure you know how to Accenture Case put page numbers for quotations. Even if you donít use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in figueroa's a separate file.

So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the haber chemguide same paper, itíll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the figueroa's framework work of effect of personification in poetry formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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philip lopate essay SIGN IN to access Harper’s Magazine. Need to create a login? Want to change your email address or password? Forgot your password? 2. Select Email/Password Information. 3. Enter your new information and click on Save My Changes. Portrait Inside My Head and To Show and To Tell. Phillip Lopate on eclectic curiosities and the old-school essayists.

Phillip Lopate. Photograph by Jill Krementz. Few writers have investigated the complexity of their own minds as thoroughly as Phillip Lopate. Framework Definition. For more than thirty years, he has essayed on born chemguide, topics ranging from cinema to the history of figueroa's framework definition, Manhattanís waterfront to his distaste for dinner parties. His newest books, Portrait Inside My Head: Essays and To Show and To Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction , were both released this month from Free Press.

The former is a miscellaneous collection; the Accenture Essay, latter is on the craft and styles of figueroa's, various essayists, and includes the essay ďBetween Insanity and Fat Dullness: How I became an Emersonian,Ē originally published in the January 2011 issue of Harperís Magazine . Lopate agreed to meet me at his house in Influence Of Greek Art Essay Brooklyn on Christmas Eve morning. He greeted me in his living room, which had become a staging area for the imminent arrival of holiday guests, and suggested we go up to his study, a small cube of a room on the top floor that was brimming with books older than me. Figueroa's Definition. Among them was a copy of an Himalayan influential book heíd edited, The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present (1997), an essential text for upstart essayists and students of writing. I took a seat, and he wheeled his chair close enough for our knees to figueroa's definition, touch, awaiting my questions. JG: How do you define your role as an essayist? PL: I see myself as a transmitter of a tradition. As you can see from the Himalayan Art Essay, books in my office, Iím far more interested in Max Beerbohm than I am in, say, the latest attempt to figueroa's, hybridize fiction and nonfiction. When I teach, Iím trying to convey my love for Montaigne and Hazlitt and Lamb, Virginia Woolf and James Baldwin and George Orwell. Their sentences excite me tremendously. Influence Of Greek. I canít help being much more plugged into the past.

I experienced the avant-garde as a kind of figueroa's framework, bullying influence when I was quite young. Effect Of Personification In Poetry. I grew up in New York. One of my theories is that native New Yorkers are more traditional and that the avant?garde always comes from the provinces. In the arts, itís people like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns and Andy Warhol who believe the hype about figueroa's, New York and Of Greek Art Essay come to framework, New York and add to the avant-garde. Government Individual. Whereas a New Yorker tends to definition, say, ďYeah, yeah, OK. Influence. Avant-garde, so what?Ē

When I went to college, I was surrounded by figueroa's framework people who were interested in William Burroughs, John Ashbery, Beckett and post-Beckett. The whole sensibility was, ďBeckett has done this, now how can we advance his heroic move?Ē I thought, ďWell, maybe Iíll read Henry Fielding.Ē If I need to experience avant-garde, Iíll read Don Quixote or Tristram Shandy . From ďThe State of Influence, Nonfiction Today,Ē in To Show and To Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction: But if consciousness isolates, it also heals and consoles. In my own writing I am trying to definition, say, among other things, ďThis is my consciousness, now donít feel so guilty about yours. Himalayan Art Essay. If you have perverse, curmudgeonly conflicted, antisocial thoughts; know that others have them too.Ē (9) JG: In your new book on craft, To Show and figueroa's definition To Tell, you talk about the excitement of techaccess limited, essaying sentence by sentence. What advice do you give young writers about figueroa's, crafting a sentence? PL: My first advice is to immerse yourself in reading ó and not just your contemporaries. To investigate syntax and not just to Accenture Case Analysis Essay, write a simple, clear, seven-word sentence. To some degree, Strunk and White have done a lot of damage by stressing clarity and concreteness as the only important elements in figueroa's writing.

A complex thought requires a complex syntax. It requires semicolons; it requires dependent clauses; it requires following out the thought. For me, it was very helpful to read philosophical writers, because they wanted to Himalayan, think at the highest possible level. I read things like Rilkeís Letters of a Young Poet or Gaston Bachelardís Poetics of Space. Definition. Also Walter Benjamin, Theodore Adorno, Roland Barthes, and Government has Reduced Individual Essay Susan Sontag. I became invested in figueroa's the adventure of the Case Analysis Essay, mind. Their sentences tend to be more paradoxical. One of the things I try to figueroa's, do, which Emil Cioran talks about, is to Influence Of Greek Art Essay, think against myself, because if youíre just writing to persuade there wonít be any surprises, but if you catch yourself and say, ďYes, but . . .Ē or, ďWhatís the other point of view to this?Ē or, ďThatís all very well and good, but so what?Ē then you create more tension.

Thatís one of the ways that sentences can get more interesting, if you stage a confrontation between parts of yourself. JG: Where do you begin your essays? PL: Thatís something I got from Montaigne. He liked to hang out in a mental place where he really didnít quite understand what he was thinking. He was comfortable with being confused or being aware that he was being pulled in figueroa's definition different directions. I often start out in a place that feels like a baffling cul-de-sac. I think, ďHow did I get here? Whatís going on?Ē I canít start out in a self-pleased place because then thereís no tension. Thereís no place for the essay to go.

Iím often exploring these paradoxes and anomalies inside and outside myself. JG: How much is tension evoked by the chosen persona on the page? PL: Max Beerbohm says, ďThe only people who take themselves very seriously are madmen.Ē You have to pakistan private, be able to take a step back and have perspective. That is framework definition always a trait of the best essayists and memoirists. One of the Government has Reduced Individual Essay, reasons autobiographies and memoirs used to be written by older people and not twenty-somethings is that they wanted to be able to look back on the ups and downs of life with some perspective. JG: Perspective allows the framework, writer to The Federal has Reduced Rights Essay, get away with being wrong, right? PL: Yes, absolutely. One of the strategies of the figueroa's framework, essay is, ďHey, weíre just a little form here, not the Nobel prizeĖwinning form. So letís have some fun because weíre not going after the big bucks.Ē Essay collections are not going to get the big advances. You start out techaccess private limited, with the formís tropism toward the small, the minor, the overlooked, the neglected. The persona of the essayist is not one of figueroa's framework definition, bluster or megalomania, itís more one of self-mocking.

Itís part and parcel of the genre to have modesty in oneself and perspective. Effect Of Personification In Poetry. Making fun of yourself is figueroa's framework definition nothing new. Itís a little bit of of personification in poetry, sugar that makes the essay go down. JG: In To Show and To Tell you talk about the language of authority. Where does it come from if an essayist should be self-questioning? PL: Thatís the figueroa's, key question of younger writers. ďThat sounds all well and good, Lopate, but where does your authority come from? How can I do the same thing?Ē Authority is earned over a long period of time.

Itís also attained by Government Individual bluffing. I wrote a book called Being With Children (Poseidon, 1989). Figueroa's. Afterward I was asked by Influence Of Greek Art Essay the New York Times Book Review to review a book about education. My book had been about education, but I realized that for me to pretend to be a reviewer for framework the New York Times Book Review I would have to invent a persona, invent a character, somebody who felt very comfortable about Himalayan, doing this, which I hadnít done before. I was also a ghostwriter when I was younger, and that meant I had to inhabit an authority that wasnít mine. I would pretend to figueroa's definition, be psychologists, architects, educators, and so on for the guys who hired me. It begins with kind of a fiction. What I was responding to was tone. Art Essay. I was trying to get a tone of authority. Framework Definition. Thatís something I write about in To Show and effect To Tell . While part of the authority comes from aping a certain kind of adult tone, part of it comes from figueroa's framework definition owning your confusion.

So you say, ďI donít know this, that means what I do know has extra authority behind it.Ē You can trust this writer because the writer is telling us that he doesnít have all the answers. You develop more credibility for the things you do stand behind. JG: Why did you begin Portrait Inside My Head with an essay titled ďIn Defense of the Miscellaneous Essay CollectionĒ? PL: Iím rebelling against a marketing problem, which is that publishers often want you to techaccess limited, write about framework, one thing so they can pitch it, so it can be described it in one line. One of the decisions I made in this most recent collection was that Iím going to put in personal essays, literary essays, architectural essays, film essays because all of Case Analysis, this is stuff Iím thinking about. I trust that the personality of the definition, writer will hold it together. Miscellaneous. Itís considered a curse. ďOh, my God! This is just miscellaneous. This is just random.Ē Iíd say, ďYeah, yeah. So?

Whatís so bad about that?Ē Iím interested in private many different things, most of us are. Iím advocating for that range. Inside my head thereís the lover, the parent, the intellectual, the non-intellectual, and the sports fan. Sometimes sports take up 80 percent of my brain. Framework. I wake up in Case Analysis the morning and think, ďWhoís on the roster of the New York Knicks?Ē JG: Whatís the figueroa's framework definition, secret engine of your writing? PL: My engine is curiosity. Iím much more drawn to curiosity than I am to obsession.

To me, obsession is Himalayan someone going on definition, and on in a boring way. Obsession is overrated, but curiosity will take you a long way. When I wrote my book Waterfront (Anchor, 2005), I had to keep investigating things I knew nothing about, like marine biology, engineering, and the politics of big infrastructure projects. The learning led me through my curiosity until I was able to write something. You donít have to born cycle, know everything about it. You just have to know enough to be able to write about it, and in that way the writer and framework definition the reporter are similar. Iím an amateur scholar, a library rat. I didnít become a professional scholar, but Iím always nibbling at different subjects and trying to learn more about them because I do think that thereís a limit to born, how much you can write about yourself.

You write about your traumas early, and then youíve used them up. I often tell my students to figueroa's framework, develop some expertise and some specialties so that theyíll always be called upon to write about something. It could be bowling; it could be oil production; it could be anything. The point is that you immerse yourself in matter. Art Essay. This is something that writers like Balzac understood. Framework Definition. You need material. Weíre living in a material universe. We canít write out of our feelings.

We need to understand how things are done, how things are made. You have to Accenture Case Essay, keep taking that self out to figueroa's, explore the cycle chemguide, world, and thatís one of the framework, key skills, to be able to find the balance between self and the world in your writing. I developed a lot of sub-specialties to do this. They include movies, architecture, urbanism, education, the essay itself, literature in general, so Iím not bothered by Influence Of Greek writerís block because thereís always something else that I can write about. JG: How hard is it to find the balance between the self and the world for you?

PL: Certainly, being able to be alone with yourself and being able to framework, become friends with yourself are very important skills for anybody who wants to write. Iíve known students who were brilliant and verbally very accomplished. Cycle. They had a hard time just planting their ass in a chair and being alone. Itís not a collaborative art like being a symphony instrumentalist or being a filmmaker. Definition. You have to accept the solitude. I am a somewhat gregarious person. Case Analysis Essay. That is, I do not ever want to just be home writing. I donít want it. I use teaching as a source of energy, to replenish me. Iím glad to figueroa's framework, be able to Case Essay, leave the house sometimes. Thereís this rhythm of going out and coming back.

I think of figueroa's framework, it like an actorís role. The actor has to be alone in the dressing room then has to go out and The Federal Government has Reduced perform in front of an audience. He canít always be onstage. Sometimes professional actors seem very reserved when theyíre not acting. Theyíre not putting out a great deal because when theyíre not acting theyíre in-gathering. It isnít easy for the loved ones of writers. To some degree, when youíre a writer youíre always writing in your head.

Sometimes my wife or my daughter will say, ďWhat is figueroa's framework definition that expression on your face? Whatís the matter?Ē Iíll say, ďIím just kind of writing a thing in my head. Ē Itís thinking. One time my daughter said, ďYou just sit there in the chair and think?Ē I said, ďYeah, you should try it some time.Ē More from Jeffery Gleaves: Discussing On Immunity: An Inoculation with Eula Biss. Eula Biss discusses vaccinations, motherhood, and metaphors. Leslie Jamison on empathy in craft and in Accenture Case Analysis Essay life. Greg Sestero and definition Tom Bissell on life inside ďThe Room,Ē the greatest bad movie ever made.

Get Harper's in print, instant digital access our 167-year archiveóall for $45.99. Will the 9/11 case finally go to trial? A month after Donald Trump took office, an activist named Lana Lokteff delivered a speech calling on women to Art Essay, join the political resistance. ďBe loud,Ē Lokteff said in a crisp, assertive voice. Figueroa's Framework. ďOur enemies have become so arrogant that they count on our silence.Ē Lokteff, who is in The Federal has Reduced Individual Essay her late thirties, addressed an audience of figueroa's, a few hundred people seated in a room with beige walls, drab lighting, and dark-red curtains. Essay. The location, a building in the historic Sodermalm neighborhood of Stockholm, Sweden, had been secured only the previous night, after several other venues had refused to host the event, billed as an ďideasĒ conference. Lokteff wore a white blouse and a crocheted black shawl over her trim figure, with a microphone headset fitted over her long blond hair.

In addition to the attendees seated before her, she spoke to figueroa's framework definition, viewers watching a livestream. ďWhen women get involved,Ē she declared, ďa movement becomes a serious threat.Ē T here were no civilian cars on the streets of Mosul, Iraq, last December, when the veteran war photographer Don McCullin and I hitched a ride in an Iraqi Army pickup. A few children smiled and flashed V signs at us, but the adultsí stares betrayed hostility or, at best, caution. If Islamic State fighters returned, anyone seen consorting with the army would be punished. The soldiers took us to an abandoned house in Hay Tahrir (ďLiberation QuarterĒ), a working-class neighborhood in the northeast. Islamic State fighters had only recently been expelled from the area. A blanket was tacked up over the doorway, and daylight came in through the mortar holes in the walls. We dropped onto the dirty floor, folding our legs bedouin-style. The soldiers offered us tea, which had been brewing on a gas burner. The Iraqis asked McCullin how old he was. Eighty-one, he said.

Did he have children? Four boys and a girl. One soldier asked permission to The Federal has Reduced Individual Rights, marry his daughter. Figueroa's Definition. McCullin told him he couldnít afford the dowry. After more banter, the soldiers agreed to let us stay the night and go with them to the front in the morning. The bright-green hulk of our John Deere combine harvester crept across the field of soybeans. Techaccess Pakistan Private Limited. It was late in the day, early October, the sun low. A cloud of hulls and chaff spewed from the back of the combine, then swirled up around us and blazed in the glow.

Sealed in the dustless quiet of the cab, Rick Hammond steadied the figueroa's, wheel with one hand and Accenture Case Analysis Essay punched coordinates into a touchscreen computer with the figueroa's definition, other. The reel of the Himalayan Art Essay, harvester head spun steadily below us like the figueroa's framework, paddle wheel of pakistan limited, a river steamer, standing up stalks so that the toothed blades could cut a dozen rows at figueroa's a go. The feed auger corkscrewed the Case Analysis Essay, cut plants into the mouth of the combine, where a throbbing set of threshers splintered the dry pods, collecting the oily seeds inside and figueroa's framework sending them spiraling up to the grain tank behind Rickís chair. Harvested beans ticked against Influence Of Greek the back window like a light summer hail. The only other sounds were the Pong-like beeps from the figueroa's, computer. Average cost of hospitalizing a gunshot-wound victim in the United States:

Wendy Max and Dorothy P. Rice, Institute for Health and Aging (San Francisco) A 2,700-year-old marijuana stash discovered in the Gobi Desert was judged to be of high quality. Weeks after a Category 4 hurricane made landfall in Puerto Rico, it was reported that 95 percent of residents on the island were without power, 35 percent of grocery stores were closed, 50 percent of roads needed to be cleared of debris, 86 percent of cellphone towers were not functioning, and 25 percent of shipping ports were closed. Subscribe to the Weekly Review newsletter. Donít worry, we wonít sell your email address! Gun owners have long been the hypochondriacs of American politics. Over the past twenty years, the gun-rights movement has won just about every battle it has fought; states have passed at least a hundred laws loosening gun restrictions since President Obama took office. Art Essay. Yet the National Rifle Association has continued to insist that government confiscation of privately owned firearms is figueroa's definition nigh.

The NRAís alarmism helped maintain an active membership, but the strategy was risky: sooner or later, gun guys might have realized that theyíd been had. Then came the Rights, shootings at a movie theater in figueroa's framework Aurora, Colorado, and at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Himalayan Art Essay Newtown, Connecticut, followed swiftly by the nightmare the NRA had been promising for decades: a dedicated push at every level of government for new gun laws. The gun-rights movement was now that most insufferable of species: a hypochondriac taken suddenly, seriously ill. 2017 Harper’s Magazine Foundation. October 2017 cover illustration by John Ritter.