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Annotated bibliography on “Girl” by Jamaica Kincaid Essay. Jamaica Kincaid’s story “Girl” provides a brief glimpse on the demanding and analysis, strict parenting style, used by Caribbean people only twenty years ago. Does Have Language? The short story is composed of a series of analysis instructions and prescriptions and obviously it lacks encouragement and empowerment and points to the considerable distance between the daughter and what, the mother. Structurally, the story consists of one long sentence, from which one can derive a conclusion that the dr faustus list of expectations the mother has concerning her child is quite long. Apparently, the mothers either holds or pretends to hold a high degree of control and authority over the protagonist. In order to strengthen the sense of control, the mother uses three destructive compliance-gaining techniques: intimidation, ostensibly “friendly” advice and detailed instructions, which indicate that the girl is treated as inferior and not enough bright trainee. The present paper provides a list and summaries of resources, which will be useful in developing this argument. Twisted Lips? Bouson, J. Jamaica Kincaid: Writing Memory, Writing Back to the Mother.
SUNY Press, 2005. The book by Bouson is a comprehensive and interesting journey into Kincaid’s life. The central theme of analysis her writings is the writer’s relationships with her traditionalist mother, as well as unexpressed offence, resentment and gratitude. All her literary works are autobiographical; moreover, as Kincaid herself states, her story is told by of the her mother, as she sees the world mainly through the lens of dr faustus analysis her parent’s outlook. Back in the early childhood, Kincaid developed a view that the domestic life is a measure of all other events so that everything can be reduced to the quarrel in the kitchen. In “Girl”, the loss of privacy in domesticity is implied, so the short might reflect the life expectancy author’s own fears, beyond the real episodes from her life. This work can be used as a context and perspective of the paper and will provide autobiographical parallels for the main thesis. Sheehan, T. “Caribbean Impossibility: The Lack of Jamaica Kincaid”.
In Jamaica Kincaid and Caribbean Double Crossings, edited by Linda Lang-Peralta, University of Delaware Press, 2006. 79-95. This essay focuses on dr faustus the motifs of emptiness and lack in Kincaid’s fiction. In her novels, emptiness is represented through absent parents, unsatisfied physical needs, poverty and devastation, whereas in short stories emptiness is rather a spiritual motif. In “Girl”, although the protagonist of the literary work is victorian expectancy, a teenage girl, an addressee of maternal instructions, her presence is analysis, almost unnoticeable. The girl tends to nursing clinical essay keep silence, listening to her mother’s monologue and there are only few words she says to specify what her parent actually means. Therefore, it seems like her mothers is talking to a mannequin. The picture the reader can imagine shows the girl mechanically obeying to dr faustus analysis all orders and carrying out ideals french revolution, all the duties with empty mind. The book chapter by dr faustus Sheehan is to great extent useful in explaining and elucidating the third point of the argument, or mother’s third compliance-gaining strategy of treating her daughter like a “dull girl”. Edwards, J. Understanding Jamaica Kincaid: At the bottom of the river. Animals Have Language? Early novels: Annie John and Lucy.
Nonfiction: A small place and My brother. Recent novels: Autobiography of my mother and dr faustus, Mr. Potter. University of South Carolina Press, 2007. The author of the does have language book conducts an in-depth analysis of Kincaid’s literary works including “Girl”. The author examines the role of language in the short story and argues that the mother’s main intention is maintaining control over analysis, the child through “practical recommendations”. All instructions sound allegedly helpful, but the metaphors and hints the woman is using reveal that apart from her love and caring attitude towards her child, one can also notice the desire to compel the girl to imitate her even in the slightest gestures. In fact, mother is growing a “revised” copy of herself and warns the girl against the mistakes she actually made. Therefore, in terms of the french lexicon the mother is employing, she gradually moves from nurturing to a direct attack on the protagonist. This book allows covering and properly addressing the woman’s second strategy of obedience-gaining, which is dr faustus analysis, “friendly advice”, and twisted lips, showing how this friendliness is being transformed into intimidation.
Phelps, D. “Jamaica Kincaid”. In Multicultural Writers Since 1945: An A-to-Z Guide, edited by Alba della Fazia Amoia, Alba Amoia and Bettina Knapp. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004. 289-292. The author addresses multicultural themes in Kincaid’s writings and dr faustus analysis, states that the ideals revolution writer consistently writes from the perspective of “colonial family”, where parents treated their children as submissive family units. In “Girl”, this colonialism is quite obvious, given that the controlling mother is building her psychological “domain” in the daughter, fully seizing and subjugating the latter’s outlook. Therefore, intimidation as a compliance-gaining strategy represents the mother as a totalitarian leader of the family. The present article allows shedding more light on control relationships in the short story and describing the conflict between the two generations in a broader context. As one can conclude, the works included in analysis, the bibliography will provide enough background information as well as analysis and critique, vital in explaining the nature of control relationship between the parent and the child from different angles of view.
Generally, all sources covered discuss the family pathology and the destructive upbringing the main character’s mother provides. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Annotated bibliography on “Girl” by victorian life Jamaica Kincaid. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Dr Faustus? Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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Initiation la conception de bases de donnes relationnelles avec MERISE. Ce cours est conu pour ceux qui souhaitent s'initier rapidement la conception d'une base de donnes relationnelle l'aide de la mthode d'analyse MERISE. Dr Faustus? Il est en rapport direct avec le programme de certaines formations d'tudes suprieures comme le BTS Informatique de Gestion ou encore le DUT informatique. Vous pouvez commenter l'article en suivant ce lien : 39 commentaires. Article lu fois. Publié le 28 fvrier 2012 - Mis à jour le 17 octobre 2012. I. Does Animals Have? MERISE au service des systmes d'information^ Le systme d'information ou SI, peut tre dfini comme tant l'ensemble des moyens humains, matriels et immatriels mis en ?uvre afin de grer l'information au sein d'une unit, une entreprise par exemple.
Il ne faut toutefois pas confondre un systme d'information avec un systme informatique . Dr Faustus Analysis? En effet, les systmes d'information ne sont pas toujours totalement informatiss et existaient dj avant l'arrive des nouvelles technologies de l'information et des communications dont l'informatique fait partie intgrante. Le SI possde 4 fonctions essentielles : La saisie ou collecte de l'information La mmorisation de l'information l'aide de fichier ou de base de donnes Le traitement de l'information afin de mieux l'exploiter (consultation, organisation, mise jour, calculs pour obtenir de nouvelles donnes, . Does Animals Have Language? ) La diffusion de l'information. Autrefois, l'information tait stocke sur papier l'aide de formulaires, de dossiers, … et il existait des procdures manuelles pour la traiter. Dr Faustus? Aujourd'hui, les systmes informatises, comme les systmes de gestion de bases de donnes relationnelles (SGBDR), sont mis au service du systme d'information. MERISE est une mthode franaise ne dans les annes 70, dveloppe initialement par Hubert Tardieu . Theodore Roosevelt: ВЂњTeddy BearвЂќ? Elle fut ensuite mise en avant dans les annes 80, la demande du Ministre de l'Industrie qui souhaitait une mthode de conception des SI. MERISE est donc une mthode d'analyse et de conception des SI base sur le principe de la sparation des donnes et des traitements. Dr Faustus Analysis? Elle possde un certain nombre de modles (ou schmas ) qui sont rpartis sur 3 niveaux : Dans ce cours, nous ne nous intresserons qu' certains schmas permettant la conception d'une base de donnes relationnelle puis sa ralisation sur un SGBDR.
II. Student Clinical Essay? Modlisation d'une base de donnes au niveau conceptuel^ Il s'agit de l'laboration du modle conceptuel des donnes (MCD) qui est une reprsentation graphique et structure des informations mmorises par un SI. Dr Faustus Analysis? Le MCD est bas sur deux notions principales : les entits et les associations , d'o sa seconde appellation : le schma Entit/Association . L'laboration du MCD passe par les tapes suivantes : La mise en place de rgles de gestion (si celles-ci ne vous sont pas donnes), L'laboration du dictionnaire des donnes , La recherche des dpendances fonctionnelles entre ces donnes, L'laboration du MCD (cration des entits puis des associations puis ajout des cardinalits ). II-A. Twisted Lips? Les rgles de gestion mtiers^ Avant de vous lancer dans la cration de vos tables (ou mme de vos entits et associations pour rester dans un vocabulaire conceptuel), il vous faut recueillir les besoins des futurs utilisateurs de votre application. Dr Faustus Analysis? Et partir de ces besoins, vous devez tre en mesure d'tablir les rgles de gestion des donnes conserver. Prenons l'exemple d'un dveloppeur qui doit informatiser le SI d'une bibliothque. Does Have Language? On lui fixe les rgles de gestion suivantes : Pour chaque livre, on analysis, doit connatre le titre, l'anne de parution, un rsum et le type (roman, posie, science fiction, . Student Essay? ). Analysis? Un livre peut tre rdig par aucun (dans le cas d'une ?uvre anonyme), un ou plusieurs auteurs dont on experience, connat le nom, le prnom, la date de naissance et le pays d'origine.
Chaque exemplaire d'un livre est identifi par une rfrence compose de lettres et de chiffres et ne peut tre paru que dans une et une seule dition. Analysis? Un inscrit est identifi par un numro et on ideals of the french, doit mmoriser son nom, prnom, adresse, tlphone et adresse e-mail. Dr Faustus Analysis? Un inscrit peut faire zro, un ou plusieurs emprunts qui concernent chacun un et un seul exemplaire. Ideals? Pour chaque emprunt, on analysis, connat la date et le dlai accord (en nombre de jours). Ces rgles vous sont parfois donnes mais vous pouvez tre amen les tablir vous-mme dans deux cas : Vous tes la fois matrise d'?uvre (MOE) et matrise d'ouvrage (MOA), et vous dveloppez une application pour votre compte et/ou selon vos propres directives. Ideals French Revolution? Ce qui arrive le plus souvent : les futurs utilisateurs de votre projet n'ont pas t en mesure de vous fournir ces rgles avec suffisamment de prcision ; c'est pourquoi vous devrez les interroger afin d'tablir vous mme ces rgles. Dr Faustus Analysis? N'oubliez jamais qu'en tant que dveloppeur, vous avez un devoir d'assistance matrise d'ouvrage si cela s'avre ncessaire. C'est une tape intermdiaire qui peut avoir son importance, surtout si vous tes plusieurs travailler sur une mme base de donnes, d'un volume consquent. Le dictionnaire des donnes est un document qui regroupe toutes les donnes que vous aurez conserver dans votre base (et qui figureront donc dans le MCD).
Pour chaque donne, il indique : Le code mnmonique : il s'agit d'un libell dsignant une donne (par exemple « titre_l » pour le titre d'un livre) La dsignation : il s'agit d'une mention dcrivant ce quoi la donne correspond (par exemple « titre du livre ») Le type de donne : A ou Alphabtique : lorsque la donne est uniquement compose de caractres alphabtiques (de 'A' 'Z' et de 'a' 'z') N ou Numrique : lorsque la donne est compose uniquement de nombres (entiers ou rels) AN ou Alphanumrique : lorsque la donne peut tre compose la fois de caractres alphabtiques et numriques Date : lorsque la donne est une date (au format AAAA-MM-JJ) Boolen : Vrai ou Faux La taille : elle s'exprime en nombre de caractres ou de chiffres. Does Have? Dans le cas d'une date au format AAAA-JJ-MM, on dr faustus analysis, compte galement le nombre de caractres, soit 10 caractres. Twisted Lips? Pour ce qui est du type boolen, nul besoin de prciser la taille (ceci dpend de l'implmentation du SGBDR). Dr Faustus Analysis? Et parfois des remarques ou observations complmentaires (par exemple si une donne est strictement suprieure 0, etc). Reprenons l'exemple de notre bibliothque et du systme de gestion des emprunts que nous sommes chargs d'informatiser. Essay? Aprs l'tude des rgles de gestion, nous pouvons tablir le dictionnaire des donnes suivant : Les donnes qui figurent dans le MCD (et donc dans le dictionnaire des donnes) doivent tre, dans la plupart des cas, lmentaires : Elles ne doivent pas tre calcules : les donnes calcules doivent tre obtenues, par le calcul, partir de donnes lmentaires qui, elles, sont conserves en base. Dr Faustus? Cependant, il existe quelques cas o il s'avre pertinent de conserver, pour des raisons d'optimisation, une donne calcule, le montant d'une commande par exemple. Ideals French Revolution? On ne conservera cependant pas les donnes calcules intermdiaires sauf en cas d'obligation lgale (c'est le cas pour un montant HT par exemple, o les composantes peuvent d'ailleurs avoir un prix variable dans le temps). Dr Faustus Analysis? En effet, cela vite de refaire les calculs plusieurs fois pour un rsultat qui restera fixe. Victorian? Elles ne doivent pas tre composes : les donnes composes doivent tre obtenues par la concatnation de donnes lmentaires conserves en base.
Par exemple une adresse est obtenue partir d'une rue, d'une ville et d'un code postal : ce sont ces trois dernires donnes qui sont conserves et donc qui figureront dans le MCD (et dans le dictionnaire des donnes). Dr Faustus Analysis? Lorsque l'on n'effectue jamais de calcul sur une donne numrique, celle-ci doit tre de type AN (c'est le cas par exemple pour un numro de tlphone). II-C. Twisted Lips? Les dpendances fonctionnelles^ Soit deux proprits (ou donnes) P1 et P2. Analysis? On dit que P1 et P2 sont relies par une dpendance fonctionnelle (DF) si et seulement si une occurrence (ou valeur) de P1 permet de connatre une et une seule occurrence de P2. Cette dpendance est reprsente comme ceci : On dit que P1 est la source de la DF et que P2 en est le but . Par ailleurs, plusieurs donnes peuvent tre source comme plusieurs donnes peuvent tre but d'une DF. Victorian Life? Exemples : En reprenant les donnes du dictionnaire prcdent, on dr faustus, peut tablir les DF suivantes : id_em > date_em, delais_em, id_i, ref_e. id_i > nom_i, prenom_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, tel_i, tel_port_i, email_i, date_naissance_i. id_l > titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_t, id_ed.
id_a > nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p. On peut dduire les conclusions suivantes de ces DF : partir d'un numro d'emprunt, on french revolution, obtient une date d'emprunt, un dlai, l'identifiant de l'inscrit ayant effectu l'emprunt, la rfrence de l'exemplaire emprunt. Analysis? partir d'une rfrence d'exemplaire, on victorian expectancy, obtient l'identifiant du livre correspondant. Dr Faustus? partir d'un numro de livre, on ideals, obtient son titre, son anne de parution, un rsum, l'identifiant du type correspondant, son numro d'dition. Analysis? . Une DF doit tre : lmentaire : C'est l'intgralit de la source qui doit dterminer le but d'une DF. Victorian Life? Par exemple si P1 > P3 alors P1,P2 > P3 n'est pas lmentaire. Analysis? directe : La DF ne doit pas tre obtenue par transitivit. Revolution? Par exemple, si P1 > P2 et P2 > P3 alors P1 > P3 a t obtenue par transitivit et n'est donc pas directe. Les DF qui existent entre les donnes sont parfois videntes et ne ncessitent pas toujours une modlisation mais celle-ci peut s'avrer utile car elle permet, entre autres, de distinguer les futures entits du MCD et leur identifiants. II-D. Dr Faustus? Le Modle Conceptuel de Donnes (MCD)^ Chaque entit est unique et est dcrite par un ensemble de proprits encore appeles attributs ou caractristiques. About Roosevelt: An Environmental BearвЂќ? Une des proprits de l'entit est l'identifiant. Dr Faustus Analysis? Cette proprit doit possder des occurrences uniques et doit tre source des dpendances fonctionnelles avec toutes les autres proprits de l'entit.
Bien souvent, on of the revolution, utilise une donne de type entier qui s'incrmente pour chaque occurrence, ou encore un code unique spcifique du contexte. Le formalisme d'une entit est le suivant : Ainsi, si on dr faustus analysis, reprend notre dictionnaire de donnes prcdent, on nursing experience essay, schmatise par exemple une entit « Auteur » comme ceci : partir de cette entit, on analysis, peut retrouver la rgle de gestion suivante : un auteur est identifi par un numro unique (id_a) et est caractris par un nom, un prnom et une date de naissance. Une entit peut n'avoir aucune, une ou plusieurs occurrences. Twisted Lips? Pour illustrer ce terme d'«occurrence» qui a dj t utilis plusieurs fois, voici un exemple de table d'occurrences de l'entit Auteur : Cette table est compose de trois occurrences de l'entit Auteur . Les occurrences sont parfois appels tuples . Dr Faustus? Par ailleurs, la table d'occurrence peut tre compare l' instance d'une relation (implantation relationnelle d'une entit ou association) un moment donn. Animals? Nous reviendrons sur cette notion de relation dans la partie III.
Au niveau conceptuel, on analysis, devrait plutt parler d' entits-types , les entits tant en fait des instances d'entits-types. Victorian? Par soucis de simplicit, on analysis, gardera les termes d'entits et associations tout au long du cours. Une association dfinit un lien smantique entre une ou plusieurs entits. Love? En effet, la dfinition de liens entre entits permet de traduire une partie des rgles de gestion qui n'ont pas t satisfaites par la simple dfinition des entits. Le formalisme d'une association est le suivant : Gnralement le nom de l'association est un verbe dfinissant le lien entre les entits qui sont relies par cette dernire. Dr Faustus? Par exemple : Ici l'association «tre n» traduit les deux rgles de gestion suivantes : Un auteur est n dans un et un seul pays, Dans un pays, sont ns aucun, un ou plusieurs auteurs. Vous remarquerez, que cette association est caractrise par ces annotations 1,1 et 0,N qui nous ont permis de dfinir les rgles de gestions prcdentes. Have Language? Ces annotations sont appeles les cardinalits . Une cardinalit est dfinie comme ceci : Les cardinalits les plus rpandues sont les suivantes : 0,N ; 1,N ; 0,1 ; 1,1 . Dr Faustus Analysis? On peut toutefois tomber sur des rgles de gestion imposant des cardinalits avec des valeurs particulires, mais cela reste assez exceptionnel et la prsence de ces cardinalits imposera l'implantation de traitements supplmentaires.
L'identifiant d'une association ayant des cardinalits 0,N/1,N de part et d'autre, est obtenu par la concatnation des entits qui participent l'association. Animals Have? Imaginons l'association suivante : Ici un auteur rdige au moins un ou plusieurs livres et pour chaque livre, on analysis, connat le nombre de chapitres rdigs par l'auteur (on connat aussi le nombre total de chapitres pour chaque livre). L'association «rdiger» peut donc tre identifie par la concatnation des proprits id_a et id_l. Animals Have Language? Ainsi, le couple id_a, id_l doit tre unique pour chaque occurrence de l'association. Dr Faustus? On peut galement dfinir la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_a, id_l > nb_chapitres. On dit que nb_chapitres (nombre de chapitres rdigs par un auteur, pour un livre) est une donne porte par l'association «rdiger».
Cette association est donc une association porteuse de donnes. Pour une association ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 0,1 ou 1,1 considrons dans un premier temps que cette dernire ne peut tre porteuse de donnes et qu'elle est identifie par l'identifiant de l'entit porteuse de la cardinalit 0,1 ou 1,1. Nous reviendrons plus en dtail sur la notion d'identification d'une association lors du passage au modle logique. Avec toutes ces connaissances, il nous est donc possible d'laborer le MCD complet partir des donnes prsentes dans le dictionnaire des donnes : Souvent, pour un mme ensemble de rgles de gestion, plusieurs solutions sont possibles au niveau conceptuel. Twisted Lips? Par exemple, rien ne nous obligeait ici crer une entit Type . Analysis? Une simple donne porte par l'entit Livre aurait pu convenir galement. Ideals Of The? Pour que le MCD soit smantiquement valide, toute entit doit tre relie au moins une association. Dr Faustus Analysis? Les entits et les proprits peuvent tre historises.
Dans ce cas on expectancy, met un (H) la fin du nom de l'entit ou de la proprit que l'on souhaite historiser (cela permet de prciser que l'on archivera toutes les modifications sur une entit ou une proprit donne). Dr Faustus? Cela doit galement rpondre une rgle de gestion. Animals? Il existe des outils de modlisation payants et d'autres gratuits pour MERISE (powerAMC, OpenModelSphere, AnalyseSI, JMerise, etc). Dr Faustus? On aurait pu, dans ce cas prcis, conserver galement une date de rentre des livres, calcule partir de la date de location et de la dure de celle-ci. Clinical? C'est un exemple de donne calcule dont la conservation peut s'avrer pertinente (notamment pour faciliter l'envoi de rappels). III. Dr Faustus? Modlisation d'une base de donnes au niveau logique et passage au SQL^ Dans cette partie, nous allons voir comment tablir une modlisation des donnes au niveau logique (ou relationnel) partir d'un modle conceptuel, puis comment passer l'tape de cration des tables (cela suppose d'avoir une connaissance pralable des requtes SQL de cration de tables).
III-A. What Is Courtly? Le passage du MCD au MLD et SQL^ Le modle logique de donnes (MLD) est compos uniquement de ce que l'on appelle des relations . Analysis? Ces relations sont la fois issues des entits du MCD mais aussi d'associations, dans certains cas. Have? Ces relations nous permettront par la suite de crer nos tables au niveau physique. Une relation est compose d'attributs. Dr Faustus Analysis? Ces attributs sont des donnes lmentaires issues des proprits des diffrentes entits mais aussi des identifiants et des donnes portes par certaines associations. Une relation possde un nom qui correspond en gnral celui de l'entit ou de l'association qui lui correspond. BearвЂќ? Elle possde aussi une clef primaire qui permet d'identifier sans ambigut chaque occurrence de cette relation. Dr Faustus? La clef primaire peut tre compose d'un ou plusieurs attributs, il s'agit d'une implantation de la notion d'identifiant des entits et associations qui se rpercute au niveau relationnel. Voici un premier exemple de relation (issue de l'entit «Edition» de notre prcdant MCD) : Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed) x : clef primaire.
Ce premier MLD est reprsent de manire textuelle. Theodore Roosevelt: BearвЂќ? C'est notamment cette reprsentation que l'on retrouve dans beaucoup de formations d'tudes suprieures. Analysis? Il existe toutefois une reprsentation graphique quivalente. Essay Roosevelt: ВЂњTeddy? Il est important d'accompagner un MLD textuel d'une lgende (ce dernier n'ayant pas de formalisme norm). Dr Faustus? Ceci est d'ailleurs exig dans certaines formations. Il existe un autre type de clef appel clef trangre . Nursing Essay? La clef trangre est un attribut d'une relation qui fait rfrence la clef primaire d'une autre relation (ces deux clefs devront donc avoir le mme type de donnes). Compltons notre premier exemple avec une autre relation o apparat une clef trangre : Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed) Exemplaire ( ref_e , id_ed #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Au niveau relationnel, on analysis, devrait plutt parler de clef candidate qui permet d'identifier sans ambigut une occurrence de la relation pour les clefs primaires.
De mme, on twisted lips, devrait dsigner une clef trangre par une contrainte d'inclusion vers une clef candidate. Analysis? Par souci de simplicit, on Essay An Environmental BearвЂќ, gardera les termes de clefs primaires et trangres. Dr Faustus? Par convention, on Essay about An Environmental вЂњTeddy, fait prcder ou suivre la clef trangre du symbole #. Dr Faustus? Ceci n'est pas une obligation partir du moment o les lgendes sont suffisamment prcises. Twisted Lips? Ici la clef trangre prsente dans la relation «Exemplaire» fait rfrence la clef primaire de la relation «Edition». Dr Faustus Analysis? Une relation peut possder aucune, une ou plusieurs clefs trangres mais possde toujours une et une seule clef primaire. Enfin, vous pouvez galement rencontrer le terme de cardinalit de la relation qui signifie ici le nombre d'occurrences d'une relation (ou nombre d'entres dans la table correspondante) et le terme de degr de la relation qui correspond au nombre d'attributs d'une relation. Comme cela a dj t dit prcdemment, les relations du MLD sont issues des entits du MCD et de certaines associations. Nursing Student Clinical Experience? Nous allons maintenant aborder ces rgles de conversion de faon plus prcise.
III-A-2-a. Analysis? Rgle 1 - conversion d'une entit^ En rgle gnrale, toute entit du MCD devient une relation dont la clef est l'identifiant de cette entit. About ВЂњTeddy BearвЂќ? Chaque proprit de l'entit devient un attribut de la relation correspondante. Il existe toutefois quelques cas particuliers que vous pourrez voir au paragraphe . III-A-2-b. Dr Faustus Analysis? Rgle 2 - conversion d'associations n'ayant que des cardinalits de type 0/1,N^ Une association ayant des cardinalits 0,N ou 1,N de part et d'autre devient une relation dont la clef est constitue des identifiants des entits relies par cette association.
Ces identifiants seront donc galement des clefs trangres respectives. What Is Courtly? On parle de relations associatives . Les cardinalits plus restrictives (comme 2,3 ; 1,7 ; . Dr Faustus? ) seront perues comme des cardinalits de type 0/1,N galement (il s'agit en effet de sous-ensembles). Victorian Life Expectancy? Cependant, les rgles de gestions qui ne seront plus satisfaites par cette modlisation logique devront l'tre par des traitements supplmentaires (via le code de l'application qui exploite la base de donne ou encore par des triggers (dclencheurs) si le SGBDR est suffisamment robuste). Voici un exemple de relation associative issu de l'association «rdiger» de notre MCD : x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre.
Dans le cas d'associations porteuses de donnes, les donnes portes deviennent des attributs de la relation correspondante. Analysis? Si l'on reprend cet exemple : L'association «rdiger» devrait maintenant tre traduite comme ceci : Rediger ( id_a #, id_l # , nb_chapitres) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. III-A-2-c. Animals Have Language? Rgle 3 - conversion des associations ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 1,1^ Plusieurs possibilits s'offrent nous pour ce cas de figure.
La rgle de conversion la plus rpandue aujourd'hui est d'ajouter une clef trangre dans la relation qui correspond l'entit se situant du ct de cette cardinalit 1,1. Dr Faustus Analysis? Cette clef trangre fera donc rfrence la clef de la relation correspondant la seconde entit relie par l'association. Prenons un exemple issu de l'association «tre originaire de» et des entits «Auteur» et «Pays» : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Lorsque l'on applique cette rgle de conversion, deux restrictions s'imposent : L'association ne peut tre porteuse de donnes.
Les donnes portes sont en dpendances fonctionnelles directes avec l'identifiant de l'entit dont la clef correspondante sera rfrence par une clef trangre dans une autre relation. Expectancy? L'association doit tre binaire (c'est dire relier uniquement deux entits et pas plus). Lorsque deux entits sont toutes deux relies avec une cardinalit 1,1 par une mme association, on analysis, peut placer la clef trangre de n'importe quel ct. Twisted Lips? Par convention, on analysis, choisit de la placer du ct de la relation correspondant l'entit ayant le plus de liaisons avec les autres. Ideals French Revolution? Certains considrent d'ailleurs que deux entits tant relies par une association ayant une cardinalit 1,1 des deux cts, doivent obligatoirement fusionner. Analysis? Cette rgle s'appuie encore une fois sur la notion de dpendances fonctionnelles directes mais n'est pas toujours respecte (il est parfois smantiquement prfrable de garder une distinction entre les deux entits). Une autre solution (moins rpandue) consiste crer une relation associative dont la clef est cette fois compose uniquement de la clef trangre qui fait rfrence l'identifiant de l'entit du ct oppos la cardinalit 1,1. Si on language, reprend le mme exemple, voici ce que l'on devrait obtenir : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a) EtreOriginaireDe ( id_a # , nom_p #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Dans ce cas, l'association peut tre porteuse de donnes.
Ces dernires deviendront donc des attributs de la relation associative comme dans le cas des cardinalits 0,1/N. Il va sans dire que la premire solution est aujourd'hui prfrable cette dernire en terme d'optimisation et de simplification des requtes. III-A-2-d. Analysis? Rgle 4 - conversion des associations ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 0,1 (et dont les autres cardinalits sont de type 0,1/N)^ De mme que pour les cardinalits 1,1, une association ayant une cardinalit 0,1 doit tre binaire, et les deux mmes possibilits s'offrent nous : Crer la clef trangre dans la relation correspondant l'entit du ct de la cardinalit 0,1. Love? Rappelons que dans ce cas, l'association ne peut pas tre porteuse de donnes. Dr Faustus Analysis? Crer une relation associative qui serait identifi de la mme faon que pour une cardinalit 1,1. Cependant, dans le cadre d'une cardinalit 0,1, nous verrons qu'il n'est pas toujours prfrable de privilgier la premire mthode comme c'est le cas pour une cardinalit 1,1. Imaginons par exemple qu'un livre puisse appartenir 0 ou 1 catgories, on ideals of the french, obtient le MCD suivant : Certains diront que toutes les associations binaires de type pre-fils ayant des cardinalits 1,N/0,N - 1,1/0,1 sont caractrises par l'existence d'une dpendance fonctionnelle entre l'identifiant de l'entit pre (ici id_cat) et de l'entit fils (ici id_l). Analysis? Cette dpendance fonctionnelle se schmatiserait ainsi : Dans ce cas, il apparat logique de traduire le MCD de cette faon (premire mthode) : Categorie ( id_cat , libelle_cat)
Livre (id _l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_cat #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. C'est pourquoi d'autres pensent (avec raison) qu'il vaut mieux crer une relation associative de cette manire (seconde mthode) : Categorie ( id_cat , libelle_cat) Livre ( id_l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l) Appartenir ( id_l #, id_cat #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. La pertinence de l'une ou l'autre mthode varie en fonction du nombre d'occurrences caractrises par la cardinalit 0 ou la cardinalit 1. What Is Courtly Love? En effet, lorsque les occurrences avec la cardinalit 1 sont plus nombreuses que les occurrences avec la cardinalit 0, la premire mthode est prfrable. Dr Faustus? Dans le cas contraire, c'est la seconde mthode qui est la plus adapte. Enfin, dans le cas o une association binaire possde la fois une cardinalit 0,1 et une cardinalit 1,1 (ce qui est rarement le cas), il est prfrable que la clef trangre soit du ct de la relation correspondant l'entit situ du ct de la cardinalit 1,1.
III-A-3. Twisted Lips? laboration du MLD et passage au SQL^ Avec ces diffrentes rgles de conversion, il nous est dj possible de convertir notre MCD au complet : Pays ( id_p , nom_p) Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, id_p #) TypeLivre ( id_t , libelle_t) Livre ( id_l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_t #) Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed)
Exemplaire ( ref_e , id_ed #, id_l #) Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) Emprunt (id_em, date_em, delais_em, id_i #, ref_e #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Comme vous pouvez le constater, le schma de la base est dj fait. Dr Faustus? Les rgles de passage au SQL sont assez simples : chaque relation devient une table chaque attribut de la relation devient une colonne de la table correspondante chaque clef primaire devient une PRIMARY KEY chaque clef trangre devient une FOREIGN KEY. Voici ce que cela donnerait : Remarque : Il est possible de ne pas avoir grer l'incrmentation des identifiants par soi-mme lors des INSERT avec la plupart des SGBD.
Exemple d'auto-incrmentation sous MySQL : SERIAL crera implicitement une squence qui s'incrmente avec un pas de 1. Nursing Student Clinical Essay? Sous Oracle, il faudrait crer soi-mme cette squence. III-B. Dr Faustus? Rgles de vrification des niveaux de normalisation^ Il existe diffrents niveaux de normalisation (ou formes normales). Twisted Lips? Les 3 premiers niveaux de normalisations sont les plus rpandus et les plus appliqus. La classification de ces trois premiers niveaux de normalisation repose sur les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire de la relation et ses autres attributs. Pour tre en premire forme normale (1FN ou 1NF) : Les attributs d'une relation doivent tre atomiques et doivent tre en dpendance fonctionnelle avec la clef primaire de cette dernire. Pour tre en deuxime forme normale (2FN ou 2NF) : Il faut tre en 1FN et que toutes les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire et les autres attributs de la relation soient lmentaires. Analysis? Autrement dit, les attributs doivent dpendre de la totalit de la clef.
Pour tre en troisime forme normale (3FN ou 3NF) : Il faut tre en 2FN et que toutes les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire de la relation et les autres attributs soient directes. Il ne s'agit pas de dfinitions prcises mais de simples rgles de vrification des trois premiers niveaux de normalisation. Pour plus de dtails sur les formes normales, vous pouvez consulter ce cours. Pour que le MLD soit valide, il faut que chacune de ses relations soit au moins en 3FN. Nursing Clinical Essay? Si un MCD est correctement conu et que les rgles de conversion nonces plus haut ont bien t respectes, les relations seront donc automatiquement normalises en 3FN.
III-C-1. Dr Faustus Analysis? Les associations rflexives^ Il est possible de relier une entit elle mme par une association, on what is courtly, parle dans ce cas l d' association rflexive. Dr Faustus? Imaginons que l'on veuille connatre les inscrits qui sont maris entre eux tout en conservant leur date de mariage, voici ce que l'on obtiendrait au niveau conceptuel : Dans ce cas, c'est la mme . Ideals? Il faudra cependant diffrencier les noms des clefs trangres de la table associative correspondantes tout en rfrenant la mme clef primaire : Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) EtreMarie ( id_epoux #, id_epouse # , date_mariage_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. On aurait pu choisir des cardinalits 1,1 et mettre la date de mariage comme donne de l'entit Inscrit.
Ce modle permet tout de mme de mettre la date de mariage en commun avec deux inscrits (ce qui est plus juste au niveau des dpendances fonctionnelles). Dr Faustus Analysis? Si l'on souhaite limiter le nombre de mariages 1 pour une personne, il suffira de mettre un place un traitement qui vrifiera le nombre d'occurrence pour un inscrit dans la relation EtreMarie. Comme exemple de traitement de vrification, nous pouvons utiliser un trigger si le SGBDR le permet. Does Animals Language? Voici un exemple de trigger avec une procdure stocke vrifiant la prsence d'une occurrence pour un identifiant donne dans la table EtreMarie : Pour cet exemple, nous avons choisi le langage PL/PgSQL qui est propre au SGBDR PostgreSQL. Analysis? Vous pourrez toutefois trouver des syntaxes ressemblantes ou quivalentes sur une grande partie des SGBDR connus. Life Expectancy? C'est ce type de traitements qui permettent de rpondre aux rgles de gestion non satisfaites par le MCD.
Ne pas limiter le nombre d'occurrences de cette relation, permettrai en outre de conserver les diffrents mariages des inscrits en cas de divorce (l'intrt est certes trs limit dans le contexte de la gestion des emprunts pour une bibliothque). III-C-2. Dr Faustus Analysis? Rgle de conversion exceptionnelle pour certaines entits simples^ Dans certains cas, il n'est pas toujours pertinent de convertir une entit au niveau conceptuel, par une relation au niveau logique. Of The Revolution? C'est le cas pour certaines entits simplement composes d'un identifiant, l'exemple des entits de type Date ou Heure qui sont souvent utilises dans des associations ternaires.
Imaginons par exemple que des inscrits auraient le privilge de rencontrer un auteur une date donne (une rencontre organise par la bibliothque). Analysis? La rencontre est organise avec un nombre de places limit, il faut donc garder une trace de ceux qui ont dj fait une rencontre afin de favoriser ceux qui n'ont pas encore eu cette chance. Victorian Expectancy? Voici comment nous pourrions reprsenter cela au niveau conceptuel : La date de rencontre ne doit pas tre une simple donne porte par l'association car cela limiterait le nombre de rencontre d'un inscrit avec un auteur 1 (la relation correspondant l'association aurait dans ce cas un couple identifiant unique qui imposerait cette restriction). Le fait de crer une relation Date aurait pour incidence de crer de la redondance inutile, c'est pourquoi, il est recommand dans ce cas de figure, de passer au niveau logique de cette faon : Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p #) Rencontrer ( id_a #, id_i #, date_rencontre ) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. IV.
Les extensions apportes par MERISE II^ Elle intervient lorsque l'identifiant d'une entit ne suffit pas l'identifier de manire unique. Quelques exemples de cas o cela peut arriver : On identifie un immeuble par son numro de rue, or il faut connatre le nom ou l'identifiant de la rue pour trouver l'immeuble (14 rue du gnral Leclerc, . Analysis? ). Ideals French? On identifie un appartement par une lettre mais il faut connatre le numro d'tage pour le retrouver (appartement A au premier tage, . Analysis? ). French? Pour identifier un tage, il faut connatre l'immeuble dans lequel il est situ. Voici comment on analysis, pourrait schmatiser ces rgles de gestions au niveau conceptuel : Les parenthses autour des cardinalits signifient que les entits du ct de ces cardinalits seront identifies par la concatnation de leurs identifiants (qui ne suffisent pas les identifier de manire unique) avec l'identifiant de l'entit oppose. Have Language? Ainsi on analysis, obtient au niveau relationnel : Rue ( code_rue , nom_rue) Immeuble ( num_immeuble, code_rue # , nb_etages_total) Etage ( num_etage, num_immeuble #, code_rue # , nb_appartements_tot) Appartement ( lettre_appartement, num_etage #, num_immeuble #, code_rue # , nb_pieces_total) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Dsormais, MERISE II permet aussi de modliser l'hritage entre les entits.
L'hritage a du sens lorsque plusieurs entits possdent des proprits similaires. Ideals Of The? On parle alors de gnralisation avec un sur-type (ou entit mre) et de spcialisation avec des sous-type (entits filles). Voici comment on dr faustus analysis, pourrait reprsenter un hritage sur notre MCD : Dans cette partie, les types des proprits apparaissent (ceci est d au logiciel utilis qui est plus adapt pour reprsenter l'hritage). About Roosevelt: An Environmental ВЂњTeddy? Cependant, les types ne devraient pas tre reprsents au niveau conceptuel. Il existe diffrents types d'hritage : l'hritage sans contraintes comme nous venons de le reprsenter, l'hritage par disjonction (ou exclusion), l'hritage par couverture (ou totalit) et enfin l'hritage par partition (totalit et exclusion). IV-B-1. Analysis? L'hritage par disjonction (ou exclusion)^ Toutes les occurrences du sur-type ne peuvent se trouver que dans aucun ou un seul sous-type. What? Dans notre exemple ci-dessus, un auteur ne peut pas tre galement un inscrit et un inscrit ne peut pas tre galement un auteur (une personne peut tre un auteur, un inscrit ou quelqu'un d'autre). IV-B-2.
L'hritage par couverture (ou totalit)^ Toutes les occurrences du sur-type se trouvent dans au moins un des sous-type existants. Dr Faustus? Dans notre exemple, une personne est forcment un auteur ou un inscrit (ou les deux). IV-B-3. Student Clinical Experience? L'hritage par partition (totalit et exclusion)^
Il s'agit d'une combinaison des deux hritages prcdents : toutes les occurrences du sur-type se trouvent forcement dans un et un seul des sous-types. Dr Faustus Analysis? Une personne est soit un auteur, soit un inscrit. Twisted Lips? Cette contrainte est parfois note «+». IV-B-4. Analysis? Passage au niveau relationnel et limites^ son apparition avec Merise II, l'hritage n'tait pas encore implant sur l'ensemble des SGBDR rpandus (ce n'est d'ailleurs toujours pas le cas aujourd'hui). What? Il a donc fallu le simuler au point de vue relationnel. De faon gnrale, l'hritage peut tre implant au niveau relationnel en utilisant une clef trangre vers la relation mre, comme clef primaire pour les relations filles. Dr Faustus? Reprenons notre exemple prcdent : Personne ( id_p , nom_p, prenom_p, date_naissance_p)
Inscrit ( id_p # , rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Ainsi pour satisfaire les contraintes de totalit, d'exclusion ou de partition il faudra mettre en place des traitements supplmentaires au niveau de la base de prfrence (triggers, procdures stockes). Aujourd'hui, la plupart des SGBDR performants sont capables de grer eux-mmes l'hritage. Twisted Lips? C'est notamment le cas avec la clause INHERITS de PostgreSQL. Dr Faustus? Cette solution est en gnral prfrable parce qu'elle vite les jointures coteuses entre tables mres et filles. Language? En effet les attributs du sur-type seront automatiquement accessibles depuis le sous-type. Analysis? Par consquent, une insertion, modification ou suppression dans le sous-type se rpercutera galement dans l'entit mre. Is Courtly Love? Cependant, cette solution a pour inconvnient de pouvoir crer des tuples en double au niveau de la relation mre et de violer ainsi les contraintes d'intgrits rfrentielles en quelque sorte. Par ailleurs, certains font parfois abstraction de la relation mre dans le cas d'un hritage par partition, et se contentent de crer les relations filles comme relations distinctes ne partageant pas de donnes communes.
Exemple : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a) Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Pour conclure, bien qu'apprcie par l'enseignement, la notion d'hritage est trs souvent mise de ct par les dveloppeurs dans le cadre d'une base de donne relationnelle. IV-C. Analysis? Les contraintes entre associations^ De mme que pour l'hritage, il existe diffrentes contraintes qui peuvent exister entre deux ou plusieurs associations.
Bien que non implantes au niveau relationnel, ces contraintes qui sont des rgles de gestion devront tre satisfaites par des traitements supplmentaires (triggers, etc). La prsence d'occurrences d'une ou plusieurs associations doit obligatoirement se rpercuter sur l'association cible de la contrainte d'inclusion. Par exemple imaginons qu'on l'on souhaite recenser les prsentations des ouvrages par leur auteurs une date donne. Essay Theodore An Environmental BearвЂќ? Voici comment cela pourrait tre reprsent (de manire simpliste) au niveau conceptuel : Cela signifie que si un couple livre-auteur est prsent dans l'association «presenter», alors il doit obligatoirement tre prsent dans l'association «rediger». Dr Faustus? Cela traduit simplement la rgle de gestion qui impose que pour qu'un auteur fasse la promotion d'un ouvrage, il doit en tre l'un des crivains. Lorsqu'une occurrence est prsente dans l'une des associations concernes par la contrainte d'exclusion, elle ne doit pas tre prsente dans une des autres associations concernes par cette contrainte. Passons cette fois dans le cadre d'une librairie/imprimerie qui dispose de plusieurs services d'impressions qui lui sont propre. Does Animals Have Language? On souhaite dterminer quels sont les livres imprims et les livres achets tout en gardant une trace des fournisseurs et des services d'impressions : Dans cet exemple, un livre ne peut pas la fois tre achet chez un fournisseur et tre imprim par un service d'impression interne. Chacune des occurrences d'une entit doit tre prsente dans au moins une de ses associations qui font l'objet d'une contrainte de totalit. Reprenons notre exemple prcdent et adaptons-le la contrainte de totalit : Dans cet exemple, un livre est toujours imprim dans un service interne ou achet par un fournisseur.
Une occurrence prsente dans une des associations concernes par la contrainte d'galit l'est galement dans toutes les autres associations concernes par cette contrainte. Prenons l'exemple d'un magasin qui vend des livres et qui souhaite archiver les dpts et les imprimeries du livre : Un livre achet dans un dpt sera donc galement imprim dans une imprimerie et vice et versa. IV-C-5. Dr Faustus Analysis? Combinaison entre contraintes^ Comme dans le cadre d'un hritage, il est possible de combiner les contraintes (TI, T=, XT ou + pour la partition, etc). Nursing Student Clinical Experience? Voici un exemple de contrainte de partition : Pour cet exemple, le livre sera soit imprim dans un service interne, soit achet. IV-D. Analysis? Les CIF (contraintes d'intgrits fonctionnelles) et agrgations^ Il s'agit de dpendances fonctionnelles qui sont directement reprsentes sur le MCD afin de rduire les identifiants d'associations jugs «trop larges». Ideals? Ces DF sont des rgles de gestion faire apparatre sur votre schma.
Reprenons l'exemple de l'auteur qui fait la promotion de son ouvrage une date donne : Cela se traduit par la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_a, vdate > id_l. Ainsi, l'association «presenter» serait implante comme ceci au niveau relationnel : Presenter ( id_a #, vdate , id_l #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. L'identifiant du livre ne fait donc plus partie de la clef primaire afin de garder une dpendance fonctionnelle directe et lmentaire. Cette notion de dpendance fonctionnelle peut tre aussi reprsente sous la forme d'agrgation (encore appele «association d'association»). Imaginons par exemple qu'une rgle de gestion nous impose le fait qu'un livre, pour une librairie donne, ne puisse tre achet que par un et un seul client. La rgle de gestion serait ici implante par la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_lib, ref_l > id_c.
Cette DF pourrait trs bien faire l'objet d'une CIF au niveau conceptuel, o bien tre reprsente sous cette forme : Voici comment cela se traduirait au niveau relationnel : Librairie ( id_lib , rue_lib, ville_l, cp_l) Livre ( ref_l , titre_l, resume_l) Client ( id_c , nom_c, prenom_c) ProposerEnVente ( id_lib #, ref_l # , id_c #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. On retrouve bien la mme implantation au niveau relationnel que l'on aurait eu pour une CIF.
Avec les diffrentes notions abordes dans ce cours et quelques connaissance en SQL, il vous est maintenant possible de concevoir et raliser des bases de donnes relationnelles. Dr Faustus Analysis? Il est important de matriser les diffrentes notions de ce modle qui est aujourd'hui le plus enseign au niveau des formations, mais aussi le plus utilis en entreprise. Cependant, ce modle a souvent montr ses limites au niveau de certains systmes d'informations. Student Experience Essay? Par exemple, vous pourriez tre amens travailler sur des systmes d'informations o les SGBDR ne servent qu' persister des donnes au format XML. Analysis? Le traitement de l'information, qui doit parfois se faire en temps rel, se fait donc au niveau de l'application afin de ne pas surcharger de requtes les serveurs de donnes. Je souhaite remercier alassanediakite, CinePhil, fsmrel, LittleWhite, et MacFly58 pour leur relecture technique et leurs conseils. Je tiens aussi remercier Erielle pour son effort de relecture orthographique. Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2012 Idriss NEUMANN.
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A Deleuzian Analysis of Tarkovsky#8217;s Theory of Time-Pressure, Part 1. Dr Faustus. The purpose of this essay is to offer a Deleuzian time-image analysis of Tarkovsky#8217;s montage theory of #8220; time-pressure ,#8221; foregrounded against the historical backdrop of Eisenstein#8217;s montage of attractions. Several films from Tarkovsky#8217;s later work will be examined for animals have language, montage elements that support or contravene these theories. The history of the post-Revolution USSR can be broken into three major periods: 1) Stalinist period (1927-1953) 2) post-Stalinist period (1953-1986) and dr faustus analysis, 3) Gorbachev (and post) period (1986-). During the Stalin period the Soviet film industry was under the control of the communist regime.1. The Russian new wave began during the Post-Stalinist period, at about the same time as it did in the rest of Europe. It is characterized by nursing clinical essay films about national history and WWII , social dramas, and poetic films. The Russian new wave filmmakers are many, among them, Andrei Tarkovsky, Sergei Paradjanov, Alexei German, Tengiz Abuladze, Otar Iosseliani, and Nikita Mikhalkov. To speak of dr faustus analysis, Soviet-Russian cinema is to discuss the achievements of the old and new school of film making, and one can easily begin by comparing the works and theories of Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky. Soviet montage developed after the 1917 Russian revolution. Sergei Eisenstein is considered, if not the father of animals have language, Soviet montage, its most articulate spokesperson.
Soviet montage views movement and space as the distinctive characteristics of cinema as opposed to theater. Montage defines the dr faustus analysis, way in which images are cut and assembled together. Ideals Of The. The director composes separated filmed fragments into a whole and juxtaposes these fragments into an integral structure to achieve a rhythmical effect. Eisenstein considered montage as the basis of art cinema (film art). The #8220;montage of attraction#8221; puts objects, ideas, and symbols in collision to produce an intellectual and critical response from the dr faustus analysis, viewer.2.
Andrei Tarkovsky is the most celebrated filmmaker of the 1960#8217;s, 70#8217;s and 80#8217;s (until his death in Paris on Dec. 29, 1986). Twisted Lips. He is the patriarch of the dr faustus analysis, contemporary Soviet #8220;poetic film.#8221; Tarkovsky strongly opposed montage and victorian life, believed that the analysis, basis of art cinema (film art) is the internal rhythm of the shot. Tarkovsky#8217;s idea of #8220; Sculpting in Essay An Environmental вЂњTeddy, Time #8221; proposes cinema as the representation of distinctive currents or waves of time, conveyed in the shot by its internal rhythm. Tarkovsky believed the film image not to be a composite of different shots arranged in a structure within a specific sequence progressing in time.
He reasoned that if the dr faustus analysis, film image is not a composite then the dominant factor of the film must be its rhythm. Of The Revolution. Rhythm is at the core of the #8220;poetic film.#8221; But Tarkovsky#8217;s idea of dr faustus, rhythm is not that of what love, Eisenstein, instead he envisioned cinematic rhythm as some kind of movement within the dr faustus, frame, and does animals language, not as a sequence of shots in time. Hence, the main characteristic of poetic film is the process of Sculpting in Time as opposed to Eisenstein montage of attractions. While Eisenstein#8217;s process of editing is guided by dr faustus intellectual and conceptual juxtaposition of images, Tarkovsky#8217;s time sculpting involves editing techniques which allow spontaneous unification of the shot as a self-organizing structure. Instead of the interplay of concepts (Eisensteinian montage), Tarkovsky creates the film image as an expression of the matter world, or simply the world. For Eisenstein, the concept dictated the cut; but for Tarkovsky, it is time that rules, dictating the editing techniques. Therefore, time within the frame expresses something significant and truthful that goes beyond the events on the screen and those in the frame; and so, the direct perception of time is like a pointer to infinity (this approach is quite different to the montage of attraction between shots where elements in the shot juxtapose concepts, making the viewer produce some intellectual link). While the montage of attraction produces a burst of meaning, arousing the viewer with the purpose to suggest specific ideas and concepts, Tarkovskian time rhythms illustrate a way of seeing life in its essence, life#8217;s movements. Moreover, this poetic expression of the material world may go beyond the about Theodore Roosevelt:, artist#8217;s intention and dr faustus, be received differently by each viewer. In the of the, Tarkovskian School of analysis, film poetics, the filmmaker expresses his philosophy of life as opposed to creating a new perception of a social reality.
More typical than Paradjanov#8217;s treatment as a film director was the have language, plight of Andrei Tarkovsky [1932 1986], the second major figure from the postwar Soviet cinema during the sixties.3 Tarkovsky was probably influenced in his decision to study at the VGIK (Moscow film school) under Mikhail Romm by analysis his father, the Russian poet Arseni Tarkovsky.4. In 1974 Tarkovsky produced an autobiographical film a la Fellini#8217;s Amarcord (1973), entitled Zerkalo ( Mirror ), which was criticized as being labyrinth in form and parabolic in nature. In 1976, he directed an victorian life expectancy, acclaimed stage version of Hamlet in dr faustus analysis, Moscow. Late in the decade, Tarkovsky made Stalker (1979), an ambiguous allegory of decay shot in Estonia which was read by some as an indictment of the Soviet government#8217;s repression of intellectual freedom. Revolution. It is an eerily dismal film about a writer and a scientist who are guided by a man called the dr faustus, Stalker , on a journey through a mysterious wasteland referred to as the life, #8220;Zone.#8221; Their goal being to travel to a place called the #8220;Room#8221; where all wishes may be granted, but they fail in their quest through lack of analysis, will power. In 1982, he began shooting Nostalghia (1982) in Italy for Gaumont and what is courtly, RAI , with Soviet cooperation.5 In 1985, he completed his final film, the international co-production The Sacrifice (1986) in Sweden.6. Tarkovsky#8217;s Mirror is a philosophically personal and autobiographical film dealing with memory and temporality. The concepts of time and remembrance have been the dr faustus, tropes of investigations by ideals other authors; for instance, Alain Resnais#8217; Muriel (1963) is a personal film that explores such issues through the socially changing framework of French history (circa 1960).
Tarkovsky#8217;s Mirror , alternatively titled Mirror or A White, White Day , delves into the personal histories of dr faustus analysis, its characters through a kaleidoscopic mesh of interwoven time periods. In Mirror , history becomes an enigmatic Mirror that reflects three different levels of temporality in which time expresses a sense of universal oneness. There are three distinctive periods that differentiate time from an otherwise unified portrayal of the personal history of its principal protagonist, Alexei, the narrator (voice-over), who is glimpsed only the end of the film: 1) the student experience essay, #8216;present#8217; circa 1975, 2) the dr faustus, #8216;past#8217; of post- WWII (mid-1940s), 3) and another #8216;past#8217; of twisted lips, pre- WWII (1930s). In Mirror Tarkovsky differentiates history into temporal categories and integrates within them the personal histories of the characters to expose the unifying aspects of analysis, time. He captures a temporal oneness through a sensibly oneiric cinematography and what is courtly love, carefully structured mise-en-scene, especially in analysis, its color tones, surface textures, and sound designs. Moreover, he matches stock footage from these periods with the time sensibility of his own shots, that is, he cuts documentary footage with the time-image_s emerging out from his _time-pressure editing. This type of time-thrust cutting, which he used to make his thesis film The Steamroller and the Violin (1960) is in contrast to the Soviet montage style developed by Sergei Eisenstein.
This new way of conceptualizing montage involves the matching of the internal rhythms within the shots with each other, and it is does this new brand of temporal linkage that dictates the cut (not the concept which dictates the cut in dr faustus analysis, Eisensteinian montage). These inner rhythms are related to the flow of twisted lips, time, the direct perception of time that exists and emanates from the shots; and as with any dynamic continuum, the flow of time carries a temporal mass or momentum, definable by a so-called #8220; time-pressure ,#8221; a hypothetical concept in Tarkovsky#8217;s montage theory of Sculpting in Time .7. Tarkovsky explains that editing cannot be the dominant structural element of a film, as the protagonists of dr faustus, Soviet montage cinema (Kuleshov and Eisenstein) maintained in the 1920#8217;s. Student Experience Essay. The film image comes into being during shooting, and exists within the frame. As Donato Totaro explains, editing brings together shots which are already filled with time (1992, 24).
The function of editing is to organize the time-image_s into a wave structure inherent to dr faustus, film, that is, the _time-pressure wave. Tarkovsky#8217;s concept of time-pressure is like a meteorological time-front that propagates from nursing shot-to-shot and throughout the analysis, film, or a cardiopulmonary time-pulse that thrust against the arterial walls of the scenes, bringing temporal oxygenation to the shots and overall meaning to the film-form. In Tarkovsky#8217;s view, the Eisensteinian theoretical structure of the montage of student clinical essay, attraction, as a form of editing that brings together two concepts and generates a new, third one, cannot fully explain the nature of cinema. This view is akin to the inconsistencies that exist in Newton#8217;s law of motions (analogous to Eisenstein#8217;s laws of montage) in explaining why light bends around the sun or in predicting the perihelion shift of the orbit of Mercury. Even though Tarkovsky has great admiration for Eisenstein#8217;s pioneering efforts, the traditional Soviet montage cinema can only be a subset of a more encompassing grand unified theory of film. Tarkovsky#8217;s theory derives from the incomplete understanding of analysis, time that exists in Eisenstein#8217;s theory (whose temporal concepts are very similar to the indirect perception and treatment of love, time in Newtonian physics). Tarkovsky hypothesizes that time can be directly perceived in film.
He theorizes that the time-thrust (temporal force or energy) is analysis equivalent to the cinematic material (filmic matter projected on the screen at the speed of light analogous to E = MC2) and therefore it is inherent to every shot. About Roosevelt: An Environmental ВЂњTeddy BearвЂќ. Therefore, just as Albert Einstein#8217;s theory of general relativity reduces to Newton#8217;s gravitational law of force, as the dr faustus analysis, material velocity becomes very much smaller than the victorian expectancy, speed of dr faustus analysis, light; so too does Tarkovsky#8217;s theory of time-rhythm montage (or Sculpting in Time ) reduces to Eisenstein#8217;s theory of shot-concept montage , as the division of the sensory-motor link becomes much more rational than irrational. Tarkovsky believed that film#8217;s ultimate goal cannot be the interplay of concepts because the film-image, specifically the time-image , is tied to the concreteness of time and the temporality of matter, reaching out ideals of the french, along mysterious paths to regions beyond infinity. For this reason, the poetics of cinema, a mixture of base, everyday material substances, is very much resistant to symbolism (in the Tarkovskian sense). Even though Tarkovsky and Eisenstein appear to have opposite views on the idea of montage, Sculpting in Time incorporates some of Eisenstein#8217;s montage categories (rhythmic, tonal and overtonal) into its own system of cutting.
Eisenstein#8217;s film structure can be described as an organic form with artificial content while Tarkovsky#8217;s approach is organic in body, exhibiting the analysis, characteristics of a living organism, and thus, it is essentially natural. Tarkovskian time-rhythm montage is no more than the natural time variant of the unification of the shots that exists in the material of the film. It allows the separate scenes and shots to twisted lips, come together spontaneously, joining up according to their own intrinsic pattern of relationships and articulations. Retroactively, a self-generating structure forms during editing because of the inherent material temporality that is caught during shooting. The grouping of the shots creates the structure of analysis, a film, but not necessarily its rhythm. In a brilliant occasion of praxis aligning with theory, Tarkovsky writes: #8220;The distinctive time running through the Essay about Roosevelt: An Environmental, shots makes the dr faustus, rhythm#8230;rhythm is not determined by does have language the length of the edited pieces, but by the pressure of the time that runs through them (1986, 117).
The flow of time running through the shots creates the rhythm of the film. Moreover, rhythm is determined not by the length of the shots, but by the pressure of the analysis, time that runs through them. Expectancy. Therefore, montage can only be a feature of dr faustus analysis, style because it cannot create this time-rhythm, the ideals of the french revolution, truly dominant element of our modern cinema. Flowing systems permeate all aspects of life, matter, energy and time; but they manifest their myriad rhythms in dr faustus analysis, a contradictory duality of nature, exhibiting particle-wave characteristics. On the microscopic level, nature behaves as a matter-wave whose motion is described by a matrix energy operator, H, operating on a particle-wave function, within the nursing student clinical essay, dynamics of the Hamiltonian representation where time is effectively stationary at the moment of the measurement, or within the dr faustus analysis, Schrodinger representation where time evolves along with the moving matter, through the operations of a 2nd order space differential operator. A finely exquisite understanding of elementary quantum physics offers a penetrative insight in the Tarkovskian theory of time-pressure . The material duality of of the revolution, time [in Einstein#8217;s general theory of relativity, time (t) is an equivalent coordinate to those of analysis, space (x, y, z), where all four quantities are expressible as a single 4-vector in space-time (x, y, z, t)].
The implication is tremendous because time behaves much like a light-wave that never stops moving, but also as a particle-wave that can be relatively arrested (an implication that allows for the direct perception of time in Tarkovsky#8217;s cinema). It is about Theodore An Environmental вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ not surprising that a cinematic physics exists which leads us to ask questions such as: #8220;what is a time-thrust and/or time-pressure ?#8221; In response to this question, Totaro replies, simply, that it is the use of nature in cinema that guides and gauges the dr faustus analysis, degrees of temporality of the audiovisual presentations and since nature exhibits an immense repertoire of life expectancy, all kinds of activities [water, fire, rain, mud, snow, wind, and even milk (just to analysis, name a few)], they become propagators of time-image_s in which the flow of time is perceived directly through a _time-thrust or time-pressure .8 The use of nature in does animals have language, film is purely organic and has a sense of circularity, akin to certain Eastern philosophies which, like Buddhism, are characterized by non-linear forms of thinking; for example parallelistic logic , where A is equal to dr faustus, not A, is in marked opposition to Aristotelian logic where A can never equal not A. Time dictates the victorian, particular cutting strategies because it is imprinted in the frame. The shots that won#8217;t edit or properly join, are pieces that record different kinds of time; implying that actual time cannot be joined with conceptual time. The temporal consistency that propagates through the shot is defined as its rhythmic intensity (or #8220;sloppiness#8221;). It follows from cinematic physics that editing is the dr faustus, assembly of the shots which results from the time-impedance matching (analogous to the impedance matching characteristics of filters used in electronic circuitry) of their inherent time-pressure_s.
In short, to make a Tarkovskian film is to maintain the operative _time-pressure (or #8220;thrust#8221;) that unifies the impact of radically different shots. How does time-pressure makes itself felt in a shot? To paraphrase Tarkovsky with a Deleuzian twist, time materializes when there is a feeling of something significant and truthful that goes beyond the french revolution, optical and sound situations on analysis, the screen. The audiovisual events depicted on the screen are merely material indicators of something stretching out beyond the infinity of the image (in electromagnetic field theory, the light wave#8217;s potential becomes zero only at infinity) what Tarkovsky calls #8220;pointers to life.#8221; Thus, a truly real film stretches beyond the boundaries of its sound-images, creating more thoughts, ideas, than consciously put there by the filmmaker. It does so by recording on film the twisted lips, time-waves which flow beyond the edges of the frame; and like time#8217;s dual nature (particle-wave), the dominant factor in Tarkovskian cinema is a dual or two-way process in which a real film lives within time only if time lives within it. A #8216;real#8217; film is like a living organism because it grows in form and meaning after leaving the editing bench, detaching itself from authorial intent and allowing itself to dr faustus analysis, be experienced and of the revolution, interpreted in dr faustus analysis, individually personalized ways just as those unique and is courtly, precious moments in real life. This is a radical movement in modern cinema because it liberates film from the constraints of the author who creates it, allowing the analysis, film to live in time on its own.9 Ian Christie discusses the issues of formalism and neo-formalism in clinical experience, the modern cinema: Formalism, they [David Bordwell Kristin Thompson] believe, unlike some structuralist and psychoanalytical methodologies, crucially implies an active spectator #8230; Bordwell proposes a #8216;constructivist#8217; theory which links perception [Tarkovsky] and cognition [Deleuze] #8230; Both Thompson and Bordwell make use of the term #8216;parametric cinema#8217;, adapted from analysis Burch (1973) to take their neo-formalist analyses into challenging terrain #8230; defined as the foregrounding of an artistic motivation in a systematic, structuring fashion #8230; it was not until the 1980s that #8230; the long-neglected work of Mikhail Bakhtin #8230;Bakhtin#8217;s most influential concept is probably #8216;dialogism#8217;, which emerged particularly from expectancy his study of Dostoevsky#8217;s novels #8230; involves distinguishing between an author#8217;s direct speech and that of his characters, which can approach the dr faustus, relationship between two sides in a dialogue #8230; two of Bakhtin#8217;s other contributions seem even more pertinent to cinema #8230;Bakhtin showed how these (i.e. #8216;speech genres#8217;) interact with literary genres to define a #8216;genre memory#8217; [Tarkovsky] which sets limits to each genre #8230; This term (i.e. #8216;chronotype#8217;), taken from mathematics, is used by Bakhtin (1981) to refer to the specific interrelationship of time and space in different forms of narrative #8230; Maya Turovskaya (1989) has used the concept of the chronotope to does animals have language, illuminate Andrei Tarkovsky#8217;s idea of cinema as #8216;imprinted time#8217;.10. Tarkovsky strictly applies time-thrust editing theory to dr faustus analysis, the minute details of his films and achieves a separation between authorial intent and spectator participation. Films such as Solaris and Mirror tap into the time-memory elements of the viewers#8217; personal histories, allowing each individual to develop his or her variant forms of understanding to what he or she perceives. Tarkovsky#8217;s theoria appears to be a complicated cinematic construct but it is not.11 What is Essay about An Environmental difficult about Tarkovsky#8217;s cinema is its praxis . It is not easy to identify the analysis, proper time-image match which is necessary to what love, maintain the desired stability of the time-pressure level between shots.
In short, it is imperative that the dr faustus, time-wave propagates freely from shot-to-shot, otherwise, a form of resistance develops in the #8220;gap#8221; and the purity of the optical and sound situations which is the basis for the direct perception of time is lost. What. Gilles Deleuze discusses the significance of this #8220;breach#8221; in analysis, the sensory-motor linkage: bq.#8230; from about its first appearance, something different happens in what is called modern cinema #8230; the sensory-motor schema is no longer in operation, but at the same time it is not overtaken or overcome. It is shattered from the inside #8230; perceptions and actions ceased to be linked together, and spaces are now neither coordinated nor filled [ i.e. #8220;gaps#8221;] #8230; It is here [in the #8220;gaps#8221;] that the reversal [where sign and image transposed their relation] is produced: movement is no longer simply aberrant, aberration is dr faustus now valid in itself and designates time as its cause #8230;. It is nursing clinical experience no longer time that depends on movement; it is aberrant movement that depends on time.12. The stationary relation of the sensor-motor link and the indirect image of time is transformed to a delocalized relation of the pure optical and sound situations and the direct image of time.13. Deleuze writes about Tarkovsky#8217;s text of the #8216;cinematographic figure#8217; as follows: #8230;Tarkovsky says that what is essential is the way time flows in the shot, its tension [i.e. time-pressure ] or rarefaction, #8216;the pressure of time in the shot#8217;. He appears to subscribe to the classical alternative, shot or montage, and to opt strongly for the shot (the #8216;cinematographic figure#8217; only exists inside the shot). Dr Faustus. But this is only a superficial appearance, because the force or pressure of time goes outside the Theodore Roosevelt: BearвЂќ, limits of the shot, and montage itself works and lives in time #8230;. Tarkovsky calls his text #8216;On the cinematographic figure#8217;, because he calls figure that which expresses the #8216;typical#8217;, but expresses it in a pure singularity, something unique.
This is the sign, it is the very function of the sign #8230; It is only when the dr faustus analysis, sign opens directly on victorian life, to time, when time provides the signaletic material itself, that the type [cinematographic figure = #8216;typical#8217;], which has become temporal, coincides with the feature of singularity separated from its motor associations. It is here that Tarkovsky#8217;s wish [a reference to Stalker ] comes true: that #8216; the cinematographer succeeds in fixing time in its indices [in its signs] perceptible by the senses [my italics].#8217;#8221;14. In short, modern film is not a language operating with predefined cinematic units (unit-shot = montage-cell) and montage is not a super-unitary system that organizes sub-unit shots.15. The time-thrust can be easily overlooked because they are often unperceivable optical and sound situations, with no commensurable links to each other and no easily inferable connections to conventional referents.16 For example, Mirror is structured by the interposition of personal memories within a timeline of significant historical events and socio-cultural situations. Tarkovsky#8217;s style of dr faustus analysis, cutting tends to keep the historical temporalities separate, but now and then, he allows them to co-exist in the same diegetic space and sometimes in the same shot. In Mirror , the act of remembering alternates between two worlds, one actual and the other virtual, and sometimes, memory exist simultaneously in both worlds.
The memory-scape bifurcates into actual and virtual situations that parallel each other within a temporal quandary.17. Mirror extracts images from thought-memories and surrounds them in a world of time. Material objects are reflected in a Mirror -image ( time-image ) as a double movement of liberation and capture, where the virtual object Mirror_s the revolution, real; as if, momentarily, the image in a _Mirror separates from its surface and crystallizes into physicality, only to reabsorb again and dr faustus, become mentality. In short, the time-image has an image-structure, a coalescence of the actual and ideals of the french, the virtual. Analysis. Donato Totaro explains that the physicality relates to matter as an extension of space and to twisted lips, the movement-image , while the mentality is tied into memory as a duration of thought and the time-image . The movement-image is a spatialized cinema, as seen in Hollywood genre films, where time is measured by movement and determined by action. The time-image is a temporalized cinema, as in the European art films, where the temporal links between shots are non-rational and incommensurable, resulting in the emergence of empty, disconnected spaces; what Deleuze calls #8220;any-space-whatevers.#8221;18 Totaro correlates Bergson#8217;s views on memory19 with another form of the time-image concept: The crystal-image , which forms the cornerstone of analysis, Deleuze#8217;s time-image , is a shot that fuses the pastness of the recorded event with the presentness of its viewing. The crystal-image is the indivisible unity of the virtual image and the actual image #8230; The crystal-image shapes time as a constant two-way Mirror [like in experience essay, Mirror ] that splits the present into two heterogeneous directions, #8220;one of which is launched towards the future while the other falls into the past. Time consists of analysis, this split, and what love, it is #8230; time, that we see in the crystal [the crystal of Mirror ]#8221; (Deleuze#8217;s Cinema 2, pp.
81).20. The significance of the crystal-image is analysis of immense importance in Tarkovsky#8217;s theory of twisted lips, time-pressure and in the time-rhythm montage of Mirror because it is the key that unlocks the door to the compositional domains of the opsigns and sonsigns which are the correlates of the time-images . Totaro writes that: Deleuze uses the crystal-image as an aesthetic rather than purely theoretical tool by ascribing stylistic qualities to it [film style = philosophy] #8230; Deleuze does not subscribe, as does Tarkovsky, to the notion that the long take, or time registered in analysis, the shot, is of a different value or type than time registered through montage (Eisenstein) #8230; this is a superficial distinction because, #8220;the force or pressure of time goes outside the limits of the shot, and montage itself works and ideals french, lives in time#8221; (Deleuze#8217;s Cinema 2, 42).21. If one compares film with music, cinema stands out as giving time visible, real form. A piece of music can be played in different ways where musical time is a condition of certain causes and effects set out in a given order, carrying abstract and philosophical sensibilities music records time inwardly. But film is able to record time outwardly with visible signs, recognizable to the senses so time becomes the analysis, very foundation of cinema, as sound is in music, color in painting, character in drama. Rhythm is not the life expectancy, metrical sequences of the shots but the time-thrust within the frames. What is different about Tarkovsky#8217;s editing is that it brings together time, imprinted in the segments of film. Cutting does not engender, or recreate, a new quality; but it brings out a quality already inherent in the frame that it joins. Editing has to do with temporal extensions and the degree of intensity with which these _time-thrust_s possess (_time-pressure_s). Editing represents intervals of time dealing with the diversity of life perceived. Rhythm exists in the life of the object visibly recorded in the frame while the temporal movement is conveyed by the flow of the life-process in the shot.
It is through this time-rhythm that the director reveals his individuality and analysis, stylistic marks. Time-rhythms come into being spontaneously during shooting, with the filmmaker#8217;s sensibility for nature#8217;s rhythms in his search for these elusive _time-image_s. Tarkovsky#8217;s editing style disturbs the have, passage of time by introducing time-flow interruptions (the act of analysis, cutting) which create temporal distortions. It is the distortion of time that gives it rhythmical expression. Twisted Lips. This is the dr faustus analysis, basis for Tarkovsky#8217;s theory of Sculpting in Essay Roosevelt: BearвЂќ, Time . It exposes the direct figure of time by the deliberate and careful joining of shots of uneven time-pressure . The cutting has to come from the inner necessity (within the shot) and the organic process going on in the material as a whole (akin to Eisenstein#8217;s overtonal montage). The process of joining segments of unequal time-value breaks the time-rhythm.
However, if the temporal disjunctions are correlated by the _time-thrust_s (forces or pressures) within the assembled frames, then the desired rhythmic design can be achieved. As Totaro notes: Matching shots of differing rhythms can be done without destroying this organicprocess if it grows out of an inner necessity. An example is the dr faustus analysis, car journey sequence in Solaris . Through camera movement, sound and student essay, consistent forward direction the dr faustus analysis, shots in this sequence share the twisted lips, same rhythm. The montage heightens to a frenzied single-frame fusion of overlapping highways, lights, skyscrapers and analysis, cars. This technological symphony is abruptly followed by a cut to astronaut Kelvin#8217;s childhood dacha.
The image is quiet, peaceful and twisted lips, serene. The time-pressure in this shot is opposite from that in the previous shots. #8230;This is one of the few examples of Tarkovsky using expressionistic editing and deliberately matching shots of analysis, differing time-pressure_s. But the cut is twisted lips theoretically justified because the stark contrast between the chaotic _time-pressure in the technological montage and the tranquil rhythm in the shot of the natural landscape reflects one of the film#8217;s thematic conflicts of technology/nature, space/earth (1992, 24-25). Tarkovsky#8217;s sense of time is related to his innate perception of nature. His editing style is dictated by the rhythmic pressures in the segments of film. His authorial signature comes from his editing style and is the mark of his attitudes to analysis, the conception of cinema and philosophy of nursing, life.
His art films are formed by organic processes and are living organisms with their own circulatory system (time flow) which must not be brought to dr faustus, stasis. Tarkovsky#8217;s time-pressure montage represents the sensibility of an auteur, his film style, and personal philosophy. Tarkovsky#8217;s films form a cinema of animals, thought-images . The Stalin regime was brutal and deadly, limiting personal and social liberties, and carrying out rampant political persecution; even art and culture were subjugated to the aesthetic control of social realism, servicing the Soviet ideology. Dr Faustus Analysis. The state film industry was sponsored and financed by government subsidies, focusing on propaganda films and national epics. The Soviet cinema was based on old fashioned production systems, with a few internationally acclaimed directors (the others remained in twisted lips, obscurity), and dr faustus analysis, suffered from the вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ, lack of good screenwriters since many Russian writers looked down to script writing as an analysis, inferior activity. All Soviet film aesthetics were centered on the concept of ‘social realism,’ a representation of national identity through national epics and ideals french revolution, heroes. The post-Stalin period began with the death of Stalin in 1953. It was a time when Soviet politics progressively opened up to the United States and split with the Chinese communist ideology. Its cinema was also characterized by a progressive opening to dr faustus, smaller, independent production companies, generating small scale films. The first stage of relaxation in the arts is referred to as the Khrushchev period (Nikita Khrushchev [1894 1971]).
It is marked by the denunciation of the what is courtly, excesses of Stalinism and the abolishment of the cult of personality (Stalin). The second stage occurs between 1964 and 1982 when Leonid Brezhnev [1906 1982] becomes the general secretary of the communist party, and a more conservative, party-centered government is set up as the hallmark of this regime. In 1957, the Union of Filmmakers is formed to protect filmmakers but it also becomes a form of dr faustus, control on the Soviet filmmakers because censorship is still in effect and applied to all the Soviet film industry, especially when Brezhnev is the general secretary. Experimental or art films are controlled and released only in limited circuits determined by the state. In the Spring of 1968, the USSR invades Czechoslovakia and Prague falls under the control of the Soviet Union; and at the same time, a dissident movement begins in about An Environmental вЂњTeddy, the USSR and the deportations of dissident trouble makers becomes policy. From 1986 to 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev takes power in the Soviet Union, marking the beginning of the final stages of the Soviet government. He opens up his country to the European economy and culture by introducing the Perestroika and Glasnost politics, effectively ending state control politics over Soviet industry and economy.
It also marks the end of the state controlled film industry, and the withdrawal of government subsidies provokes a crisis in the Soviet cinema because of the lack of national circuits for dr faustus analysis, the production and ideals revolution, distribution of dr faustus analysis, film; as a result, censorship is terminated with an order for the re-release of films banned during the previous years. Thus, distribution of Hollywood films in twisted lips, the national film market is allowed and dr faustus analysis, international co-productions are initiated, especially with Europe. Therefore, Soviet cinema remained in the State’s repressive grip until the advent of about, glasnost in dr faustus analysis, 1985-86, and social realism was not categorically rejected as the official style of Soviet film art until a unanimous vote by the membership of the life, Filmmakers Union in June 1990. After a military coup in dr faustus, 1991 (marking the twisted lips, end of the Soviet Union), Boris Yeltsin governs Russia until 2000. During his time in office, the Russian economy is in a continuous state of dr faustus, crisis. Moreover, many anti-Russian political movements spring up within former Soviet states which, seek their own independence (for instance, the war for independence in victorian life, Chechnya). Analysis. In 2000, Alexandrei Putin, former head of the KGB (Soviet CIA ), becomes Prime minister of Russia. He sets up a conservative government but still remains open to the benefits of the Western economy, allowing collateral political cooperation. #8617; Eisenstein believed the film image to be a composite of different shot arrangements in expectancy, a structure in which collision and conflict were made to dr faustus analysis, exist between its elements.
Montage was at the heart of nursing student clinical experience, such a structure. Montage can be further divided into five categories: a) metric tempo of the cutting based on temporal length b) rhythmic specialized metric montage in which the dr faustus analysis, cutting rate is based upon the rhythm of movement within the what is courtly love, shot as well as predetermined metrical demands, c) tonal dominant emotional tone becomes the basis for editing, d) overtonal a synthesis of metric, rhythmic and tonal which emerges in the projection rather than in the editing process and e) intellectual or ideological previous montage techniques were concerned with inducing emotional and/or physiological reactions through a sophisticated form of behavior, but intellectual montage was believed to express abstract ideas by creating conceptual relationships among the shots of opposing visual content. Furthermore since Eisenstein began his career in the Soviet theater where spectacle and attraction were a dominant part of the show, Soviet montage techniques are based on the montage of analysis, attractions, and its rhythm is developed as a sequence of does animals, images progressing through time. Its editing process can be characterized as an intellectual and conceptual juxtaposition of images, objects and concepts capable of achieving certain emotional and intellectual effects. Soviet montage/editing is based on the interplay of concepts, where the concepts dictate the editing rhythm. Therefore, Eisensteinian editing is a montage of attraction between shots, and elements in the shots juxtapose concepts, allowing the viewer to produce intellectual connections and meaning.
Thus, the montage of attraction produces an dr faustus, explosion of does language, meaning that arouses the dr faustus, viewer, and its purpose is to victorian life, suggest specific ideas and concepts; and so, the dr faustus, filmmaker creates a new perception of social reality. #8617; What happened to Sergei Paradjanov [1924 -1990] during the Brezhnev years was extreme. In October 1964, Nikita Khrushchev was removed from office by french revolution a conspiracy among his deputies, and Leonid Brezhnev placed in as the dr faustus analysis, secretary of the Central Committee and Alexei N. Kosygin as the chairman of the Council of does have language, Ministers. Analysis. There followed a period of about Theodore вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ, uncertainty and indecision for analysis, the arts that ended abruptly with the Warsaw pact occupation of have language, Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and a renewed domestic campaign against the liberation of Soviet culture in 1969. Analysis. The brief interval of the Khrushchev relaxation ended with the what is courtly, production of one of the analysis, most extraordinary and beautiful films ever made, Sergei Paradjanov’s Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (1964), a mythopoetic mode of experimental cinema. Like the legends of Tristan and Isolde and Romeo and Juliet, Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors offers a relatively familiar and uncomplicated tale of undying love that has variants in cultures all over the world; with this film Paradjanov created a vision of human experience that was considered extremely radical in its subversion of all authority. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors violates every narrative code and representational system known to cinema, and it seems intent upon deconstructing the very process of representation itself by interrogating the whole set of historically evolved assumptions about the nature of cinematic space and the relationship between spectator and of the revolution, the screen. Paradjanov proceeds by means of ‘perceptual dislocation’ making it impossible at any given moment to analysis, imagine a stable time-space continuum for the dramatic action. The point of these techniques is nursing student clinical essay not to confuse the spectator but to prevent the kind of comfortable, familiar, and logically continuous representational space associated with traditional narrative form. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors exists most fully not in the realm of narrative but in the world of myth and the unconscious.
It is a psychological film embedded deep in Freudian and Jungian imagery, making the Pavlovian tactics of dr faustus analysis, Eisensteinian montage look primitive. Psychologically, in ideals of the, order to tell a tale that operates at the level of myth, and not of narrative, the story becomes an archetype of life itself, where youth passes from innocence to experience to solitude and death in analysis, a recurring, eternal cycle. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors represents a set of collective archetypes, and forms a unified archetypal pattern that is Essay Theodore composed of the analysis, ‘shadow’ (Jung’s shadow archetype) of ‘forgotten ancestors’ (Jung’s archetypes of the wise old man, trickster, Madonna), transcending individual identity (Jung’s persona archetype) and merging into the collective life force (Jung’s collective self archetype). #8617; Tarkovsky graduated with honors in Essay about An Environmental вЂњTeddy, 1960, winning first prize at the New York film festival for his diploma project entitled Steamroller and analysis, Violin (1960). His first feature film was Ivan’s Childhood (1962, aka “My Name Is Ivan”), winning the Golden Lion award at the 1962 Venice film festival. Ideals Revolution. Ivan’s Childhood is a story of a young war orphan boy who becomes a frontline spy for dr faustus analysis, the Soviet army during WWII . Rather than following the traditional pattern of the brave and strong Socialist Realist hero, Ivan is twisted lips a vulnerable, frail boy in hero’s garb. In form, this film approaches the dr faustus, avant-garde in its surreal rendition of the horrors of war.
Tarkovsky’s next film was Andrei Rublev (1966-1971), written as a script by twisted lips Andrei Mikhalkov-Konchalovski, which produced an official scandal. The title character is a historical figure, the Russian Orthodox monk who brought the art of religious icon painting to its zenith in dr faustus, the 15th century. He used Rublev’s life, reconstructed in loosely connected episodes, to symbolize the conflict between Russian barbarism and idealism. Tarkovsky’s third film was the metaphysical science-fiction entitled Solaris (1971), adapted from a novel by the Polish writer Stanislaw Lem. #8617; This film was scripted by victorian life expectancy Tonino Guerra, who had previously worked with Michelangelo Antonioni and Francesco Rosi, and it portrays the memories, dreams, and waking experience of a Russian professor of architecture who has come to analysis, Italy for the first time, accompanied by a female interpreter of of the french, Botticelli-like beauty (Sandro Botticelli [1444? 1510]). It is a mysterious and inaccessible film, sharing a Best Direction award with Robert Bresson’s L’Argent (1983) at the 1983 Cannes film festival. In 1983, Tarkovsky directed Mussorgsky’s opera Boris Godunov for the London stage. #8617; This film was shot by the cinematographer Sven Nykvist, and it is a visionary piece concerning a small group of people on an isolated Baltic island and the possibility of a nuclear holocaust.
It was his last film, as he died of lung cancer in Paris in December 1986. Dr Faustus. #8617; In the section from Sculpting in Time: Reflections on the Cinema entitled “Time, rhythm and editing,” Andrei Tarkovsky theorizes that ‘film image’ as being non-essentially composite. He proposes the dominant factor of the film image as being essentially rhythm. Student. The passage of analysis, time is clarified by the characters’ behavior, the visual treatment and the sound -but these are all accompanying elements, the absence of which would not affect the existence of the about Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental BearвЂќ, filmic time-thrust. Tarkovsky writes that it is impossible to imagine any cinematic work with no temporal undercurrents winding through the dr faustus analysis, shots, but one can conceive of a film with no actors, music, decor or even editing. Twisted Lips. Tarkovsky goes on to explain that no one component of a film can have any meaning by itself: “it is the analysis, film that is the work of art.” #8617; Donato Totaro, “Time and the Film Aesthetics of Andrei Tarkovsky,” Canadian Journal of Film Studies/Revue canadienne d’etudes cinematographiques Volume 2 No. 1 (Spring, 1992): 23. #8617; Montage of attraction does not allow the film to continue beyond the frame, nor permit the spectator to bring personal feelings to what is perceived. Montage cinema presents the viewer with conceptual allegories that the intellect breaks down into puzzles, riddles and symbols to decipher. For Eisenstein, the Roosevelt: An Environmental вЂњTeddy, construction of the image-concept becomes the determinant of analysis, his cinema, where the filmmaker imposes his belief structure, which carries his emotional and intellectual attitudes about life and the world, onto what, the minds of the spectators. #8617; Christie, Ian. Dr Faustus. “ Formalism and love, Neo-Formalism.” In The Oxford Guide to Film Studies . Ed.
John Hill and Pamela Church Gibson. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, 62 -63. #8617; His concept of the “time-thrust” is quite simple because the editor/director does not have to create the mystical effect produced by the time-images. The time-pressure intensities are inherent to the shots and exist naturally as variant forms of the rhythmic manifestations of the direct perception of time. #8617; Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 2: The Time-Image . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989, 40 41. Analysis. #8617; Modern cinema has been redefined in Deleuzian terms of a new audiovisual space-time parameter, the time-image (or sound-image). The interweaving of twisted lips, movement-images and time-images into film creates a combinant form of dr faustus, cinema with an “open structure” that does not specify any temporal sequencing of its elements. This film-image mixing creates a new breed of signs, opsigns (optical) and sonsigns (sonic) which are pure optical and sound images that break the sensory-motor links, overwhelming the Theodore, relations between filmic elements and no longer letting themselves be expressed in terms of movement, but “open” directly onto time. #8617; Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 2: The Time-Image . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989, 42 43. #8617; In Tarkovsky’s modern cinema, time in a shot must always flow freely as it does in nature, a condition that occurs only when the shot’s internal rhythm moves beyond the movement-image and the montage’s serial linkage goes beyond the indirect representation of time.
It is the shot that determines the intensity of time in the image and the montage that organizes the relation of the time-pressure intensities in the sound-image series. #8617; Time-thrusts can occur off-screen within or without a diegetic setting (i.e. non-diegetic space). Analysis. Tarkovsky often utilizes non-diegetic sounds such as classical music, for example, J. S. Love. Bach’s “Choral Prelude in F Minor” is a very haunting piece that he uses in Solaris (1972), to create a feeling of nostalgia and an uncertainty in time. #8617; The Stalin period of the 1930s was marked by the great political purges, and even though the postwar period of the dr faustus, mid-1940s was a victorious time for the Soviet nation, the people lived in of the french revolution, fear of dr faustus, being sent to gulags (or even being killed) for doing anything wrong. The entire population was traumatized by its own government. The individual had to nursing clinical experience, live within two worlds, one political and analysis, the other personal. Thus, a breach existed between the citizen and the person. Tarkovsky re-enacts this split in the Soviet psyche. #8617; “Time, Bergson, and the Cinematographical Mechanism.” Offscreen (www.offscreen.com). http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/new_offscreen/Bergson_film.html.
January 11, 2001. #8617; Henri Bergson [1859 1941] was a French philosopher who distinguished between habit formed memories that are stored in the brain (matter = physical), pure recollections that permeate consciousness (mind = mental), and unsolicited independent memories that are detached from perception, appearing to move freely in a virtual flow of thoughts or quasi-thought-images (thought = temporal). #8617; Totaro, Donato. “Gilles Deleuze’s Bergsonian Film Project Part 2: Cinema 2: The Time-Image.” Offscreen (www.offscreen.com). http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/9903/offscreen_essays/deleuze2.html. March 31, 1999, pp. 1. #8617; Ibid. #8617; David George Menard is essay a Polymath Physicist and Filmmaker, a Physics MSc graduate from the University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN. Analysis. David went to work for Martin Marietta Missiles Systems, the Electro-Optics Division, in Orlando Florida. Unfortunately, circa 1990, the Soviet Union collapsed and love, many scientists lost their jobs. So he began a new career in filmmaking, attending the Mel Hoppenheim School of Cinema in Montreal, graduating with a MFA in film production in dr faustus analysis, 2010. After which, he moved to Los Angeles and began writing screenplays, continuing to do so while promoting #8220;Termite Cat Productions, Ltd.” Toward a Synthesis of Cinema -A Theory of the Long Take Moving Camera, Part 2. Twisted Lips. David George Menard. A Deleuzian Analysis of Tarkovsky#8217;s Theory of Time-Pressure, Part 2. David George Menard.
Toward a Synthesis of Cinema -A Theory of the Long Take Moving Camera, Part 1. David George Menard. Thinking About Cinema With Cinema. Eisenstein, Synaesthesia, Symbolism and the Occult Traditions. 1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.
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control z resume It’s five years since I began the dr faustus Nee Naw blog. Back then, I thought that few people beyond my real life friends would be interested. I was delighted when it started getting over fifty readers per student essay, day. Four years later, that became in excess of three thousand readers and, beyond my wildest dreams, a book deal! I have had some brilliant experiences because of this blog. For instance, appearing live on Radio Four (and nervously talking nonsense about stink bombs), being the subject of a four page spread in The Times, having boxes of Percy Pigs unexpectedly turn up in the post and seeing my book sandwiched between Cheryl Cole and Russell Brand in dr faustus, the biography section (though I was less impressed to revolution find it in the “Tragic Life Stories” section at analysis Smiths in Walthamstow). I will never forget all the great people at Penguin who worked so hard with me to make my book just how I dreamed it would be.
But best of does animals, all are the dr faustus analysis emails I got (and am still getting) from twisted lips, readers, who tell me that they’ve learned something from me, and that because of dr faustus analysis, Nee Naw they’ve managed to stay calm in ideals of the french, an emergency, or go on a first aid course, or even apply to become an EMD like me! Unfortunately, my fifteen minutes of fame also had its downside, and without going into detail, in the end I felt I had no alternative but to bring Nee Naw to its end. I’m posting this now because I don’t want you to think that I’ve dropped off the face of the analysis earth, or taken the money and run. I miss my blog more than you can imagine. Sometimes on my break I will sit mentally composing blog posts from the day’s calls, then I realise there is no longer anywhere for them to go, and those posts shrivel and die. As a blogger without a blog, sometimes I feel like I have shrivelled and about Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental BearвЂќ, died a little bit too.
Some days I think of starting a new blog, about dr faustus, one of my other passions – Leyton Orient? Katie Price? Percy Pigs? I can’t imagine many people would want to read that, let alone publish it, and maybe that’s the whole point. Until then, I’d just like to nursing student experience essay thank everyone for dr faustus reading and supporting me for these last five years. Goodbye for expectancy now! It was the middle of the dr faustus afternoon on Christmas Day, and Essay вЂњTeddy, a desperate sounding old lady called 999. “Do you know where they’ve taken my husband?” she begged. Analysis? “He only victorian, popped out for some gravy. I didn’t realise we’d run out, you see. The shop is analysis, only down the road!
An hour later, he hadn’t come back from the shop, so I went round there myself. Theodore? They said a man fitting his description had collapsed and they’d called an ambulance!” “What’s the dr faustus analysis address of the shop?” asked the call taker. Ideals French? (Although we are not allowed to give out details of calls and where patients have been taken because of the data protection act, we can give callers information that might help them find a relative, like suggesting which hospital to call.) The call taker inputted the address of the shop. It was at this point the call appeared on my screen. I knew exactly where her husband was. “Have you tried ringing Queens A+E?” said the call taker. “Yes, they said no one of his name had been brought in!” said the analysis old lady. I knew why that was too. When the twisted lips ambulance crew arrived, her husband had been in cardiac arrest. His heart had only just stopped beating, so the crew had worked on him all the analysis way to is courtly love hospital.
No one in the shop knew his name or where he lived and dr faustus analysis, there was no time to find out. He was booked into A+E as “Unknown Male”. It was only when the doctors decided to terminate the resus attempt that attention turned to identifying him. We’d called the police – thankfully, tracing the relatives of unidentified deceased people is not one of our jobs. The call taker read all of this on the log of the life call.
Then he went back to the old lady. In a careful, measured voice, he took the old lady’s details and logged them on analysis the call. He told her to stay at home and someone would be in touch. He couldn’t tell her where her beloved husband was, but he knew that very soon, the police would be interrupting her Christmas afternoon to tell her that her husband lay dead in Queens Hospital, wearing a tag reading “Unknown Male”. I’m back! Did you miss me? I spent a month in Australia, visiting Sydney, Alice Springs and twisted lips, surrounding desert and tropical North Queensland. I had a whale of a time and didn’t want to dr faustus analysis come back. Oddly enough, when I went to Queensland I found my hotel was right next to the local ambulance station. I might have stood around taking photos of it like a right old spotter.
I swear this wasn’t planned. When I got back from victorian life expectancy, Australia I decided to take a bit of a blogging holiday. Dr Faustus Analysis? Life is a bit hectic at the moment and morale at Nee Naw Control isn’t exactly high right now. It never is this time of year, especially for those of us who are working Christmas and New Year and not getting any extra pay, whilst our colleagues who are rostered off are eligible for does triple pay if they choose to come in. Ouch. Anyway, I’m back now with some tales of seasonal woe. You will not be surprised to analysis learn that it’s been very busy over what love the last couple of weeks due to a combination of horrible weather and people overindulging at dr faustus Christmas parties. Essay About Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental BearвЂќ? The “horrible weather” calls, unsurprisingly, are generally more deserving than the “overindulging” ones.
Most are complete timewasters who call us because their mate is analysis, too drunk to get in nursing essay, a cab and they are too scared to ring his mother. But there are some exceptions. The other night, we blued a young woman in after a “sambuca overdose”. She was completely unconscious, though I suspect she’ll recover with no more than a serious hangover and patchy memory. But then… “30YOM” I read on my screen. “UNCONSCIOUS. NOT BREATHING.” As soon as I’d sent the ambulances, I called the analysis police – standard procedure for any unexplained cardiac arrest in twisted lips, a young person. The police came straight back to warn us they had no officers available. I had to make the decision whether to tell the crew to hold off until there were police available (endangering the patient) or go straight in analysis, (possibly endangering the crew). I lifted the phone to listen in and heard someone, who I presumed was the patient’s mother, talking to the call taker.
She was upset but coherent. “He had so much to drink last night… I think he’s choked on language his vomit, he’s covered…” she wept. Someone in dr faustus analysis, the background was doing CPR. Twisted Lips? I could hear the crunching of the dr faustus patient’s ribs. “No,” said the call taker. “You must carry on, unless he’s started breathing by Theodore Roosevelt: himself…” I recoiled from the phone as I heard the most awful sound. The rasps of agonal breathing with additional… bubbling. The call taker had clearly heard enough too. “Yes, I can hear, but you MUST carry on with the compressions until the ambulance arrives,” he commanded. “Tell your husband to keep going and to count aloud and I’ll tell you when the ambulance arrives.” Right on cue, the first ambulance pulled up outside the door (we’d let them know it sounded safe to dr faustus go in), so I hung up and let the call taker know it was time to get someone outside. They got him back.
A matter of minutes later, he was blued in, post cardiac arrest, breathing regularly, blood pressure and pulse not bad, considering. He was starting to regain consciousness. Like a lot of people, I bet he’ll be vowing never to drink again when he comes round. Unlike a lot of victorian, them, he might actually mean it. We received a call to a male who was suffering from dr faustus analysis, amnesia… … when the crew arrived, no one could remember making the 999 call… Today, Banana Man did not ring to offer us a banana once. He rang to student clinical tell us that he is getting married. Today I was allocating the central part of the South East desk. I like this desk. The reason I like this desk is because it contains Waterloo Ambulance Station, which is directly behind Control.
So when you send an ambulance to a call, you can see it drive past the window on blue lights. For some reason, this makes me happy. I’m easily pleased. Joe is a paramedic who’s had enough. He works on an FRU in dr faustus, an area notorious for misuse of the service and nursing, unsavoury characters. He has spent the last umpteen years dashing through the streets on blue lights to be greeted with pregnant ladies brandishing their neatly packed suitcases or twenty-year-olds with colds who wanted him to bring them the paracetamol.
He’s filled out endless LA52s (‘incident report forms’) after being abused by the local scrotes and That Regular Who Dribbled on Reynolds’ Arm. Joe can’t remember the last time he was sent to dr faustus someone who was actually seriously ill. I think if you offered Joe a nice little job in a cake shop instead, he’d snap it up – and to be honest, he’d have more chance of using his skills there, should someone overdose on cake and arrest on what is courtly the shop floor. Joe likes to phone us on the desk for a good-natured whinge about dr faustus, most of his calls. He knows all our names, and we recognise his voice instantly. Usually he calls after he’s finished with the patient – “You’ll never guess what – she’d had the rash for six years and decided to call 999 now, at 11pm on Saturday night!” – but occasionally he can’t contain himself and calls on the radio whilst speeding to the call. Saturday was one such occasion. “Why is this swine flu call a Cat A?” he complained. “Because the patient is having chest pain…” said the does language radio op.
“He’s probably got a cough! Why do I have to go… I know, I have to…” sighed Joe. “Okay, thank you.” Thirty minutes later, my phone rang. Dr Faustus? On the other end was an extremely animated Joe. “What happened?” I asked, anticipating another tale of outrageous timewasting. “This 24-year-old, right, been in bed with swine flu for a week. Looks rough and sweaty, but people generally do with flu.
He tells me he’s feeling much worse and that his chest hurts, so I wire him up to the heart monitor – that’s protocol for Essay Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental anyone with chest pain. I read the monitor printout, and analysis, he’s only having a heart attack! At that point, the ambulance pulls up, so I shout over to them to what love get a move on so we can blue light him into the cardiac hospital. Dr Faustus? We get him on victorian expectancy the trolley, and he goes into cardiac arrest right in front of my eyes! I couldn’t believe it!” “What happened next?” I asked. “Well, it’s so long since I dealt with a workable arrest that I thought for a minute I’d forgotten what to do!” said Joe. Analysis? “But it all came back. Two shocks with the defib and we got him back. He was only does animals language, down for about thirty seconds and he’s partially conscious now. Crew have just blued him in, I followed them to hospital in case he went down again, but he didn’t.” “You didn’t want to go on that call,” I reminded him. “You thought it was another time waster – admittedly, so did we!
Just goes to show, you can never be sure. I bet you won’t complain about the ‘rubbish’ calls we sent you on in future.” Do you think Joe ever complained about a call again? Yes, of course he did. But he was quiet for at least a week… Since the deaths of dr faustus analysis, Enid Whiner and does animals have language, Horace Halfpenny, the East Central desk has been somewhat short of analysis, regulars. We only really have two, a crazy pensioner who consistently tells us she’s had a fall and then shouts at the ambulance crew when they have the temerity to turn up at her flat, and a nasty psychopathic drug user who calls from phone boxes telling us about his nuclear weapons and occasionally dribbles on Tom Reynolds’ uniform. Today, however, saw the return of clinical essay, one very regular regular, one I had never hoped to hear from again.
Back in my call taking days, the ambulance service was absolutely terrorised by dr faustus analysis one very persistent individual, who would make call after call after call, mostly to the same fictitious address in ideals of the revolution, Bethnal Green, and occasionally (just for a change) to dr faustus Gatwick Airport. Twisted Lips? The diagnosis was always a variation on dr faustus one of three themes: offering or requesting a banana; telling us about his itchy penis; requesting help because someone had collapsed due to dizziness (often on the airport runway). It is not an exaggeration to say this man made thousands of calls or that every single call taker had been driven to distraction by him. However, in August last year, the police finally caught up with him, and to everyone’s relief, the about Theodore вЂњTeddy calls stopped. It emerged that he was a disabled teenager, and for this reason the dr faustus police went easy on him, and I heard Social Services had tried to show him the error of his ways and arranged a visit to Ambulance Control to show him what we do. (Personally, I am not sure this last bit was a good idea. There are a few people in Control who would have had difficulty maintaining a polite demeanour if they had known who he was). Anyway, today – a busy Friday afternoon – I was sitting in front of a screenful of calls of varying seriousness and wondering how I was going to cover the lot of them with two cars, a green truck and a push bike, when a familiar address in nursing student essay, Bethnal Green popped up. “What??” said G from the dr faustus radio, thinking something important had happened. “NOOOOOOOO” said G, and everyone else within earshot. Student? They were all traumatised by Banana Incidents from the call taking days, too. I’ll tell you one thing, though – now I’m an allocator on the East Central Desk, there is NO WAY I am going to allow Banana Man to resume his reign of terror.
I am NOT having him jeopardising the safety of my patients and I am not having my ambulance crews running around on wild goose chases after his dizzy itchy runway banana! I have started a log of all of his hoax calls (there were eight this afternoon) and I will be passing it on to Management, the dr faustus analysis police, the local greengrocer and air traffic control. Banana Man will be stopped! No bananas on my manor! I thought I’d heard everything there was to twisted lips hear in this job. Dr Faustus Analysis? But today we had a call that was so bizarre and horrible that it left us speechless.
A woman committed suicide. She didn’t use one of the “normal” methods like cutting her wrists or overdosing. She didn’t even go for animals have language the more dramatic jumping under a train or hanging herself. No, she choked herself to death with a large quantity of marshmallows. It was the sort of dr faustus, call that you look at what love and think “no… this can’t be… they’ll get there and it’ll all be a misunderstanding. Analysis? Or a hoax. She couldn’t possibly have…” But she had.
The call was exactly as given. She was already dead by the time the ideals of the revolution crew arrived. We often like to dr faustus analysis share a bag of nursing student essay, Flumps on the East Central during nightshifts, but I think we’ll be giving them a miss from now on. You called 999 and dr faustus, told us that your friend had been attacked by a group of nursing student clinical, ten or more youths. Dr Faustus? He’d been stabbed, you told the call taker, come quickly. He’s lying unconscious in a pool of blood. Is Courtly Love? You weren’t sure if he was breathing, you said. The call taker you spoke to was new. The adrenaline rose in dr faustus analysis, him as he gave you the instructions. He told you how to maintain your friend’s airway, but you dropped the phone and didn’t come back.
His trainer reassured him that he’d done everything right, but he still worried. He’d never taken a call like this before. Meanwhile, the allocator upstairs looked at does animals have language your call and took the decision to divert the ambulance from Mrs Jones, age 85, two streets away, who was in the midst of dr faustus, a heart attack, and sent it to your friend instead. Twisted Lips? She’d have to dr faustus analysis wait a couple of minutes longer for the second nearest ambulance to reach her. Hopefully those minutes wouldn’t mean the difference between life and victorian life expectancy, death.
HEMS, the analysis air ambulance, was dispatched, with a doctor and ideals french, a paramedic on board. Did you know it costs HEMS an average of one thousand pounds every time it takes off? HEMS is analysis, a charity, so that’s money people have collected in jars, doing bungee jumps, shaving their heads, money given to help people. Because HEMS went to help you, it wasn’t available for animals have language poor little Johnny Taylor who was hit by dr faustus analysis a car ten minutes later on the other side of London, and victorian life, broke his leg in two places. As the police, the ambulance crew, the ambulance manager and the HEMS team ran to analysis the spot where you said your friend lay dying, they found nothing. Just a phone box with the handset dangling from the receiver and a rustle in the bushes as you ran away laughing. Did you feel proud?
Everyone knew Horace Halfpenny. He was a foul-mouthed, malodorous drunk who thought nothing of Essay An Environmental BearвЂќ, flinging his colostomy bag (and occasionally part of dr faustus analysis, his innards) at expectancy the professionals who tried to help him. Horace was the proverbial bad penny. We simply couldn’t get rid of him. He was banned from analysis, nearly every hospital in London, but he still called. Is Courtly? A crew took him to Harlow, but days later he was back. He nearly died after setting fire to his nearly acquired council flat, but again, he was back before we knew it. Managers, police, social workers all got on the case and tried to stop Horace calling but to no avail.
He was here, there, everywhere, popping up all over London with the infernal refrain: “MY BOWELS ARE HANGING OUT!” But now Horace will never be calling us again. Because Horace Halfpenny is dead. It seems that what Horace didn’t tell us that as well as the issues with his bowels and dr faustus, his burns, Horace was also suffering from lung cancer. Last weekend, a crew picked him up and poor Horace didn’t even have the what love energy to dr faustus wave his colostomy bag around or swear at the crew. He lay forlornly in the back of the ambulance, his face a shade of grey. “He’s not trying to assault us – he must be really sick,” said one of the victorian life paramedics. “Better blue him in.” They got to the hospital, but Horace died soon after. It was then that they discovered that Horace had cancer. The news spread round the control room like wildfire. “I thought he hadn’t called for a while,” I said. Analysis? “I should have known something was wrong…” “I’ll kind of miss him,” said our Area Controller. “Kind of.”
The world will be a quieter place without Horace. A less smelly, safer place where crews no longer have to duck flying colostomy bags too, but we will miss him in our own way. We had a call last week which read as follows: “78 year old male. Scrotum has swollen to three times size of a football.” “Three times the size of a football?” I said incredulously, almost forgetting to send the ambulance out in my horror. “A football is this big… so three footballs… that’s impossible! It would almost reach the floor!” “Maybe it’s a misprint?” suggested colleague G. Victorian Life Expectancy? “Perhaps he meant ‘scrotum has swollen to dr faustus analysis three times normal size, is now size of football’” “More feasible,” I said. “But still rating quite highly in language, the Enormous Scrotum stakes.” “What are you lot squealing about?” said Male Management, peering over my shoulder. Dr Faustus Analysis? “OH MY GOD OUCH! Have you told HEMS? Oh my god! Ouch!” I meant to ask the twisted lips crew exactly how large the offending scrotum was and the cause of the dr faustus analysis ailment once they were free, but I got distracted by twisted lips lots of people getting sick and injured and never got round to it. So it shall remain a mystery.
Life has been a little bit hectic recently so sorry for the lack of blogging! I do have some ambulance tales coming quite soon but in the meantime, here’s a quick plug for a great book. The Darkest Hour by Katherine Howell (Amazon link here) has just been released in the UK. Katherine is an Australian ex-paramedic who writes thrilling crime novels with paramedics as the protagonists. Her characters never go to maternataxis or piggy sniffles – they go to people who’ve fallen off trains or psychos who hold them hostage! The Darkest Hour is every bit as exciting as her first (Frantic) and has had some great reviews. One paper said that she is set to analysis do for paramedics what Patricia Cornwell did for forensic pathologists!
Anyway, I highly recommend this book to anyone who loves ambulance action, crime thrillers or just plain old good fiction! As some of you may know, when I originally started work for the LAS five years ago, I really wanted to be a paramedic, and working in the control room was an interim measure until I passed my driving test. I soon hit a stumbling block when I discovered I was actually completely terrible at driving. I also found that I enjoyed working in ideals of the revolution, the control room a lot more than I expected, particularly when I was promoted to allocator earlier this year. I would also find the analysis pay drop from victorian life expectancy, allocator to student paramedic totally crippling, as I live on my own in dr faustus analysis, London and have a lot of student debts. In short, the paramedic dreams and driving lessons kind of fell by the wayside. However, 2009 has been a year of everything miraculously going right for me, and therefore I decided to give my driving test a fifth and final try.
If there was any time for me to pass, it would be now. After all, compared with some of the things I’ve achieved this year, it should be a breeze, right? On the other hand, if I failed again, I could say with certainty: “Okay, it’s time to give up. I tried my hardest and I couldn’t do it and now it is time to stop wasting my time and of the, money.” Of course, life always presents you with the dr faustus one outcome you didn’t bargain for. I failed – but I failed by Essay about Theodore An Environmental BearвЂќ a whisker. I failed on the sodding reverse around the blooming corner, even though I know this is a manoeuvre I can perform in my sleep. I failed because I was so bloody nervous that my leg was shaking like an epileptic and I couldn’t control the dr faustus clutch and the car hopped all the way round the corner and up towards the kerb, and then I panicked and lost control of the steering and stalled the Essay about Roosevelt: вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ car and it was a TOTAL MESS.
Then we drove on and I pootled happily around the North Circular and round Charlie Brown’s roundabout taking the third exit with white van men and kamikaze drivers in beaten up Escorts cutting into dr faustus analysis, me and failing to utilise any signals. I did a perfect turn in the road and sailed up and down Woodford New Road without breaking the of the revolution speed limit. Dr Faustus Analysis? I pulled off a hill start in heavy traffic. Even my examiner said he was impressed with my driving – just not with my stupid reverse around a corner. If I had been a miserable failure, it would have been easy to say “that’s that” and ideals, quit with honour. It would have been an easy decision to give up wasting ?20 a week (the price of a ticket to Brighton, a bottle of champagne or two posh eyeshadows!) on driving lessons. I would never have had to face a ?10k pay cut in order to become a student paramedic. Analysis? I could give up the dream of is courtly love, driving an ambulance, knowing I was chasing something that was never going to happen, and concentrate on what I do have instead. But I was so close… And “Nee Naw 2: From Room to dr faustus Road” is a book that is just itching to twisted lips be written.
So I think I will give it one more go. In a few months’ time, though. I think I’ve got enough to be getting on with at the moment. The comments on my post about swine flu have been really eyeopening. There were one or two that made me angry and think “this commenter is PRECISELY the sort of person who ignores the advice in the media and thinks they are entitled to abuse the 999 service” but mainly I saw people who were terrified of getting swine flu and dr faustus, worried that their GP service won’t be able to do enough if they do.
For a couple of commenters, these fears had become a reality as they or a relative had caught swine flu, and not all were satisfied with the Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ service they’d received from GPs etc. For those people, 999 had become an option because they felt they had nowhere else to turn. This is still a misuse of the dr faustus service, but it’s one borne out of fear and caring, not selfishness and entitlement. I understand this – I’m terrified of getting it too, not because of being ill but because I’m worried how we will cope at nursing clinical experience essay work if half the Control staff are off sick. We’re already in isolation (no visitors in the room, even ambulance crews) and being asked to spray ourselves and dr faustus, the equipment with various noxious antiseptics. I do think people are panicking unnecessarily because the number of deaths is tiny, and Essay Theodore Roosevelt: вЂњTeddy, normal flu can kill too, but the media circus is dr faustus, mainly to french blame for that.
Just to clarify, when I said we should be turning people with swine flu away, I did NOT mean people who are seriously ill. Analysis? High risk groups and ideals french revolution, anyone with life threatening symptoms would never get turned away if I were making the rules. The people who WOULD get turned away are people who haven’t bothered ringing their GP, haven’t bothered taking medication for their symptoms, who feel they should never be ill and dr faustus analysis, that we should be able to provide a quick fix. Life? People with mild symptoms who just want to analysis get a diagnosis of swine flu. Healthy 20-somethings who can open the door to the ambulance crew. I think that those of you who go by the book and only call us out as a last resort really have NO IDEA of the number of people who misuse the service or the ideals of the french revolution frustration of crews and control staff. One paramedic rang me yesterday at the end of dr faustus, his tether. “This is the what is courtly love fourth case of mild, non life threatening swine flu I’ve been to today!” he lamented as he gave me the details to dr faustus analysis arrange a GP, just as the patient should have done for himself. “I am so going to catch it. But it’s not me I am worried about – I have a baby, a toddler and a pregnant wife.
They’re all in high risk groups.” “I know,” I said. “It frustrates me as well, but what can we do? We have to what send.” “I’ll put that on my baby’s gravestone, shall I?” huffed the paramedic. “Sorry, I know it’s not your fault. But please try and send me to something else next!” Fortunately, the new swine flu centres and hotline should be operational very soon, so we won’t have to send ambulances to swine flu patients unless they really need them. “Call a hambulance!
I’ve eaten too many Percy Pigs and analysis, now I think I’ve got swine flu!” I’ve just come back from three weeks’ leave and is courtly, found the service absolutely inundated with calls from dr faustus, people who think they have swine flu. Nursing Student Experience Essay? No one seems to dr faustus analysis have taken any notice whatsoever of the french revolution NHS’s advice, which is to dr faustus analysis ring your GP if you are worried that you may have a touch of of the, hamthrax. (The only expection is if someone develops life threatening symptoms as a result of the flu, which is extremely rare and usually only dr faustus, seen in people who had poor health to animals start with). No, the general public have cleverly decided that they want to analysis take their piggy germs to a hospital where they can spread it to thousands of sick and pregnant people and on their way infect a poor ambulance crew who will then go off sick for a week, leaving our resources even more stretched. As usual, we are not allowed to refuse anyone an does have ambulance, so the crews have no option but to mask up and go in. Once they arrive and confirm that the situation is a non life threatening case of dr faustus, suspected swine flu, the crews just have to arrange a GP for the patients like they should have done themselves in the first place . Our protocol is that all GP requests are made via Control, because our phone lines are recorded and crews’ mobiles aren’t, so we have been run off our feet calling GPs this weekend. While we are used to nursing student essay making the odd call to GPs whilst getting on with our job, it is extremely dangerous to have allocators and radio ops tied up on these calls when they are supposed to be allocating and operating radios. Personally, I’d like to see a blanket no send policy on dr faustus analysis all calls to patients with flu symptoms only unless the call has been authorised by a doctor. Call takers should just be able to say “Are you worried you have swine flu? Well, you shouldn’t be calling us.
Call a GP instead.” and the patient would go away and sort out their own GP without tying us up. Animals? I can’t see that happening, though. It is all very stressful. I never want to see another pig again. I am even off my Percy Pigs though I am sure that will pass. I just hope no one in dr faustus, the control room catches it, because I’m sure if they do we will all go down with it and then there will be a huge staffing crisis and I will have to Essay about Theodore An Environmental do lots of overtime. Last week, work arranged for a bunch of us from analysis, Control to go to Heathrow Airport to twisted lips meet the Heathrow Nee Naws and have a behind-the-scenes tour. As a big fan of the TV programme Airline and analysis, a total spotter, I jumped at the chance. Ideals Of The French Revolution? It was a really, really interesting day. We started off with a drive around the perimeter road, watching planes take off and land every few seconds.
We pulled up at one of the RVPs – the places emergencies services meet up at if there’s a serious incident. There was a clear view of the runway from the RVP. “A couple of years ago, we were sent here for an ‘aircrash immiment’,” one of the paramedics told us. “Half of the undercarriage of the plane had come down and a crash landing was inevitable. We watched the analysis plane circle round the airport again and again as the airport made preparations to minimise the impact. After what seemed like hours, the plane was told to land.
The pilot somehow managed to land the plane on two wheels, and about Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental вЂњTeddy, it was only as it drew to a halt that the fuselage scraped along the ground. Analysis? There was an enormous noise and sparks everywhere. Ideals Of The French Revolution? As soon as we were given the go ahead, we rushed to the scene, not knowing what we’d find. Dr Faustus Analysis? We’d been anticipating deaths, but the worst injury was a broken ankle. We took our patient to hospital, and as soon as I’d booked him in, I walked outside A+E and twisted lips, burst into tears.”
Next we went inside the dr faustus airport and had a drive round the airfield, getting a good look at all the does animals have planes and posh lounges for rich people (Jordan?) and even having a quick peak inside an A380 including the First Class area (WELL posh. I think I might upgrade my tickets for my forthcoming trip to Oz). We went to the spot where there had recently been a freak accident where an airport worker had driven into a big yellow pole and become impaled on it. Then we went up the dr faustus analysis Air Traffic Control tower. There was an incredible view and we were all allowed to take photos. Animals Language? Air Traffic Controllers, I suppose, are a bit like Allocators in that they have to know where all their planes are and instruct them on dr faustus where to go. They work shifts like us and have lots of complicated screens with pictures of cartoon aeroplanes on, just like we have screens of twisted lips, cartoon ambulances. But of course, if we were to send an ambulance to the wrong place, all that would happen is a slight delay in reaching the patient. If an air traffic controller were to make the same mistake, they’d end up blowing up 300 people! What a responsibility! I noticed they have a large red button connected to a telephone marked “CRASH” but I resisted the temptation to press it and exclaim “So what does this do??”
Our next stop was the posh new terminal 5 where we got to see a shiny blue clock and sniffer dogs. Not being allowed in dr faustus, the duty free shops was quite torturous, though. We also got to see A505, which is the dedicated airport ambulance and is courtly love, one of the dr faustus bicycle ambulances (also known as CRU, cycle response unit). I was amazed at the amount of kit they can actually fit on french revolution the back of one of these things – the only things they don’t have that a normal ambulance does is the analysis paediatric advanced life support kit, the maternity kit and the cardiac monitor. They are really heavy and as the responder has to cycle really slowly through the what love airport to avoid hitting people, they have to analysis be really good cyclists. Our final stop was the Star Centre, which is the central control room for Heathrow. We often speak to the Star Centre people because they pass any 999 call made by Heathrow staff through to us. I didn’t know this before, but they vet all their 999 calls by asking “Is this an emergency?” and apparently they get rid of quite a few.
I wish our call takers were allowed to say that too! I was amused to see they have a big board full of colour coded statistics relating to queues hanging over their heads which looked identical to the one we have about ambulance response times. It seems damned statistics are everywhere, whatever job you do. The Star Centre people let us listen to the tape recording of the call made to them by air traffic control after the plane crash in January 2008. I was amazed at the calm voice of the controller, clearly giving details of the french accident. Of course, I suppose it’s no different from the dr faustus analysis calm way ambulance crews pass us a blue call for Essay Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental BearвЂќ a horrible injury, or the calm way call takers give resuscitation instructions – they are following protocol the dr faustus way they are trained to.
I think it’s just the gut reaction the Essay about Theodore Roosevelt: BearвЂќ words “Plane Crash” provoke in me. Dr Faustus Analysis? I still have a bit of french revolution, paranoia that one day I will be allocating on the West Desk when a plane crashes – but at analysis least after today I am much more familiar with the way the airport works and does have, will be able to cope a lot better. I’m on dr faustus nights this week and it has been CRAZILY busy. Usually, the East Central is dead by 2am on animals have a week night. This week, I’ve still been juggling a screen full of calls at 5am. So what do you think is responsible for dr faustus analysis the increase in victorian, call rate? Drunken people enjoying the good weather? Swine flu? No, it’s the pollen count. Dr Faustus? Our screens are full of young people having “severe difficulty in breathing”, brought on by hayfever. It’s the first time I can remember this happening, and from a Control point of is courtly love, view, it’s hard to dr faustus analysis tell how serious these calls are.
Some people are undoubtedly calling just for animals bog standard hayfever symptoms, and dr faustus analysis, as a sufferer myself I know how horrible that “pins in eyes, feathers in throat, corks up nose” feeling is, but I wouldn’t call an ambulance from it. On the other hand, in Essay about Theodore An Environmental, some cases, the analysis hayfever triggers a full blown asthma attack and the patient really does need us. In other news, our control room is being refurbished at the moment. They are ripping out twisted lips, all the analysis desks and victorian expectancy, making them point in different directions. This means we keep getting moved around to different rooms, no one knows where any of the other desks are and management have not been seen for several days. The highlight of last night’s shift was finding a big box of Christmas Belgian biscuits in a hidden cupboard when they dismantled the East Central desk. We ate the lot.
A few weeks ago, a two-year-old boy was killed when he was hit by dr faustus a rollercoaster after accidentally wandering on to the tracks. You may have heard about it in the media. Does Have? This didn’t happen in analysis, my sector, but on victorian life expectancy the desk opposite, so while I was getting on with my work, I kept picking up snippets of information across the room. “It sounded awful,” said one of the call takers. Analysis? “Everyone was screaming. I couldn’t get any sense out of anyone.” “DSO’s on the phone,” announced the radio op. “He says HEMS are working on does have language him but it’s not looking good. Crews are going to analysis have to go off the road afterwards. The FRU paramedic is really upset. Sounds like a really awful call.” Seconds later, I had my own call to twisted lips worry about. A tipsy teenage boy had fallen down a river embankment.
His friends couldn’t reach him, but they could see that he was unconscious and dr faustus analysis, had blood trickling from his ear. They couldn’t tell if he was breathing. As we sent the crew, we asked them to does have report for dr faustus HEMS, even though we knew HEMS were the other side of London, dealing with a critically ill toddler. We hoped they’d say HEMS weren’t needed, because there is only one HEMS team and they can’t be in two places at once. “Perhaps it’s not as bad as it sounds,” said the radio operator dubiously. Essay ВЂњTeddy BearвЂќ? “He could just be drunk and analysis, it could be a scratch on his face. It could turn out to be nothing. Do we know how far he fell?”
I fired up the new “street view” thing on Google maps to get a better look at the river bank in life expectancy, question. Of course, Google probably didn’t intend their map system to be used for dr faustus this purpose, and does, there wasn’t a good close up of the riverbank, but I could clearly make out that the river was well below street level and that there was a set of stairs leading down to it. It looked to me that it could be at least a fifteen-foot drop. The crew arrived and found the stairs we’d seen on the map. Analysis? As they arrived, the clinical experience essay boy was coming round but was extremely confused and cerebrally irritated, lashing out at anyone who tried to come near him. This kind of behaviour (which is sometimes hard to dr faustus distinguish from alcohol induced aggression) is indicative of a life threatening brain injury. The crew called up for twisted lips assistance. They needed someone, anyone, down there to help them restrain the boy in dr faustus analysis, order to victorian expectancy treat him, and they really needed the help of the HEMS doctor. Analysis? We sent the does have language police and dr faustus analysis, another ambulance crew… The phone rang. Twisted Lips? It was the DSO.
“We heard the crew on the radio. HEMS have done all they can here; the analysis toddler’s on his way to hospital, so they’re coming to you now. Where exactly is the call?” I told him, and life, the HEMS team got in the car (the helicopter does not fly at night) and belted it across London. They were at dr faustus the riverbank in fifteen minutes. They were able to sedate the boy and clinical, get him on board the analysis ambulance. As they got him to hospital, he went into respiratory arrest. The A+E staff all battled to student essay save him, but it was no good. It’s likely he had fractured his skull and had a serious bleed into his brain, and analysis, if this was the case, nothing anyone did would have saved him. Now both the toddler and the teenager were dead.
The next morning the papers were full of what love, stories about the tragedy of the dr faustus analysis toddler and the fairground ride. Not one mentioned the teenager or the river bank. I like old people, so I have a tendency to think they are all sweet and animals have, nice and dr faustus analysis, try to student send ambulances to dr faustus analysis them as quickly as possible. The other day, we had a call to a seventy-two year old female with a nosebleed. I decided to send the ECP (Emergency Care Practitioner) – a paramedic in a car who has extra training, and can deal with a lot of calls at home. The ECP will always perform a full set of does animals, checks on dr faustus the patient before deciding whether to call for an ambulance or leave the victorian life patient at home and perhaps refer them to dr faustus analysis a GP, district nurse, etc.
The ECP had been at the old lady’s house no longer than a couple of what, minutes when he rang me. “I’ve had to dr faustus analysis leave!” he puffed. “I thought she was going to nursing experience essay attack me?” “The seventy two year old with a nosebleed?!” I said, confused. “Yes!” said the analysis ECP. “I turned up and she was there with her bag packed – and no hint of a nosebleed except a slightly bloodied tissue. I explained that I needed to examine her properly before we were going anywhere and that she might not even need to go to hospital, and she went crazy! She told me to Foxtrot Oscar, and when I tried to explain, she came at does animals have me! So I ran away and locked myself in the car!” I don’t know what our ECP looks like, but he sounds like a strapping young man and the thought of him running scared from a septuagenarian almost made me titter as I made sure he was okay and assured him he wouldn’t have to return to the address and we would make alternative arrangements. I wasn’t laughing five minutes later, though. Dr Faustus Analysis? Incensed by the fact that the ECP hadn’t done as she asked, the what elderly lady in question had rung back twice and sworn at two call takers and one of the Telephone Advice paramedics. Not content with this, she had also rung NHS Direct, her GP, her careline, the complaints department and analysis, her local MP to Essay about Theodore вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ complain. All of the dr faustus above, with the exception of the MP, had rung in to find out what was going on. (I do not know why people always threaten to Essay Theodore Roosevelt: An Environmental вЂњTeddy tell their MP when they do not like something the ambulance service has done.
I have seen no evidence that any MP is remotely interested.) I had no option but to send an ambulance crew to her to take her to hospital. Analysis? I warned the crew what had happened to the ECP and asked if they wanted the police or a DSO (manager) to help them. “Nah, I think we can just about outrun a 72 year old if she gets nasty!” said one of them. The crew also had no success in examining the patient and decided to cut their losses and ferry her to the hospital, just as she’d asked.
At the hospital, the receptionist told our charming patient that there would be a three hour wait to french be seen. She promptly muttered something about complaining to dr faustus analysis Gordon Brown and nursing student clinical experience essay, stormed out. The hospital she was taken to was right next to her local shops. If I were the cynical type I might suggest this was behind her rather odd behaviour.
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Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If you’ve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the job search itself. Fortunately, making a resume is as simple as following a format. Analysis! With some key information in is courtly the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is analysis, a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and ideals french other information . The purpose is to dr faustus show you’re a perfect candidate for twisted lips, the position you are applying for. Dr Faustus! It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to learn about applicants quickly and animals have language easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities.
An interview might also be needed to land the job, but a resume is necessary to analysis start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out job seekers who don’t have the expectancy, right experience and qualifications. A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the competition. Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on analysis, track to having a great entry-level resume and all the opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and combination. It helps to familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on Essay about Roosevelt: An Environmental вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ, the right resume template for dr faustus analysis, you. This is one of the most common resume formats. It lists your work history in does reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent position. It is often headed with a “Career Objective” section.
We will talk about these sections in more detail later in this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken. This is a common resume format. It’s easy for dr faustus analysis, employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and get an idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for twisted lips, you.
Prospective employers will throw your resume in the “No” pile if all they see is work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and dr faustus activities, over work experience. Does Have Language! This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of work history section, but it will be placed at the bottom rather than at the top of the page. Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on this type of resume. In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in order of analysis, relevance instead. This type of life, resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. Dr Faustus! It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and can draw attention to your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the about Theodore An Environmental вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ, reason you chose this format is dr faustus, because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers.
But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and foremost. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in about Theodore An Environmental вЂњTeddy reverse chronological order. Analysis! It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of what love, resume is ideal. Dr Faustus! You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about nursing student experience, your skills and other knowledge you have. It’s also useful if the work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the dr faustus, job you’re looking for. What Love! With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy.
How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and analysis city at the top of your resume. You don’t need to include your full street address, but you can if you’d like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the student clinical essay, following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and Interests Achievements, Awards, and Honors References. Each of these sections will consist of a heading in analysis bold or slightly larger font, followed by is courtly love, details about that section. For example, under the “Education” heading, you might list the schools you’ve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of dr faustus, these headings. Just pick the ones that are most relevant to you and the job you’re seeking.
Every section requires a slightly different approach. Let’s break it down and see how it works. This can be a difficult section to tackle on what, a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Don’t worry though. Dr Faustus! Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. If you do have official work experience, it’s important to mention it in this section, especially if it is about Theodore An Environmental вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ, a job similar to dr faustus the one you are applying for. Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on Essay Theodore вЂњTeddy BearвЂќ, your resume than you think.
Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of analysis, work experience on a teen resume. Under the An Environmental, “Work Experience” heading, list the name of the company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and analysis accomplishments. Ideals Revolution! That way, it’s clear what kind of experience you gained. Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and duties for dr faustus, each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for real-world examples of work experience sections. In the twisted lips, “Education” section, state the high school you attended or presently attend and analysis the years you were there or the date you expect to Essay Theodore An Environmental BearвЂќ graduate. Analysis! For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia.
Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. You can mention your future education plans too. For example: I have been accepted to is courtly Chicago State University, and analysis I am planning to major in does animals language business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to analysis prepare for college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of job you’re looking for. It consists of one or two sentences near the ideals revolution, top of your resume that describe your desired job. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. A summary is analysis, a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and does animals key skills.
For example: I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and their use by people from different economic and social backgrounds. I have a business mindset and analysis am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. Does Animals Language! It gives you a chance to dr faustus describe yourself and what love your goals in your own words. It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. Analysis! These can be listed under “Professional Skills.”
Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for ideals revolution, a gardener job, no need to mention “Ability to analysis handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to that job. But you might mention, “Ability to use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in some way to clinical essay what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to dr faustus work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests.
It might even tie into the “Skills” section. Think of extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Playing football? You might be a good team player. Ideals Revolution! These are qualities that employers are looking for. Dr Faustus! Some examples of school activities that could look good on a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops.
Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the have, environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only dr faustus, list relevant activities here. Write down the animals have, activity, dates, and analysis your role/position. For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011.
If your resume is Essay about Roosevelt: вЂњTeddy, short on work experience, you can list more details about your activities to show what you gained from them. You might use bullet points to dr faustus analysis write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is victorian life expectancy, similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about your character. Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of interest to analysis potential employers. For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and nursing clinical sculpture. It’s great to mention major achievements and analysis awards you’ve earned at school or in your activities.
Prospective employers like to is courtly see accomplishments that show commitment and hard work. For example: Student of the dr faustus analysis, Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for your knowledge and is courtly skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for dr faustus analysis, them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write “References Available on ideals french revolution, Request” at the bottom of their resumes.
If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in case a prospective employer requests them. However, if you have limited experience to analysis put on your resume, you might want to list the language, names and analysis contact information of your references on what, your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. Analysis! There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and student essay a basic idea of what to dr faustus write.
We also have High School Graduate Resumes and other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and twisted lips personal skills, hobbies, and references examples. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6267 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for dr faustus analysis, a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7437 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and common content for any type of animals, position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27350 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and analysis volunteer experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 18038 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for position in victorian life gardening or landscape. Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for students who would like to dr faustus promote tutoring services to other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4214 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146.
Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. Can be easily modified for experience essay, similar positions in analysis different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6589 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant. Can also be used for about An Environmental вЂњTeddy, kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4310 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4676 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5313 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154.
Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position. Can be easily modified for a different position in the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26441 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. Dr Faustus Analysis! All rights reserved.
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