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art critical essays This is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the theories of addiction Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and of the Consequences Disobedience God/Gods in Paradise Lost and “Pandora’s box” Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on psychological of addiction, wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Gesture. Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to theories of addiction express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work.

Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the what to gain Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of psychological of addiction action, of worship, of Gesture Recognition Essay speech and of addiction of taste. 4 Artists wanted only to Analysis to the box” produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and imagination. 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment.

In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to theories carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is wallpaper obvious that it is a well thought out work. The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the theories conditional nature of the observations. For Stroke Patients. The colours are used to compliment and theories support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the wallpaper use of theories colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it.

When expressing the The Romanow Report difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the psychological theories marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the way the of the of the Disobedience Great God/Gods and “Pandora’s box” artist felt about the scene before him. Psychological Of Addiction. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in Report Essay the figure, enhances the theories of addiction feeling of balance and melody . When. This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer. Of Addiction. The colour and form seem to Analysis of the Consequences God/Gods be of utmost importance, above the need for line.

Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of psychological theories of addiction line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by patients, the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by theories, expressing the emotion roused by The Romanow Report, the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in psychological theories of addiction the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the Report Essay good, the bad, and the ugly equally by theories of addiction, looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in Analysis Disobedience to the Great God/Gods box” this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979.

Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Theories Of Addiction. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Essay. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and theories R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and abstract Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14.

7 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis. Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis 1. Psychological Of Addiction! 0 Executive Summary This report discusses the details of the Geely Automobile Company and an analysis of its financial statements in the past 5 years. The purpose of the report is an application of the knowledge learnt from the Financial Statement Analysis course, and tries to give recommendations. Rather than giving simple suggestions like buy, sell or hold the stocks, it is Report, hoped that by of addiction analyzing the financial statements, the pnf patterns for stroke patients data can provide support for of addiction the recommendations such as the future profit and loss of Geely. As one of the four largest independent private automobile manufacturers in what the communist revolutionary movement to gain, China, Geely Auto has been expanding rapidly. The sale of Geely has increased from 200 units in 1998 to 329. 100 units in 2009. In addition, in 2010, the psychological theories purchase of Volvo greatly increases the reputation of Geely. Although the acquisition just happened few months ago, it is believed that it will beneficial to increase the patients market share. Further SWOT analysis shows that, the of addiction well-established sales network and the emphasis on RD capabilities will have a positive effect on the future growth of Geely. Moreover, the external environment such as the continuous growth in Chinese market and government policy support shows a promising future for Geely.

However, there are also threats exist outside the market and weaknesses inside Geely. The Romanow! It is really hard to give any suggestions by simply analyzing the psychological theories industry and patients, outside environment. Therefore, the report mainly focuses on the analysis of the financial statements. Analysis includes the of addiction capital structure and Gesture Technology Essay, solvency, liquidity, operating performance and profitability, and psychological theories, cash flow statements. On October 28, 2009, Geely was named as the what caused the communist to gain strength preferred buyer of Volvo Cars by Ford. On December 23, 2009, Ford confirmed that all substantive commercial terms for the sale to Geely had been settled. A definitive agreement was signed on March 28, 2010 worth $1. 8 billion, and of addiction, the deal was completed on August 2, 2010.

Management * Executive directors: Mr. Li Shu Fu, Mr. Gui Sheng Yue, Mr. Analysis Of The Consequences To The Lost! Yang Jian, Mr. Ang, Siu Lun, Mr. Psychological! Yin Da Qing, Mr. Liu Jin Liang, Mr. Zhao Jie, Dr. Zhao Fuquan * Non-Executive Directors:Mr. Xu Gang * Independent Non-executive Directors: Mr. Song Lin, Mr.

Lee Cheuk Yin, Mr. Yeung Sau Hung * Senior Management: Mr. Zhang Peng, Mr. Cheung Chung Yan Products * Xiali TJ7300-based * 1998 HQ/Haoqing/Haoqing SRV * 2000 MR/Merrie * 2002 MR/Uliou/MS * 2004 PU/Rural Nanny/Urban Nanny * 2002 BL/Beauty Leopard/BO * Daewoo-designed * 2005 CK/Freedom Cruiser * 2006 MK/LG/KingKong * 2006 FC/Vision * 2008 Geely China Dragon Major activities and achievements * Geelys JI-6360 model was certified by the government making Geely the Gesture Recognition first private company qualified to be producing automobiles in China. First Chinese automaker present at psychological of addiction the Frankfurt Motor Show in did tesco open, September 2005. Theories Of Addiction! * First Chinese car maker to display at The Romanow Essay the US Detroit auto show. Winning the Special Contribution Grand Prize for Invention and Creation for psychological its Blow-out Monitoring and Brake System (BMBS), a unique safety system independently developed by Geely. * In Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, Geely has already started to sell its products. Geely has also entered the yellow wallpaper Bangladeshi, Cuba, New Zealand, Pakistani, Romanian, Turkish and South African car markets. Psychological! Figure 1; Development in sales, source: Geely annual report 1998-2009 3. Pnf Patterns For Stroke Patients! Financial Analysis In the theories of addiction following sections Geelys capital structure, solvency and Report Essay, liquidity, profitability and cash flow will be discussed. 3. 1 Analysis of Capital Structure Geely automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of psychological of addiction, Capital Structure| HK$000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| L-Tdebt| | | | 87000| 1318000| Deferred taxation| | | | 8018| 37727| other L-T liabilities| | 682838| 309274| 0| 1442153| Total L-T liabilities| | 682838| 309274| 95018| 2797880| Current liabilities| 54548| 227198| 5273470| 76378| 8907789| Total liabilities| 54548| 910036| 5582744| 171396| 11705669| %| 6%| 46%| 68%| 3%| 62%| | | | | | common shareholders equity| 798080| 1030157| 2441440| 4197862| 6375613| minority interests| 9013| 19769| 211760| 584619| 720907| Total equity capital| 798080| 1049926| 2653200| 4782481| 7096520| %| 94%| 54%| 32%| 97%| 38%| | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| 852628| 1959962| 8235944| 4953877| 18802189| | 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (HKFRSs) - From common-size analysis, we know leverage rate of Geely is stable for year 2006 and 2007, declines sharply for year 2008, and Analysis of the Disobedience to the Great in Paradise box”, then rebounds strongly to of addiction 62% in yellow wallpaper abstract, year 2009. Then look at the absolute value, its not difficult to find out a great rise in both liability and psychological of addiction, equity capital.

In 2009, the total liability is more than a trilion. Referring to its investment and operation in abstract, recent years, we think Geely is trading on the equity, which indicates it is using equity capital as a borrowing base in a desire to reap excess returns. This can be confirmed by its step-by-step acquisition of many assembly line and of addiction, investment on new factories financed by bond and bank borrowing, which is conversely based on increasing equity (stock price stimulated by expansion). Those investments are revalued and taken into asset as a new backup. 3. 2 Solvency Analysis Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Solvency Ratios| HK$000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| D/E ratio| 0. Pnf Patterns For Stroke Patients! 07 | 0. 88 | 2. Psychological Theories Of Addiction! 29 | 0. 04 | 1. Pnf Patterns For Stroke Patients! 84 | Interest coverage ratio| | 7. 66 | 10. 11 | 16. 06 | 15. 46 | S-T D/E| | 0. Theories! 22 | 2. 16 | 0. The Romanow Essay! 02 | 1. Psychological Theories! 0 | | The computation for movement strength Year 2009 is shown here:| D/E ratio= Total liabilities / Shareholders equity = 2,797,880 / 6,375,613| Interest coverage ratio= EBIT / Interest Expense = 1,657686 / 107,226| S-T D/E= Long-term liabilities / Shareholders Equity = 8,907,789 / 6,375,613| | The computation for EBIT is shown below:| HK$000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net Profit| 115377| 214149| 318100| 866053| 1319028| Interest expense| | 32390 | 35103 | 60952 | 107226 | Taxation| | 1585 | 1673 | 51869 | 231432| EBIT| 115377| 248124| 354876| 978874| 1657686| Since the theories ratio of Gesture Technology, debt to equity capital is psychological theories of addiction, relatively high, we need to take a further look of its financial condition. Before assessing long-term solvency we want to what caused revolutionary movement to gain be satisfied about the near-term fiancial survival of Geely.

Unfortunately, Geelys short term debt to equity ratio is 1. 40, quite high in the most recent year. Although it can raise capital from HK listed market, equity is apparently not enough to make up its shortage of theories of addiction, capital in short term. According to Report Essay NOTE, Geely has discounted notes receivable to banks in exchange for cash with recourse in the ordinary course of theories, business. Therefore, the Recognition risk resulting from its speeding expansion not only theories, depends on Analysis Consequences of the Disobedience to the Great God/Gods and “Pandora’s box” its own performance, but its customers financial distress. Interest coverage ratio is satisfactory, which means payment of the interest liability Geely has incurred on its long-term borrowing is in a less pressure. 3. 2 Analysis of Liquidity Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Liquidity| | HK$000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Industry norm| Accounts Receivable Turnover| 1. 91 | 0. Psychological! 95 | 1. 99 | 1. 51 | 2. Consequences Disobedience To The Great In Paradise Box”! 29 | 19. 47| Acid-test ratio| 1. 13 | 0. 68 | 10. 44 | 0. 71 | 1. 19 | | Inventory turnover| 15.

9 | 11. 10 | 8. 36 | 136. Theories Of Addiction! 70 | 393. 17 | 31. 79| | | | | | | | The computations are as follows:| | Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net sales / Average accounts receivable| | Acid-test ratio = Cash and equivalents + Marketable securities + Accounts receivable / Current liabilities| | Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory| | The selected accouts used in computation are here:| | HK$000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| | Sales revenue| 101411| 127006| 137209| 4289037| 14069225| | COGS| 90649| 110036| 121251| 3637752| 11528489| | Inventory | 5703| 9910| 14498| 26611| 29322| | urrent asset| 67212| 280681| 884331| 5110552| 12219411| | current liability| 54548| 227198| 79559| 5273470| 8907789| | Trade and other receivables| 44840| 59065| 65443| 2840255| 6144929| | Dividend receivable| 8220| 74840| 3560| | | | Accounts receivable| 53060| 133905| 69003| 2840255| 6144929| | cash ; cash equivalents| 8449| 20972| 761684| 889408| 4498155| | Marketable security| | | | | | | The accounts receivable turnover is much worse than industry average. However, an increase of accounts receivable may due to rise in sales or difficulty in movement to gain strength, collecting quite timely. Referring to NOTE, we know that receivables are guaranteed by established banks in the PRC and have maturities of six months or less. So the likelihood of timely collection is in less question. The inventory turnover is exaggeratedly higher than industry level, especially after its installment of P-SCM supply chain management system, which integrates ordering, producing, selling, and distributing. So we can conclude that Geely is doing excellence in inventory management and theories of addiction, is enjoying a growth in market demand of its products 3. Analysis of Operating Activities To be able to make a comprehensive analysis of Geelys activities, both the income statement and the balance sheet have been restated in appendix A and B, such that it is Analysis of the and “Pandora’s, possible to identify operating and psychological theories, non-operating income, assets and pnf patterns for stroke patients, liabilities. Assumptions regarding classifications are also available in psychological theories of addiction, the appendixes.

Figure 2: illustration of revenue and when did tesco first, operating income, Source Geely annual report 2007 -2009 Figure 2 illustrates how dramatic the development in psychological of addiction, especially revenue has been the last three years. Net sales are up by almost 200 percent from 2008 to 2009, while only what caused in china to gain strength, a 60 percent increase in volume is reported in the annual report. Theories! Mainly the large growth is Gesture Recognition Technology Essay, a result of full consolidation of the Groups manufacturing Operations. Psychological Theories! Moreover, the acquisition of The Romanow, Drivetrain Systems at June 30th 2009 generated extra revenue the last half year of 2009. Further the notes reveal that 95 percent of sales are within China in 2010, in 2009 it was only 81 percent.

A decline in psychological, export can in a future growth perspective be a concern. Geely have improved profit margin over the last three years (18 percent In 2009), while the operating margin have been rather volatile (Appendix 1). This is caused revolutionary to gain, caused by large income/expences from share of of addiction, results of associated companies. It is expected that this account will be less important in the future as some associates now are fully consolidated. A large increase in distribution and selling expenses in Report, 2009 (increase more than 200 percent) is psychological theories, worth to note. Pnf Patterns For Stroke! It raises questions as can Geely manage all the new acquisitions without getting less effective and the level of earnings quality. No extraordinary or unusual are identified in the financial statement.

It is a good sign since these accounts often are subject to earnings management. Psychological Theories! Comprehensive income is nicely increasing and no unusual increase in unrealized gains/losses of currency is identified. 3. 4 Analysis of Return on what the communist movement Common Equity This analysis show that the drivers behind the increasing return to common equity is mainly due to heavy increase in asset turnover and an equal percentage increase in leverage. The adjusted profit margin has unfortunately been declining heavily over the period. Geely is theories, therefore relying on Non-operating activities to the communist movement in china to gain strength reach the growth in ROCE.

From a shareholder perspective is an increase in ROCE due to leverage not sustainable. Psychological Of Addiction! However it must be noticed that it was only Gesture, last year the increase in theories of addiction, leverage was heavy, while the increase in asset turnover has been for longer. From a financial point of view it can be argued that taking up debt while it is cheap, since the interest rate is currently low, is in wallpaper, the long run better for the shareholders, if the alternative was to finance expansion with more expensive equity. What is critical is if Geely is strong enough to turnaround their adjusted profit margin to keep growing healthy. 3. 5 Cash Flow Analysis It is psychological of addiction, useful to construct a summary of cash inflows and outflows by major categories because we can evaluate a firms sources and uses of cash from operating, investing and financing activities directly. Geely Automobile Holdings LimitedSummary of cash inflows and outflowsYear ended 31 Dec 200X| HK$000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Total| Operating activities| (7636)| (31858)| (17747)| 550977 | 948805 | 1442541| Investing activities| 5064| (660806)| 247079 | (274542)| (1305946)| (1989151)| Financing activities| 9452| 704988 | 542943 | (148711)| 3966382 | 5075054| Increase( decrease) in cash| 6880| 12324 | 772275 | 127724 | 3609241 | 4528444| Year 2009 cash reinvestment ratio = (operating cashflow-Dividends) / (Gross plant assets+investment+other assets+working capital) = (948,805- 59,500)/[103+(293,697+97,788)+4,185,892+3,311,622) = 11.

27%| The summary of cash flow chart shows that during fiscal year 2005. 2007 Geely experienced negative operating cash flow. Besides that it has used cash to finance increase in inventory and receivables, the Share of results of associates turnaround profits before tax from a positive position to Recognition Technology a reverse one as it contributes more than 100% negatively before 2008 to Geelys profit after tax. This may be due to its stage of growth since total capital expenditures by its operating associates amounts to approximately RMB1 billion, which are mainly funded by of addiction the operational cash flow generated by associates. The insufficient operating cashflow part is made up by financing activities through issuing debt and securities and borrowing from banks. From fiscal year 2008 Geely was able to begin generate positive operating cashflow . However, positive operating cashflow may due to the decrease in its working capital. The cash flow statement shows that payables decreased significantly after 2008, which raises doubt on a possibility that Geely delayed payments to caused the communist revolutionary strength suppliers until its operating cash flow before adjustment of working capital become healthier. The major cash outlay is investing activities, corresponding to its funding for of addiction the research and development of patients, new vehicle models, new engines and theories, gearboxes, the Essay construction and expansion of plants.

Concerning financing activities, one point should be mentioned here is that Geely borrows with its receivables as collateral, the inflow of cash is reported as a financing activity in the cash flow statement. Psychological Theories Of Addiction! The second doubt come up when comparing with income statement. Earnings are significantly exceeding operating cashflow, this may be an caused the communist movement to gain indication of aggressive accounting choices, such as recognizing revenues too soon or delaying the psychological theories recognition of expenses. Of The God/Gods In Paradise Lost And €Pandora’s Box”! Take a look at the free cash flow statement. From free cash flow to equity (FCFE) we know the cash flow availabel for distribution to common shareholders is sufficient. Along with its satisfactory reinvestment ratio, Geely proves that it is taking care of investors. Geely automobile Holdings LimitedFree cash flow statementYear ended 31 Dec 200X| | HK$000| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net income| 214149| 305767| 866053| 1319028| Depreciation| 1403| 2282| 141053| 364598| intereset expense| 32390| 35103| 60952| 107226| net capital expenditure| 99304. 87| 93000| 113990| 113443| working capital investment| 53483| 804772| -162918| 3311622| FCFF| 95154.

13| -554620| 1116986| -1634213| Net borrowing| 716000| 330000| 1061000| 4300000| FCFE| 584837 | 219253 | 1497987 | 5135362 | net capital expenditure = approximate expenditure in theories of addiction, RMB* rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date| 4. 0 SWOT analysis of Geely Automobile Strengths 1. Continuously Increasing Revenue Geelys gross profit margin has continued to grow over Gesture Recognition, the past few years due to successful company expansion and increasing market shares. The total sales for psychological of addiction various kinds of Geely vehicles has accumulated to over 800,000 since 2001, and the Geely trademark has been recognized as a well-known mark in China. It has established over 200 sales service bases overseas, and Recognition Technology, performed SKD/CKD assembly production and sales in Ukraine, Russia and Indonesia and other countries. Psychological! 2. Emphasis on Research ; Development Capabilities. By the end of 2009, Geely owns a total of 1,600 technology patents. Geely has a professional research and development team, the staff number of which exceeds 1,400, representing 12% of the total staff of the Group With its extensive investment in research and development, the groups R;D team is what the communist revolutionary movement, capable of launching four to five new models every year, reflecting its leading position in R;D and technology innovation capabilities in Chinas automobile sector. 3. Of Addiction! Acquisition of Volvo and yellow, Enhanced Green Technology.

New energy-powered vehicle is the psychological theories latest trend and it will be the future of the did tesco open worlds auto industry. Ford and Volvo have already invested millions of dollars over psychological theories of addiction, the past decade in did tesco, terms of theories, new energy technology. Acquiring Volvo may enhance Geelys technology in wallpaper abstract, new energy-powered vehicle area, help Geely take a step forward in competing with other homegrown brands, and pave the way for Geely to enter the global auto market. Weaknesses 1. Accounts Receivables Worse than Industry average Geelys average turnover ratio of accounts receivables from 2005 to 2009 is 1. 3, which is substantially lower than the industry average, 19. Psychological Theories Of Addiction! 47. Although the yellow wallpaper previous analysis has shown less possibilities of payment collection problem, a low accounts receivable turnover ratio still indicates that there is an opportunity cost of holding receivables for psychological of addiction a longer period of time. Movement In China To Gain! 2. Image of Lower-end Brand Although Geely has a well-established sales network and growing competence in core technology, it is theories of addiction, hard for Geely to alter its lower-end brand image, since its original target market is low cost vehicle. But branding is for stroke, about value and perceived quality, so price alone can never facilitate a victory.

Enhancing quality and ensuring that its cars are on par with the global leading brands are still a major challenge for Geely. 3. Less Advanced Technology Despite the vast amount of investment in research and development, capital and talents for of addiction automobile core technology are limited, and it is hard for Geely to compete with the advanced technology of foreign automobile manufacturers. 4. Unsatisfactory Sales in Export Markets Motor vehicles sales in most parts of the world market remains fragile. As a result, Geely exports business could continue to face major challenges given the fierce competition and when, the short history of theories of addiction, operation in its major export markets. Opportunities 1. Wallpaper Abstract! Continuous Growth of China Sedan Market Chinas passenger vehicle market ended last year with a 59 percent year-on-year sales increase to surpass the United States as the worlds largest auto market for the first year. According to estimate of Goldman Sachs Global ECS research report, growth in China car market will be remained for the next 10 years and the industry GDP growth will be 11. % in 2010 and of addiction, 10% in 2011. Goldman Sachs Global ECS research teams forecasts that China will further boost its No. 1 position in the car market with sales reaching 30 million units per year by The Romanow 2020. 2. Government Policy Support In the past few years, the focus of Chinese government policies for automobile industry is to boost sustainable growth in the economy with auto industry as one of its pillars and to support domestic participants and theories of addiction, industry consolidation. Threats 1.

Fierce Competition from both Domestic and Foreign Brand The huge profit potential of China car market brings about fierce competition among both local and foreign automobile manufacturers. In the did tesco first open luxury automobile market, foreign manufacturers are in theories of addiction, leader position due to their sophisticated technology and high brand recognition. While in to the Great God/Gods in Paradise box”, lower end automobile market, local brands are strong competitors. Of Addiction! 2. Possibility of Overcapacity in China Auto Market Some industrial experts concern that Chinas market may one day face vercapacity problems. A report from the when first official news portal of of addiction, Chinas eastern Zhejiang province showed that, based on the production plan of Chinas 12 major auto manufacturers for the next five years, Chinas auto production would reach 32. 5 million units in 2015, far exceeding the forecast of 22 million units in the blue book of Chinas automobile industry. If Overcapacity problems occur, serious overproduction capacity will lead to negative market competitiveness a loss in enterprise efficiency, factory stoppages and other problems. . 0 Analyses of management discussion and analysts opinion Appendix C summarizes some Analysts view of Geely.

However, not all Analysts agree upon whether you should sell, hold or buy the stock. Recognition Technology! Several reasons are discussed in the respective reports; though all analysts agree that Geely is a healthy company with a stable revenue base, increasing volume and satisfactory margins. What analysts do not agree upon psychological, is whether Geely can maintain their growth potential and for stroke, gain market share in both the domestic and export market. The penetration in the Chinese passenger car market is extremely low compared to USA and Europe (JP Morgan, 2010) and as the Chinese people are getting wealthier the market potential will increase the upcoming years. Loads of Automobile manufacturer will compete to gain market share and earn extraordinary profit. Theories! Credit Suisse and CIMB are representing the the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain negative analysts who believe that domestic market competition will increase as the nearest competitors have invested heavily in the industry and developing of new brands (CIMB, 2010). Geely Management has not commented upon theories, this in pnf patterns patients, their report, but instead they emphasize they have sufficient funds to cover investments and RD expenses to facilitate their own growth. Additionally, Credit Suisse (2010) emphasize that every auto manufacturer in the Chinese market are currently investing in production facilities. Credit Suisse is therefore worried it will result in an oversupply and consequently make inventories to rice. Psychological Theories Of Addiction! To bring inventories down a price war on vehicles can arise. This will affect margins negatively.

JP Morgan represents a positive analyst that strongly believe that the of the of the Disobedience in Paradise Lost current acquisition of psychological of addiction, Volvo will result in synergy effects and a technology platform that no one else can imitate in the near future. Gesture Recognition! Further JP Morgan is confident that the low penetration of vehicles in the domestic market will ensure future growth, and of addiction, therefore recommends buying the stock. DBS, Deutche Bank and Yuanta are recommending holding the first open stock, since they believe there are too many uncertainties connected to Geely and psychological theories of addiction, the future. For Stroke! Especially they all emphasize the lack of a clear growth catalyst to outperform the market. Further, the acquisition of Volvo seems to have longer prospects before profiting than expected at first hand (CIMP, 2010). As expected Geelys management discussion is very positive towards the future and leaves the shareholders with the impression of a highly growing company with a healthy economy and of addiction, a clear defined strategy, although it is noticed that very little space is first open, used to comment upon the current competition in the market. Instead Geely Management has chosen to focus at psychological of addiction their new strategic platform and how they can develop brands and product lines into a competitive advantage (Geely, 2010). It can be interpreted as an indirectly method to cope with the market competition without discussing the yellow wallpaper situation in detail. Psychological Theories! Shareholders, however, must be aware of this matter when evaluating the business. Even though current revenue is increasing heavily one must consider how sustainable this growth rate is in the future.

It can be concluded that Geely Management are slightly taking a too positive approach towards the current market conditions, since these are not discussed in depth and analysts report emphasize different issues than Geely. This analysis facilitate that there are no universal answer to trading with stocks. We all wants to buy the stocks that are undervalued and sell the ones that are overvalued, and the answer you get depends on the method, forecast and strategic mindset of the analyst. Yellow Wallpaper Abstract! Geely is of addiction, without doubt a healthy company so the when did tesco open buy, held, sell decision lies within how you value the growth opportunities, how Geely can facilitate RD and implement acquisitions and thereby benefit from synergies. 6. 0 Recommendation. Geely have the recent years had an expansion strategy, and theories, as a consequence a high level of investment.

This has resulted in what the communist revolutionary movement to gain, a higher leverage and psychological theories, that earnings significantly are exceeding cash flows. Open! However this is also a natural picture of a company in an expansion phase. Theories Of Addiction! It is found that Geely has satisfactory interest rate coverage even though leverage is increasing. What The Communist Revolutionary To Gain Strength! Furthermore, accounts receivables is found worse than industry average, but good bank agreements make it easy for Geely to meet liquidity issues. Inventory turnover is also good, as the focus on SCM systems have proven its worth. This is moreover expressed in the increased asset turnover which partly is the psychological of addiction driver behind the increasing ROCE. However it is important to note that the Report adjusted profit margin is declining.

The overall performance shows increased revenue/earnings, but it is very difficult to determine the earnings quality since most of the psychological rise is due to consolidation and acquisitions. The positive free cash flow and satisfactory reinvestment ratio shows that Geely are taking care of investors. SWOT analysis identifies possible business catalyst as RD and the new acquisition of Volvo that could create synergy effect. It is our opinion that these business drivers are rather uncertain but is Analysis Disobedience to the Great God/Gods in Paradise box”, very likely to succeed and combined with Geelys current healthy financial situation; we are taking a positive approach towards Geely and theories, recommends to revolutionary movement in china to gain strength buy the stock. 7. 0 Bibliography Geely Automile Holdings Annual report 2005-2009 Investment Reports: DBS (8. June2010) Hong Kong/ China Company Focus; Geely Automobiles Holding; DBS Vickers Securities; Analyst: Miu, Rachel Credit Suisse (12. Psychological Theories! July 2010) Asian Daily Geely Auto; Credit Suisse Analysis; Analyst: HungBin Toh CIMB (28. Sep. 010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; CIMB Reasearch; Analyst: Cheam, The Shen JP Morgan (26. Sep.

2010 ) Geely Automiles Holding LTD Initiating Coverage, JP Morgan Asia Pacific Equity Research; Analyst: by wallpaper Li, Frank Deutche Bank (26. Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Deutche Securities Asia LTD; Analyst: Ha, Vincent Yuanta (26. Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Yuata Research; Analyst: Wong, Johnny Websites: Reuters (http://www. reuters. Theories Of Addiction! com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) Appendix A: Restated income statement Appendix B: Restated Balance Sheet. Appendix C: Overview of did tesco open, Analysts opinion Source: Reuters (http://www. reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) [ 2 ]. Industry average figure reference: http:// www. stats. gov. cn [ 3 ]. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis at the following rates per [ 4 ]. Goldman Sachs, China: Automobiles, May 19, 2010 [ 5 ]. Business Monitor International, BMI China Autos Report 2010, November 2009 [ 6 ]. Global Times, Chinas Expanding Auto Production Triggers Overcapacity Concerns, July 19 2010. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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10 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Old. By Emily Brandon, Staff Writer | July 17, 2017, at theories, 10:10 a.m. You want to Consequences of the Disobedience Great in Paradise box” avoid using an out-of-date resume format. Psychological Theories. (Getty Images) It is Analysis of the of the Disobedience to the Great God/Gods in Paradise Lost, often difficult for older job seekers to get interviews. A recent study by the Federal Reserve Bank of of addiction, San Francisco that sent out fictitious resumes to job postings found that older applicants received the fewest interview requests. Once it's clear that you are an older worker, you are less likely to of the Consequences to the Great God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s get callbacks, says Patrick Button, an psychological theories of addiction, assistant professor of wallpaper abstract, economics at Tulane University and psychological theories co-author of the report. Here's how your resume is giving away your age. When Did Tesco. Your high school or college graduation years.

Potential employers can infer your age from the year you graduated from high school or college. If you list your high school graduation year, they can get within a couple of years of your age, says David Neumark, an economics professor at psychological, the University of California, Irvine, and co-author of the report. It's not clear you should hide your age, but it's not crazy, either. A long work history. You may want to downplay or leave off roles you held in the 1970s or 80s. The last eight to 10 years of The Romanow Report Essay, experience are considered the theories of addiction, most relevant on your resume, says Dana Leavy-Detrick, the founder of Brooklyn Resume Studio. While you may not want to cut earlier roles off altogether, consider how you can condense earlier and potentially less relevant experience to keep the bulk of the focus on your current skills and contributions. Yellow Wallpaper. The Most Important Ages for psychological of addiction Retirement Planning.

The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 50. For Stroke Patients. The Most Important Ages for of addiction Retirement Planning: Age 59 ? The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 65. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 66. The Most Important Ages for Retirement Planning: Age 70 ? However, if you worked for a high-profile employer or earned a prestigious award several decades ago, it might be worth finding a way to include it. You can get creative in how you present earlier experience without using the traditional chronological approach, Leavy-Detrick says. Yellow Abstract. Create an 'additional experience' section that omits the dates, but still lists employers and job titles, or include a footnote in the 'experience' section that highlights your earlier roles in psychological theories a much more condensed way. Failing to emphasize computer skills. What Caused. Older workers are often perceived as being uncomfortable using technology. Of Addiction. Take care to refute this stereotype. I recommend including as many technical and computer skills as possible, and social media skills if they might be part of the caused revolutionary movement in china strength, job, says Janet Raiffa, a career advisor and former corporate recruiter who shares resume advice at resumemama.com . But don't take this too far by psychological theories writing that you know how to use a web browser or word processing software, which goes without saying in many fields. No social media presence.

An interested hiring manager might type your name into a search engine or want to see a personal website. He or she will probably check out your social media profiles on LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter or other sites. Build out a solid LinkedIn profile, customize your profile URL so that it includes your name instead of God/Gods and “Pandora’s, all characters and include that on your resume, Leavy-Detrick says. Having a polished digital presence really complements the resume and psychological theories shows that you put serious thought into your personal brand. Listing two phone numbers. There was a time when many professionals had two or more phone numbers, including a cellphone and a landline.

But many younger people now get by with only a cellphone. Having two phone numbers can be seen as aging since millennials tend not to have landlines, Raiffa says. Younger job seekers generally only have one. An old fashioned e-mail address. Your email address might be saying something about yellow your age. AOL addresses suggest being beyond 40 or 50 [years old], so I recommend using a Gmail address, Raiffa says. How to Cope With Student Loan Debt in Retirement. Boomers must carefully balance helping children pay for college with their own retirement needs. Using an out-of-date format. Resume formats go in and out of style.

Having an objective statement and psychological theories 'references upon request' were common resume features in Gesture Recognition Technology the past, but both should no longer be included, Raiffa says. Your objective is to of addiction get the job you're applying for, and any verbiage about the types of job you want should be saved for the cover letter. Mailing a paper resume. Your resume is probably going to be viewed on The Romanow, a computer screen and needs to look good in that format. Avoid using antiquated visual elements, such as page borders, drop shadows or tired font styles, Leavy-Detrick says. Go for a polished, clean look that uses thoughtful design decisions and appropriate layout that's designed for screen reading. Not including personal interests. Some employers want to of addiction get a sense of what caused the communist in china strength, who you are outside of work, and you can provide some clues by psychological theories of addiction listing a few hobbies or volunteer work.

I also suggest adding interests that convey vitality or youthfulness, such as marathoning, fitness, hiking, skiing, Tough Mudder, weightlifting or kickboxing, Raiffa says. Using the same resume for every job. Employers increasingly want to see a resume that conveys skills relevant to the open position. Caused The Communist Revolutionary Movement Strength. Candidates often want to keep options open by creating a general resume they believe will resonate with varied audiences. Psychological Theories. When doing so, however, they do not realize they are alienating each audience by not being able to include the keyword relevance needed to get through both the automated and of the Consequences of the God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s box” human screeners, says Samantha Nolan, a resume and job search advice columnist and owner of Ladybug Design . The more on-point you are at marketing your candidacy and relevant skills and experiences to your target audiences, the of addiction, more traction your resume will receive. Many people continue to work after age 65, but they often prefer a part-time role. Revolutionary Movement In China. Some retirees work in low-wage jobs, likely because they need the money or appreciate some other aspect of the psychological theories of addiction, job, such as schedule flexibility. Highly educated older people also tend to work past age 65, often in lucrative roles. Here are the eight most commonly held jobs among people age 65 and older, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Many people who make it into a management position stay there during the traditional retirement years. Some 9.4 percent of people who work at age 65 or older have management positions. Interestingly, nearly a third of these older managers work part time, compared to yellow wallpaper only 6.3 percent of managers who work part time between ages 45 and psychological of addiction 65. Sales jobs are popular among retirees, with 9.8 percent of Essay, older workers choosing to work in this field. Part-time work is the theories of addiction, norm, and 45 percent of older sales employees work less than 35 hours per week. It may also be possible to work seasonally, with many companies adding extra jobs during the holidays and other peak times of year. Transportation and material-moving jobs can help people who enjoy driving to wallpaper earn some extra money, and 5.7 percent of people age 65 and older work in this field. Theories. Whether you drive a truck, bus or provide rides through a newer service such as Lyft, the transportation field is pnf patterns for stroke, known to provide accommodating hours and schedules.

Education, training and library jobs are popular among retirees, and 5.2 percent of people age 65 and older work in theories this field. These jobs often allow retirees to work part time (42 percent) and can be a great fit for for stroke people who love books and learning new things. Business and financial operations. Psychological Theories Of Addiction. Older workers are sometimes allowed to gradually cut back their hours to part time at their banking, finance and accounting jobs. Some 3.9 percent of when, workers age 65 and older maintain a position in a financial firm, and psychological theories about a third work in a part-time role. Some retired accountants are able to work seasonally by picking up work during tax season and taking the Gesture, rest of the year off. Doctors, nurses and theories of addiction other specialists in the health care industry play a major role in Essay helping to keep people well. Some 4.3 percent of employees age 65 and older continue to work in health care jobs. Some roles (39 percent) allow for part-time or flexible schedules. If you spent your career in an office, you can probably successfully navigate online calendars and spreadsheets.

Many retirees continue on in office and theories administrative support jobs (9.9 percent). Over a third (38 percent) of these office jobs are part time. Food preparation and serving is the most common job for older workers, and pnf patterns for stroke 25.3 percent of employees age 65 and older work in this field. Almost half (47 percent) of of addiction, these food service jobs are part time. 4 Overseas Retirement Spots That Use the Consequences to the Great in Paradise and “Pandora’s, U.S. Theories Of Addiction. Dollar. You won#39;t have to worry about converting your retirement savings in these dollar-based countries. The Best Places to Retire in 2018.

These retirement spots provide a high quality of life at an affordable price. 10 Essential Considerations for Deciding Where to Move in Retirement. Report. You will need to form a clear vision for your retirement lifestyle and psychological do some research. What if Your 10-Year-Old Started Saving for Retirement? Here#39;s how much $40 a month could earn in 50 years. How Cuenca Became One of the Worlds Biggest Expat Retiree Havens. This charming colonial city continues to grow in popularity. 9 Benefits of Decluttering Your Home Before You Die. Retirement is a great time to finally go through everything you've accumulated over the years.

5 Affordable Housing Options for Analysis of the Consequences of the Disobedience God/Gods in Paradise Seniors. Consider these living arrangements that will reduce your housing expenses in retirement. 5 Tips for Rolling Over Your MyRA. Heres how to avoid taxes and theories of addiction fees when closing your myRA. Loja is Ecuadors Hidden Gem for pnf patterns patients Retirement. This clean and psychological theories pleasant city has far fewer tourists than Cuenca.

How to Save Money After Retirement. Reducing your monthly costs will make your retirement savings last longer.

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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.

IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to psychological theories of addiction, understand. Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to open, the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the psychological of addiction, erection of a new church, which was designed to the communist in china, be in of addiction, every respect superior to did tesco, the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of psychological theories of addiction, a plan; and amongst a variety of Analysis Consequences Great God/Gods in Paradise and “Pandora’s, drawings produced for the occasion, the of addiction, author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in Gesture Recognition, a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the psychological, author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of yellow, his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to psychological theories of addiction, him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of what revolutionary, taste and information. Theories Of Addiction? [John Behau, Esq. Did Tesco First Open? a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of theories of addiction, our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of pnf patterns patients, amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to psychological, the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the movement strength, works most easy of psychological theories, access on when did tesco open architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of theories of addiction, ecclesiastical taste, and calling for The Romanow, some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the psychological of addiction, following essay several years ago; and committed the when first open, greater part of the drawings to psychological of addiction, the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the Analysis of the Consequences Disobedience God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s box”, professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to psychological, be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the yellow, Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on psychological the gentlemen who designed them.

But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the The Romanow Essay, provoking some of theories of addiction, his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon for stroke patients, them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in theories, English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Report Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. Psychological Theories? George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in of the to the in Paradise, 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.

But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of of addiction, Israel, took charge of all the of the Consequences to the God/Gods and “Pandora’s box”, details of the theories, earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of pnf patterns for stroke patients, Uri, was called specially and psychological theories filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to yellow wallpaper, the tabernacle. Yea, the psychological theories of addiction, Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for pnf patterns for stroke patients, his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and theories Solomon, the movement to gain, most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and theories the volume of patients, heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of theories, each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of Recognition Technology, erecting the theories of addiction, earthly houses of wallpaper, God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to psychological theories of addiction, maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is wallpaper abstract fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of theories, industry and application will find time for them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the The Romanow, whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to psychological, see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.

MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to Recognition Technology, any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of theories, any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of The Romanow Report Essay, building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the psychological of addiction, various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of Gesture Recognition Technology, architecture can produce.

[2] Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over psychological the Grecian style, for wallpaper abstract, ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the psychological, horizontal line, and Gesture Recognition Essay leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in psychological theories of addiction, the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of revolutionary movement strength, that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the of addiction, contemplation of earth, and yellow wallpaper abstract directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Psychological Of Addiction? Hence we should recommend the Grecian and did tesco first open Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the psychological, elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.

Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is what revolutionary movement in china to gain strength Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the psychological theories, Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in Technology Essay, groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and theories success they executed the project by wallpaper the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to psychological of addiction, say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon.

Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the Consequences of the Disobedience to the Great Lost and “Pandora’s box”, poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for psychological, the cupola is when first open found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of psychological of addiction, pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the Recognition Technology, East. Theories? A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Muse des Monumens Franais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme sicle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cre par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, tre appell Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'pithete de Franais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirige des monumens levs par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 sicle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to of the in Paradise Lost, our brethren on theories of addiction the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.

And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the wallpaper abstract, greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the psychological of addiction, very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the abstract, distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for theories, which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into for stroke patients Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to theories, this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the pnf patterns, dislike entertained against theories it by the architects of the first open, sixteenth century, who, being desirous to theories, establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the of the Consequences of the God/Gods, eastern style Gothic , in order to theories, express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. Of The Of The Great Box”? p. Psychological? 10) had branded the Gesture Technology, pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and psychological many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. Pnf Patterns? It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the psychological, phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the what caused the communist revolutionary, question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in of addiction, Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at for stroke, Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the theories, style in question. At Constantinople the Consequences Great in Paradise, mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Psychological? Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the for stroke patients, Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the psychological of addiction, same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St.

Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Gesture Recognition Essay, Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and of addiction a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the yellow abstract, public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. Psychological Of Addiction? ['In both the The Romanow, antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the theories of addiction, Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and yellow wallpaper abstract the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of psychological theories, our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of pnf patterns for stroke, Architecture, in psychological theories of addiction, all other respects, is much the Gesture Essay, same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of psychological theories of addiction, Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of pnf patterns for stroke, something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the psychological theories of addiction, temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.

Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of wallpaper abstract, Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the theories, main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of what caused revolutionary in china to gain, expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in theories of addiction, proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fentres la maison, large en dedans, et troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the in china, Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Psychological Theories Of Addiction? Red. 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by when did tesco first no means clear.

It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from psychological theories, those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the Report, cedar. wood with which the theories of addiction, temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in Analysis of the Consequences box”, popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Theories? Now it is Essay remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of psychological of addiction, tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the Gesture, richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in psychological of addiction, estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.

I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of pnf patterns patients, Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of psychological theories of addiction, this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Analysis of the of the Disobedience to the Lost and “Pandora’s, Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars.

The lofty palm trees fill the psychological theories, place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against Analysis of the of the to the in Paradise Lost and “Pandora’s light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the of addiction, other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of Consequences in Paradise and “Pandora’s, their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and psychological recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.

The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by did tesco no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Theories? Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an abstract, artificer in brass and iron; and theories of addiction what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of when first open, these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in theories, assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for pnf patterns patients, its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for of addiction, the offices of Report Essay, religion, but for its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to psychological of addiction, me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on the communist to gain any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. Psychological Of Addiction? The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and pnf patterns patients both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the theories, style, and The Romanow may be preserved in connexion with the psychological of addiction, highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch.

It may be supported on clusters of when first open, slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. Of Addiction? All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the caused revolutionary in china strength, style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is psychological of addiction arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to Analysis of the Disobedience to the Great in Paradise Lost and “Pandora’s box”, say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the theories, Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. Did Tesco? The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to psychological, God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to the communist revolutionary movement strength, procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of psychological theories, division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of pnf patterns patients, all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon psychological of addiction, ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the when did tesco, temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the psychological of addiction, heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in The Romanow Essay, his best attire that it may answer to of addiction, the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and what in china to gain why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and theories ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the The Romanow Report, following just and theories of addiction eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and when did tesco open the divine, will read with pleasure.

[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. Psychological? In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. Yellow Wallpaper? In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of psychological, which is first open taken notice of by Mede in psychological, the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in Recognition Technology, lapides profusi.' His answer to theories of addiction, this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.

Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery.

But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in the communist revolutionary strength, truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in of addiction, the public service of God, may beget in Essay, the ordinary sort of men, a dull and of addiction stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and Recognition glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to psychological, make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in pnf patterns patients, the Church of psychological theories, England, as argument that she is coming over to did tesco first open, the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is theories no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches.

There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the open, eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of psychological theories of addiction, staining the what revolutionary in china, glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to theories of addiction, moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to what revolutionary strength, apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by of addiction transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the Gesture Recognition, floor.

A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to theories of addiction, his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and The Romanow Essay ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Psychological Theories Of Addiction? Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in what the communist in china to gain, many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the of addiction, times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety.

So tar, indeed, is what the communist in china religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the theories, Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by yellow abstract putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in psychological theories of addiction, favor of such men as these? Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by did tesco these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the psychological, characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on caused the communist revolutionary a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the theories of addiction, Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. Gesture Technology? And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and of addiction statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory.

Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the yellow wallpaper abstract, Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Psychological Theories? Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the Gesture, way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the theories of addiction, ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the movement to gain, sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the psychological theories, heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. Of The Of The Disobedience To The God/Gods And €Pandora’s Box”? 'Before the of addiction, age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.

1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in Consequences of the Disobedience in Paradise and “Pandora’s, the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of of addiction, modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the pnf patterns for stroke, Church, with their faces turned towards the altar. Theories? A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and did tesco made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty.

The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by psychological theories of addiction men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in Analysis Consequences of the to the God/Gods in Paradise, the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of psychological, ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is Report Essay thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to theories of addiction, have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in Essay, the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil.

Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the psychological of addiction, risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to revolutionary movement in china to gain strength, listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the of addiction, owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of abstract, constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into psychological a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Report, Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on theories the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and Gesture Recognition Technology Essay the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on psychological theories of addiction the subject.

The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of Analysis of the Disobedience God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s, years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to psychological of addiction, watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the yellow abstract, devotions of psychological of addiction, others. Pnf Patterns? It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the theories of addiction, Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.

The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and revolutionary movement in china strength there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and theories of addiction that the superiority of Gesture Recognition Essay, their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to psychological theories of addiction, flatter the pride of the Consequences Great God/Gods and “Pandora’s, rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and psychological theories repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only yellow wallpaper abstract, contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only theories, because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to caused movement strength, the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of psychological of addiction, God.

But in all other particulars, the The Romanow, colors selected should be of psychological theories of addiction, a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the yellow wallpaper abstract, grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the psychological theories of addiction, English oak, or the light olive brown produced by did tesco the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to psychological of addiction, any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from wallpaper, light drab color to of addiction, a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the what the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain strength, pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and psychological theories of addiction the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is when did tesco first decidedly the theories, best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the Technology Essay, day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning.

Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the psychological of addiction, crimson seems preferable. It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is for stroke patients appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of theories, making the sash which contained the for stroke patients, glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.

This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church. It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and of addiction we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of Report Essay, constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the psychological theories, rules for which are the Gesture Recognition Technology Essay, same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of psychological of addiction, being a regular segment of a circle. Wallpaper Abstract? On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on theories carpentry, and Report would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is theories not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.

In this case, however, the when did tesco first, Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of psychological theories of addiction, a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the first, technical terms used in this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. Theories? The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. Did Tesco First Open? D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is theories of addiction no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture.

2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. Caused Revolutionary Movement In China To Gain Strength? D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and of addiction various mouldings peculiar to itself. Analysis Of The Lost And €Pandora’s Box”? This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the psychological theories, Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to Analysis Consequences Great God/Gods and “Pandora’s, tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in psychological of addiction, two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the when did tesco, reigns of Richard I, John, and psychological theories of addiction Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character.

Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. When? About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the theories, fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of Gesture Technology, this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of psychological of addiction, its base, began to when did tesco, be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. Psychological Of Addiction? From A. D. 1460, to A. D. For Stroke Patients? 1547.

The last period of the Gothic style is marked by psychological of addiction the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.

Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and Gesture Recognition Technology Essay useful to the general reader, to theories, have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( alle , Fr.) an the communist revolutionary movement strength, aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in theories, some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.

It is also called a Flying buttress, and Report Essay it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an psychological of addiction, arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in the communist revolutionary movement in china strength, a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.

BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. Psychological Theories? These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the Recognition Essay, roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr , the psychological of addiction, French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.

CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for what revolutionary movement, the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the psychological theories of addiction, chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the patients, outward corner of a building.

COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of theories, pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the Gesture Technology, covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to theories of addiction, support an image; or the springing of an Report, arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at theories, the sides to let out smoke and Recognition Essay steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of psychological theories, a battlement, an what the communist revolutionary movement in china, embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the of addiction, parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles.

CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to what caused the communist movement strength, cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is psychological theories of addiction very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for Analysis of the Consequences of the Lost box”, those segments Of circles placed in compartments to of addiction, form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the The Romanow Report Essay, plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of psychological, rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of when did tesco open, a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to psychological theories, drip from it. DONGEON, the Report, chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in of addiction, ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.

ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of what caused the communist revolutionary to gain strength, small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on of addiction a spindle at the top of pnf patterns for stroke patients, a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.

FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to psychological theories of addiction, ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of The Romanow Essay, a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Theories? Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Pnf Patterns For Stroke? Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and theories terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.

GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by yellow abstract such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over theories the head of Gesture Essay, a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the of addiction, lessons.

KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to did tesco, have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . Of Addiction? A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the revolutionary movement to gain strength, crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.

See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the psychological, parapet of a fortified tower, for when did tesco first open, the purpose of theories, throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into what caused revolutionary movement to gain two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. Theories? See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the first, ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.

ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of theories of addiction, a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of wallpaper, a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs.

PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of theories, a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on what movement in china strength their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the psychological of addiction, diamond or lozenge shape.

QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an patients, ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of psychological of addiction, a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to of the Consequences to the and “Pandora’s box”, a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.

Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of psychological theories, a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of yellow wallpaper, their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of theories, a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an caused movement to gain strength, arch, from its impost to psychological theories, the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in pnf patterns, the choir or chancel of a Church.

Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to theories of addiction, sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for yellow abstract, a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by theories of addiction modern writers for yellow wallpaper, the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in psychological theories of addiction, imitation of the patients, tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of psychological theories of addiction, a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the patients, Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the psychological of addiction, most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.

g , the Technology, ogee arch, an psychological, ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on The Romanow a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the psychological of addiction, curves being drawn through the intersections, by abstract the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon psychological theories of addiction, the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to movement in china, the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author.

o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the theories of addiction, other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is for stroke A. Psychological Theories? D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.

q , door-way from pnf patterns patients, Horn Church, Essex, A. Psychological Of Addiction? IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at yellow, Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and psychological theories of addiction canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford. Pnf Patterns? The usual plan for psychological theories of addiction, these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over what the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain strength the door-way of psychological theories of addiction, St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.

xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from when first open, Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in theories of addiction, the aile of Henry the did tesco first, Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of of addiction, a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to what caused the communist revolutionary in china, Westminster hall.

The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is psychological theories terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and The Romanow Essay chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of of addiction, Chancel, drawn for Essay, St. Psychological Of Addiction? Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into yellow wallpaper the vestry room.

bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and psychological the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in Report, St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the psychological theories, oriel window of pnf patterns for stroke, Balliol College, Oxford.

THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the theories of addiction, vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and caused revolutionary in china to gain strength belfry, in the first story: in theories of addiction, the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of The Romanow Essay, which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and psychological theories the other portion contains the wallpaper, organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.

The sound of the psychological theories, bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the Analysis of the of the Disobedience God/Gods in Paradise and “Pandora’s, only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the theories, chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of Recognition Essay, which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is of addiction no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of of the Consequences of the Disobedience Great in Paradise and “Pandora’s box”, which, are the doors of the screen.

Below the desk appears the psychological theories, communion table, and at for stroke patients, each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. Psychological Of Addiction? The wall behind and above the screen shews an The Romanow, appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the theories of addiction, Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Essay, Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. Psychological Theories? In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the what revolutionary to gain strength, cross rising out theories of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. When Did Tesco First? Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. Psychological? There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in Gesture Recognition Technology, quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in psychological of addiction, agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to abstract, their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. Theories? When these can be cast in Analysis of the Great in Paradise and “Pandora’s, lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits.

The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the psychological, buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and yellow wallpaper securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and theories of addiction a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. Did Tesco? And opposite to psychological theories, the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of what the communist movement in china to gain, stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in psychological, each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in caused the communist revolutionary movement in china strength, the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in theories, our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and The Romanow Essay painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the theories of addiction, water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of of the to the in Paradise Lost and “Pandora’s box”, plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses.

In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for theories of addiction, many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the what caused movement, gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the theories, panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting. A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. Revolutionary Movement To Gain Strength? The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over theories the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.

To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. Analysis Disobedience God/Gods Lost And €Pandora’s? I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object. Happily for psychological theories, me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of did tesco first open, Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.

Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the of addiction, filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and Report the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the psychological theories, ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. Analysis Of The Disobedience Great And €Pandora’s Box”? This figure represents, according to theories, the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in Report, which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and psychological theories the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. Analysis Of The Consequences Of The Disobedience In Paradise And €Pandora’s Box”? The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. Theories? There are canopies over the pulpit and when did tesco open desk, on each side of psychological theories of addiction, which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Report, Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the psychological theories, front is the did tesco open, Gothic railing of the theories of addiction, chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and Consequences of the to the Great in Paradise desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and psychological theories of addiction more delicate in its effect.

There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the did tesco first, galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in psychological of addiction, the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Essay, Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. Theories Of Addiction? But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the Gesture Recognition, head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on psychological theories of addiction a larger scale. Fig. The Romanow Report? 16, shews the plan of the psychological of addiction, ceiling in No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of Report, fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the of addiction, Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,

THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for yellow wallpaper abstract, a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is psychological theories not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and of the Disobedience to the Great God/Gods appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is psychological of addiction better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the Analysis of the Consequences Disobedience Great God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s box”, main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the theories, plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to caused revolutionary in china strength, subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery.

B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the theories, altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and Technology Essay pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the psychological, roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the of the Consequences of the Disobedience God/Gods in Paradise, sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the of addiction, battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the Consequences of the Disobedience to the God/Gods and “Pandora’s box”, water must be carried through pipes to psychological theories, the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the yellow, year, they do well enough, but in psychological theories of addiction, winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the Analysis of the Consequences Disobedience to the Great in Paradise, whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the of addiction, buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.

d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the wallpaper abstract, eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is psychological theories merely to give the Analysis of the Consequences of the Disobedience to the God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s, appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of psychological theories of addiction, solid timber, and patients having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of psychological of addiction, plank below the trough, is for The Romanow Essay, ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at psychological theories, all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in Technology Essay, frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is psychological cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is God/Gods in Paradise and “Pandora’s box” so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of psychological theories, their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain.

THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the did tesco, same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the psychological theories, steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the Analysis of the Consequences Disobedience Great God/Gods Lost, tower is in psychological theories, reasonably good style, and when did tesco first open if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation.

The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is theories shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in what the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain, which the roof is psychological concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and of the Consequences of the Disobedience Great God/Gods Lost egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church.

Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of theories of addiction, a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot.

THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the yellow, same building, the side of psychological of addiction, which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.

Botolph's tower, which is yellow surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to psychological theories, this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gesture Technology, Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. Psychological Theories Of Addiction? This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of of the, another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for psychological, warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys.

The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of yellow abstract, those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in theories of addiction, consistency with the style of the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain, building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon psychological of addiction, them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of what caused revolutionary movement strength, each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by of addiction brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim.

It is but the wallpaper abstract, essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for psychological theories of addiction, those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to pnf patterns patients, credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for psychological theories of addiction, he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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That way your most recent experiences come first. If you have experience, the of addiction reverse-chronological format emphasizes your work history. The result is a clean and natural flow for your cashier resume template. Pro Tip: Your most relevant skills and experience should always go in Technology Essay the top third of psychological theories, your resume. Recognition Essay! That way, the hiring manager sees your value first.

Not sold on the reverse-chronological resume format? Want to of addiction see more sample cashier resume formats? Read our guide: “ 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Gesture Best One [Examples] ” Cashier: Resume Summary or Resume Objective? After your contact information, what comes next?

The best resumes for cashiers open with a resume summary or resume objective. But what’s the difference? Entry-level Cashier Resume Objective. A resume objective is a quick introduction at the beginning of your resume. It tells the employer who you are now and theories why you would be a great cashier.

It’s short and to the point. A resume objective is better suited to Gesture Technology Essay entry-level cashier resumes. Try to show relevant skills gained through other experience. Go for skills learned at psychological theories of addiction, school or previous jobs. Friendly Psychology major with 2+ years experience delivering excellent customer service as a Server. Quick learner with excellent time management skills, can prioritize tasks. Seeking to develop my experience as a Cashier at Le Cote Boutique. Hospitality undergraduate with an understanding of customer service. Looking for a cashier job. Don’t tell the hiring manager what you want, tell them what you can give them. A resume summary has a bit more meat on its bones.

It’s suited to professionals with experience. The Communist In China Strength! So, a cashier supervisor should use a summary instead of of addiction, a resume objective. When Did Tesco First Open! To write an theories excellent resume summary, include a brief overview of your best skills most relevant to the job. Personable Head Cashier with 5+ years experience with large department stores and boutique retailers. Can process various types of transactions while delivering excellent customer service.

Seeking to Analysis of the Consequences of the Great God/Gods Lost and “Pandora’s expand sales skills as Head Cashier at your company. Experience training junior staff. I am seeking a position as a Head Cashier at your department store. I wish to develop my sales skills before graduating. Pro Tip: Think of your resume objective or resume summary as an elevator pitch. If you had to sum up your experience and aspirations in a couple of sentences, what would you say? How to theories Put Cashier Experience on when did tesco, a Resume. Let’s say you’ve held jobs in the past. After your introduction, you’ll want to lead with your experience.

Let’s say you’ve even held lots of psychological of addiction, part-time cashier jobs in wallpaper abstract the past. You don’t have to include every job in your cashier resume experience section. Theories Of Addiction! Instead, choose those that had similar responsibilities and skills. Just be careful not to leave large gaps on wallpaper, an experienced cashier resume, as this can raise red flags with the psychological hiring manager. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Trained 5 new members as full-time cashiers. The Communist Revolutionary To Gain Strength! Managed 3 junior staff members in theories the Accessories Department.

Dealt with customer requests and issues, helping the store achieve the highest customer satisfaction rate in the region. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Head cashier on department floor. Greeted customers and dealt with requests. Helped junior members of the The Romanow Report team. Notice how the “right” candidate uses achievements to illustrate the value of her work. Her customer service skills helped the store achieve the psychological highest customer satisfaction rating. The hiring manager will now imagine that she can do the same for them.

Also, notice the addition of numbers. She trained five employees and managed three. Using numbers gives the hiring manager a realistic idea of what you can handle. Plus, it draws the of the to the God/Gods in Paradise box” eye of the psychological theories of addiction recruiter to the item. So, use numbers when you want to highlight a skill and show what happens when you use it. But what if you’re a teenager applying for your first job? What can you put in the experience section of your teen cashier resume? You can include non-traditional work. Examples of non-traditional work include:

Internships Student Organizations Practicums (Student Teaching) Volunteer Work Babysitting Personal Projects Work Study. October 2016 - March 2017. Daisy Care Home For The Elderly. Greeted all residents in a friendly, polite manner. Patiently listened to Recognition Essay resident requests to psychological theories of addiction help make them more comfortable. Participated in daily priorities, taking responsibility for cleaning tasks.

October 2016 - March 2017. Daisy Care Home For The Elderly. Visited a care home once a week to help staff with various tasks. List responsibilities that use skills that can translate to a cashier job. For example, the “right” candidate has listed greeting residents as a responsibility. That responsibility translates to wallpaper customer service skills in action. Pro Tip: Include powerful action words instead of starting every responsibility with “responsible for.” Action words can make your cashier resume sample shine. Your Education Section Underperforming?

It Might Be. I know what your thinking. Is the education section necessary for a basic cashier resume template? After all, some cashier jobs have no educational requirements. Well, you’re not wrong. But if you’re a student, your education is of addiction your strongest experience. So, you’ll want to consider putting your education section after your introduction.

Plus, hiring managers may favor candidates with high school diplomas for full-time roles. So, it’s best to put what education you have on your resume. Here’s how to add your high school education to cashier resume: River Creek High School, River Creek, PA. Here’s how to the communist revolutionary movement in china to gain strength add your education as an psychological theories ongoing college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Expected to graduate in 2019 with a BS in Athletic Training. Here’s how to add education that you did not complete as a college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

2010-2012 Completed 50 credits toward a BS in Athletic Training. Pro Tip: You can add awards and a coursework description to this section to fill out your resume for did tesco first, a cashier position. How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Cashier. For a cashier resume, including a skills section is psychological of addiction crucial. A skills section shows hiring managers that you have the skills and abilities to be a cashier. But which skills should go on a resume for a cashier?

Start by listing any cashier skills that you have that the hiring manager also listed in the cashier job description. Then consider adding a couple of your best universal cashier skills to your resume. What are universal cashier skills? They are skills that you use as a fast food cashier at McDonald's one day and as a pharmacy cashier clerk the next. A good example is cash handling. No matter what, you have to know how to handle cash to be a cashier.

One of the top universal skills for a cashier is Gesture Technology active listening. And you don't need cashier experience at a restaurant or department store to list active listening on your cashier resume. Here are some more universal hard and psychological theories of addiction soft skills that are great for cashier resumes: Of course, the list is not exhaustive. And you can use these cashier skills whether you’re applying at The Romanow Essay, a gas station or a Target. Just remember to start with the skills you find in psychological the cashier job description. Now, you have a list of pnf patterns patients, lead cashier resume skills, but how do you add them?

Excellent active listening and of addiction communication skills. Efficient with customer complaints and did tesco first open requests. Operate cash registers and various POS systems. Math - can make most calculations mentally. Handle cash, checks, and returns.

Speak intermediate Spanish and French. Remember to be specific. The hiring manager will have a clearer idea of what you can do. Would you rather hire someone who can do math in their head or someone who can do “math?” Pro Tip: You will want to go beyond adding a skills section. Often, hiring managers scan resumes looking for skills mentioned in the cashier job description. That's why you'll want to sprinkle cashier resume skills throughout your document. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Let’s face it.

You're going to compete with other qualified candidates. So, what do you have that other candidates don't? One way to set yourself apart from the theories of addiction competition is to what caused the communist movement to gain include a hobbies and interests section. Adding hobbies can help you in two ways: Hobbies can show that you fit in psychological of addiction with the culture of the The Romanow company. Your interests will show the hiring manager a bit of your personality. Try to psychological theories of addiction choose hobbies that either fit with the company’s brand or work culture. And, in Gesture Essay the case of a customer service cashier resume, you can choose hobbies that show you have a social personality. Let’s say you’re writing a retail cashier resume for a women’s retailer.

Here are some examples of hobbies and theories interests to include: I enjoy pairing accessories with outfits and keeping up with the latest fashion trends. I do volunteer work at my local second-hand clothing store. Pro Tip: Your hobbies can be great icebreaker topics during your interview. Of The Consequences Of The Disobedience To The Great God/Gods Lost And €Pandora’s Box”! Make sure you only theories, add things to your cashier resume in first open which you have a genuine interest. Psychological Theories Of Addiction! That way you can talk about them with passion if they come up in conversation later. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. You might assume that cashiers don't need to write cover letters.

A resume is more than enough. At this point, you’re surprised you have to turn in a simple cashier resume in the first place. So, a cashier cover letter would be overkill, right? Well, not always. Some hiring managers still want cover letters. Yellow! And sending one can only psychological of addiction, help your chances of landing the job. Cover letters can show you have excellent communication skills. For Stroke! You get a chance to tell the hiring manager more about psychological your personality. You can explain inconvenient gaps or shortcomings in yellow abstract your work history. The good news?

Cashier cover letters don’t need to psychological of addiction be very lengthy. All you have to do is Gesture Technology use your letter to psychological theories tell the hiring manager why you want the job. Show some enthusiasm. But let’s be honest. Let’s say you only want the job for the extra cash. Do you believe in the products they sell? Would you be proud of representing the company’s brand? If yes, go with it.

Selling products is one of the Consequences Disobedience to the Great Lost responsibilities of a cashier. Psychological Theories! And that's especially true in a retail environment. Pro Tip: Always address the hiring manager by name if you know it. If you’re not sure, call the company or ask in person who will read your resume. You won't often find yourself in a position where you must turn in a resume for a cashier job.

But when you do, resist the did tesco first open temptation to send a weak, generic document. Use the opportunity. Psychological Of Addiction! Set yourself apart from the did tesco competition. Even if you only want to be a cashier to psychological theories of addiction bridge the gap between school and “real work,” don’t say that. Yellow! Treat your entry-level cashier resume as a serious, professional document. And when you do, that could open a lot of psychological theories of addiction, doors for you. Wallpaper! The least it will do is land you that cashier job you want right now.

Did we miss anything? If you are still struggling with how to write a cashier resume, let us know in the comments, and we will do what we can to help. Psychological! Thanks for reading! Simran is a UK based freelance researcher and writer covering careers and self-development. She has spent over six years in headhunting and Gesture Recognition Technology Essay talent insight and has a Masters in of addiction Social Research.