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lsd term paper Information, such as this was virtually useless to the CIA and Army, however. Countries? Therapy was not the goal of their investigations. Mind control was. The government hoped to develop a method that would allow them to create an exploitable alteration of personality in potential agents, defectors, refugees, POWs, and in an unidentified group of page, others (Lee Shalin, 10).

Of the drugs that CIA and Army scientists tested, LSD-25 seemed to have the highest potential for use in underdeveloped countries, warfare and intelligence gathering. The government studied and Branch Davidians: A Cult Essay utilized LSD extensively from the early fifties until 1963, when they stopped using it in favor of a stronger hallucinogen, BZ. Around this time, psychologists who had been steadily building an impressive amount of data that supported the therapeutic efficacy of LSD, were forced to halt their research also. Certain psychologists, such as Dr. Timothy Leary and Dr. Richard Alpert of Harvard University, refused to comply with the underdeveloped countries new LSD regulations. Movements? They were dismissed from their posts and proceeded to educate the public about the spiritual and therapeutic effects of underdeveloped countries, psychedelic drugs.

This paper will be arranged in saxophone film, the following manner. First, I will describe the discovery of LSD. Next, I will review the history of CIA and countries military LSD research. Characters? Then, I will summarized the progression and repression of therapeutic LSD studies. Finally, I will discuss the cultural impact of underdeveloped, LSD. In 1938, Dr. Schools? Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist working for Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, was the first person to synthesize lysergic acid diethylamide. He developed the drug accidentally during an attempt to isolate an analeptic compound in ergot, a rye fungus with many medicinal alkaloids. LSD was the twenty fifth in a series of ergot derivatives he created while searching for the elusive circulatory stimulant. He quickly lost interest in the drug when it failed to countries produce significant results in preliminary studies on laboratory animals. (Lee Shalin, xiv)

Hoffman did not rediscover LSD-25 until April 16, 1943 when he decided to conduct further studies on the compound. In the process of synthesizing a new batch, Hoffman absorbed a small dose of LSD through his fingertips. He described what happened next in a report he sent to one of his colleagues. Three days after his accidental ingestion of saxophone film, LSD-25, Albert Hoffman began to underdeveloped countries research the compound in earnest. On April 19, 1943 he swallowed 250 micrograms. Saxophone Film? In his book, LSDMy Problem Child, Hoffman discusses the underdeveloped implications of his second, more intense LSD experience.

First, to his knowledge, lysergic acid was the only known substance that could evoke such extreme psychic effects in schools of thought, such low doses. Hoffman had not expected the 250 microgram dosage to inebriate him. In fact, the possibility seemed so unlikely that Hoffman's colleagues would not believe he had measured the dosage correctly until they had ingested similar amounts of the underdeveloped countries compound. Hercules Characters? (Hoffman, 20) What seemed even more significant to countries Hoffman was that his memory of the experience was not in the slightest bit marred. In The? He was able to underdeveloped recall every aspect of the trip in minute detail. Nor was Hoffman out of sorts the hercules disney characters following morning. Instead, he found himself in excellent physical and mental health, wondering how it was that a drug with the ability to produce such a powerful state of inebriation did not also produce a hangover. Underdeveloped Countries? (Hoffman, 20) Hoffman was optimistic about the in the implications of underdeveloped, his discovery. I was aware that LSD, a new active compound with such properties, would have to saxophone film be of use in pharmacology, in neurology, and especially in psychiatry, and that it would attract the interest of concerned specialists (Hoffman, 20). Hoffman was correct. When LSD was introduced to the United States in 1949, for example, it was well-received by the scientific community, and underdeveloped countries because of the unique properties of the drug it appealed to hercules characters groups of scientists with very different goals.

Both the countries government, which was trying to develop mind-control techniques, and psychiatrists, who were attempting to reform in the develop more effective treatments for their patients, began testing the drug almost immediately. Before LSD became illegal, it was tested on underdeveloped, over 40,000 people by psychologists alone. Since 1942, government agents, then working for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the saxophone film CIA's predecessor, had been making a concerted effort to underdeveloped countries locate a speech-inducing, personality-altering drug that could be used in interrogations. Because LSD, which was originally brought into the U.S. by Dr. Max Rinkel, was so powerful in small doses as well as odorless and tasteless, government officials were certain that it could be useful to of thought psychology them, they simply had to determine how. Perhaps as a result of their own military goals, they were concerned that LSD would be used by other nations against the citizens of the United States. It was absolutely necessary, from this perspective, to study the drug extensively. I must back track a little in underdeveloped countries, order to fully convey the circumstances under which LSD was embraced by the CIA and the military. When General William Donovan, chief of the OSS, assembled six prestigious scientists in the spring of 1942 to describe the covert research program that he wished for them to hercules disney characters undertake, he was very clear about the government's motivation for this operation. Underdeveloped Countries? He challenged the scientists to pavilion of realism create a substance that could break down the psychological defenses of enemy spies and POWs, thereby causing an uninhibited disclosure of classified information. Underdeveloped? Such a drug would also be useful for screening OSS personnel in movements in the 1800s, order to identify German sympathizers, double agents, and potential misfits (Lee Shalin, 3).

Donovan appointed Dr. Windfred Overhusler chairman of the research committee. The group proceeded to test and reject various drugs including alcohol, barbituates, caffeine, peyote, and scopolamine, before marijuana was singled out as the substance that had the highest potential for countries inducing speech. (Lee Shalin, 3-4) The OSS proceeded to pavilion test marijuana on underdeveloped countries, both witting on unwitting subjects, including themselves, their associates, U.S. military personnel, and American citizens. They determined that the best method of administration was the reform in the injection of THC into a cigarette or cigar. Underdeveloped? The effects of marijuana were described in the following OSS report. Encouraged by these results, the OSS began to use marijuana on an operational basis until the drug proved to be too unreliable for their purposes.

While it was true that marijuana often stimulated a rush of talk, on just as many occasions it induced an extreme state of silent paranoia. When the war ended, the saxophone film OSS was replaced by the CIA, which was eager, along with the military, to continue the research that the OSS had begun in 1942. The Navy initiated Project CHATTER in underdeveloped countries, 1947, the same year that the CIA was formed. Pavilion? The results of the countries first LSD tests were also published in 1947 by Dr. Werner Stoll, a close colleague of Dr. Pavilion Of Realism? Albert Hoffman. The purpose of Project CHATTER was to create a means for obtaining information from people without physical duress. One of the drugs tested during Project CHATTER was mescaline, a derivative of peyote that induces hallucinations similar to underdeveloped countries those produced by saxophone film LSD. Project CHATTER was terminated in 1953, after mescaline failed to serve as an effective truth serum. Underdeveloped Countries? (Lee Shalin, 5) The CIA was also experimenting with mind-altering drugs during this period. Of Thought? In 1951, their scattered efforts were combined to form a single program called Bluebird.

Over time project Bluebird came to be called Artichoke, but the countries goal of the research did not change. The CIA wished to 'create an exploitable alteration of schools of thought, personality' in selected individuals, specific targets included 'potential agents, defectors, refugees, POW's' and a vague category of underdeveloped countries, 'others' (Lee Shalin, 10). In 1951, shortly after project Bluebird was launched, the CIA conducted an LSD pilot study to measure the effects of the compound on the subjects' ability to suppress experimental or nonthreat secrets. (Lee Shalin, 13) Shortly after this experiment, CIA researchers designed a study to determine optimal dosage levels of LSD for hercules disney characters interrogation. This study included at least twelve subjects of below average intelligence.

The subjects were informed that a new drug was being tested on countries, them and that it was not dangerous. Even after the experiment, they were never given any further details. The researchers concluded that 100 to 150 micrograms was an schools of thought psychology, optimal dosage. (Lee Shalin, 14) After determining this dosage range, the CIA began to further investigate the potential of LSD to act as a truth serum. They held a series of mock interrogation proceedings, and initially obtained promising results.

CIA scientists prepared a memorandum entitled Potential New Agent for Unconventional Warfare. This document stated, among other things, that LSD was useful for underdeveloped eliciting true and accurate statements from subjects under its influence during interrogation (Lee Shalin, 14). The researchers also noted that LSD aided in hercules characters, the recovery of repressed memories. The initial success of such experiments, however, could not be consistently replicated. Certain aspects of the LSD trip often interfered with successful interrogation. Unwitting subjects, for example, tended to become paranoid and silent as the effects of the underdeveloped drug set in.

Other subjects experienced delusions of grandeur, becoming convinced that they could defy the interrogators indefinitely. Another practical matter for the CIA to consider was the fact that any enemy spy who was given LSD would know almost immediately, due to hallucinations, that he had been drugged. Scientists were also disappointed that memories of the period of saxophone film, inebriation were not destroyed after the drug wore off. Unlike the other substances that the government studied, LSD was not discarded when it failed to prove itself a reliable. Underdeveloped Countries? Instead the CIA and military expanded the scope of their testing, believing that such a powerful drug must have a practical application. LSD was used on A Cult Essay, an operational basis as an aid to interrogation from the mid-1950's until the early 1960's, but the CIA did not limit the employment of LSD to political targets. In the early 1950's, the government became increasingly concerned that other nations, such as the countries USSR and A Cult China, where ergot flourished, would find a strategic use for LSD.

In light of this suspicion, the CIA project committee decided in November of 1953 that personnel in all components of the agency should be dosed with LSD to demonstrate to them the effects of the hallucinogenic drug so they would prepared if an countries, enemy should attempt to use it against them. Members of the agency who reacted anxiously to of mice and men page impromptu doses of countries, LSD would be excluded from certain assignments. Branch Davidians: A Cult? A new program, MK-ULTRA, was formed in this year to countries include the more comprehensive scope of LSD research. (Lee Shalin, 17) At first the LSD tests within the CIA were executed systematically. A typical experiment involved two agents secluding themselves in a room, ingesting the drug, and taking notes on their experiences. This analytical approach did not last long, however. CIA agents agreed that it was necessary for all personnel to undergo impromptu trips in order to of realism properly prepare for the event of an enemy-administered dose of LSD. They began to randomly spike each others drinks with lysergic acid.

No one in underdeveloped, the agency was excluded from these impromptu trips, and their experiences ranged from mystical to disastrous. One CIA agent stated after his surprise ingestion, I didn't want to leave it. Saxophone Film? I felt I would be going back to a place where I wouldn't be able to hold on to this kind of beauty. (Lee Shalin, 30) Other, less fortunate agents reacted to LSD with extreme paranoid episodes. In November of 1953, the underdeveloped countries first LSD-related death occurred. There is little doubt that the suicide of Dr. Frank Olson is the origin of the popular myth that people who take LSD are likely to jump from windows.

Olson was unwittingly dosed with LSD during a three-day work retreat for CIA and Army technicians in the backwoods of Branch A Cult, Maryland. Olson, who had never ingested drugs before, was upset that he had been given LSD against his will. He became very withdrawn and depressed under the influence of the powerful substance and remained so after its effects subsided. When Olson returned home from the retreat he asked his boss to fire him, claiming that his behavior had ruined the LSD experiment that his colleagues had undertaken the preceding weekend. Three weeks later, Olson jumped head first through a closed window, falling ten stories to the pavement below. Details of the events leading up to Olson's suicide remained confidential, primarily due to the fact that agents working under the MK-ULTRA program were preparing to launch into the next phase of LSD testing: the countries administration of LSD to unwitting American citizens in real-life settings and situations. The CIA selected George Hunter White, a narcotics officer, to execute this plan. White was chosen on the basis of his experience with marijuana. He had organized the earlier experiments in which marijuana was tested on unwitting American citizens and was quite willing to conduct similar research with LSD. White, funded by the CIA, rented an apartment in Greenwich Village and schools of thought equipped it with two-way mirrors and surveillance cameras.

He proceeded to lure artists up to his new home and surreptitiously dose them with LSD. A large number of his subjects had adverse reactions to the unexpected inebriation. In 1955, White was transferred to San Francisco, where he set-up two more of these safe houses, as the CIA called them. Underdeveloped? At this time, Operation Midnight Climax was established. The purpose of this project was to study how sexual desires could be exploited by CIA agents. In exchange for $100.00 per night and a guarantee of legal immunity, drug-addicted prostitutes aided White and the CIA by of mice page count picking up men from area bars and bringing them back to one of the safe houses. White watched from behind the two-way mirror while the men were given drinks laced with LSD and underdeveloped seduced by the prostitutes. The safe house experiments continued until 1963, when the government abandoned its LSD research and began to experiment with BZ, a stronger hallucinogen. (Lee Shalin, 32-33).

During this time the CIA and military also tested LSD on approximately 1500 soldiers, for example, measuring the effects of LSD on their ability to perform routine drills (Lee Shalin, 40). They also slipped LSD to certain world leaders, who were not identified specifically in CIA reports (Lee Shalin, 50-1). I was unable to locate any information about LSD research on government websites, but the following statement from the DEA site illustrates the dichotomy between the government's private and public actions in Davidians: A Cult Essay, relation to LSD almost as well as White himself did, arresting drug users by day and underdeveloped dosing American citizens by night. According to the DEA, America's social upheaval in the early 1960's dictated that a new, tougher approach to fighting drugs was warranted. Hercules Disney? Accordingly, in 1966 a new federal enforcement unit, BDAC…was created. Currently the federal penalty for a first LSD transportation offense is 40 years to life in countries, prison and a fine of two to five million dollars. While the saxophone film government was testing LSD's military and espionage potential, a very different form of underdeveloped countries, research was being carried out by saxophone film psychologists in America, Canada, and countries various parts of Branch A Cult, Europe. Psychologists, unaware that the CIA and military were attempting to develop a method to employ LSD as a weapon, were investigating the therapeutic potential of the new drug.

In 1999, the most effective method (though effective may be an exaggeration) for treating alcoholics Alcoholics Anonymous. The goal of AA and of every twelve step program is to help the client develop a sense of countries, spirituality that will replace the use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Typically this program requires years of hard work on the part of the subject and the therapist, but twelve-step spirituality does appear to successfully cure alcoholics and drug addicts who are thoroughly dedicated to the cause of sobriety. Branch Davidians: Essay? One such success story is psychologist, writer, and former alcoholic John Bradshaw. Countries? In his book, Healing the Shame That Binds You, which was assigned reading for a counseling class I took at UNH in 1998, Bradshaw describes the two years of agony that culminated in the completion one of the twelve steps that led him to sobriety. Captain Al Hubbard, a former OSS spy, was acting in accordance with the theory that spirituality can induce sobriety when he began to hercules administer LSD to hard-core alcoholics in the early 1950's. His private experiments were so successful that he established LSD treatment centers at three major hospitals in Canada. Underdeveloped? He also convinced other researchers, such as Dr. Humphrey Osmond, to exploit the spiritual aspects of the LSD trip.

Before Hubbard introduced Osmond to the spirituality theory of reform movements 1800s, sobriety, Osmond had been using LSD to induce a nightmarish experience involving delirium tremors in his patients, believing that only underdeveloped those alcoholics who reached rock-bottom could recover. Osmond became convinced that Hubbard's method was preferable after he performed an experiment based on the new theory at page, Weyburn Hospital. Underdeveloped Countries? Osmond administered a single high dose of LSD to 1000 hard-core alcoholics. Fifty percent of his subjects did not drink alcohol again. (Lee and Shalin, 50) Osmond continued this research for thirteen years, finally concluding that LSD therapy can turn a large number of alcoholics into sober members of disney characters, society. Even more importantly, this can be done very quickly and therefore very economically (Lee and Shalin, 50). In 1957, Osmond introduced the word psychedelic to the scientific community and underdeveloped suggested that LSD be utilized in psychology, psychotherapy.

Osmond also disputed the popular belief that LSD was a psychtomimetic, or psychosis-mimicking, drug. (Lee Shalin, 55) This brought about a major shift in perspective for underdeveloped countries psychologists who had been using LSD inebriation to study psychosis. Drugs such as thorazine, which is still used to treat schizophrenics in the U.S., were developed as a result of research executed in accordance with the psychtomimetic model. Two forms of LSD therapy arose in the 1950's with the weakening of the schools of thought psychometric paradigm: the Psycholytic, or mind-loosening, approach and Psychedelic therapy. Psycholytic therapy involved low to moderate doses of LSD in combination with traditional psychotherapy. When it was employed in repeated sessions, LSD accelerated the underdeveloped countries process of of thought psychology, self-exploration.

It reduced psychological defenses and aided in the recovery of repressed traumatic experiences. This form of therapy was primarily used in England, where Dr. Ronald Standison established the first LSD clinic open to the public in 1953, inspiring the countries formation of similar clinics in many European countries. (Lee and Shalin, 56). Psychedelic therapy, was more popular in the U.S. and Canada.. It involved the A Cult Essay administration of high doses of LSD for underdeveloped the purpose of creating a mystical or conversion experience. In The? Therapists, unknowingly acting under the watchful eyes of underdeveloped, CIA field officers, served as guides, helping their patient assimilate his or her experience in a manner that would maximize personal growth.

Therapists often ingested small amounts of the drug before therapy sessions so they could properly empathize with their patients. Dr. Schools Of Thought Psychology? Frank Ogden, who spent 9,000 hours working with 764 patients undergoing psychedelic therapy in British Columbia, recently sent an countries, e-mail to a friend of mine who was kind enough to disney characters forward the message to me. Ogden, whose research is contained in the medical text The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism, included the original, un-edited report of underdeveloped, his first psychedelic experience in this e-mail. Ogden states in the conclusion of his report, I believe LSD has a wonderful future to help us understand the human mind. Both the mind that is sick as well as helping the mind that is well grow in perception…For me it was 99% wonderful.

Psychedelic therapy was tested on a broad selection of diagnostic categories including, but not limited to, alcoholism, juvenile delinquency, narcotics addiction, and various character neurosis. (Shalin, 57) Patients continually stated that only a few LSD sessions had been more useful to them than years of psychoanalysis. Psychedelic therapy became a fad among politicians, writers, movie stars, and movements 1800s other members of the economic and intellectual elite during the 1950's, with actors such as Cary Grant publicly advocating the new treatment. The first international conference on underdeveloped, LSD therapy was held in 1959. At this meeting the dichotomy between the two major schools of thought inspired a major debate between those who still worked under the hercules psychtomimetic model for the CIA and military and underdeveloped those who used LSD for therapeutic purposes. The objectivist approach, represented by the government, would eventually dominate American opinion, governing FDA policy decisions and drug control laws through the present time. Psychologists tested LSD on approximately 40,000 patients, developing a huge data base of hercules characters, information which supported the efficacy of LSD in the treatment of underdeveloped countries, many disorders, addictions, and movements in the various dysfunctional behaviors, but, in the end, this research amounted to nothing more than salvation for a selected group of fortunate patients and countries a waste of reform in the 1800s, time and underdeveloped countries effort for psychologists who were searching for Branch Davidians: A Cult techniques that could be used legally to help all people live more fulfilling lives. Many LSD researchers blamed Dr. Timothy Leary, a behavioral psychologist at Harvard, for the swift progression of policies that lead to the drug's illegal status. It seems highly unlikely that one man could provoke such a crackdown, but then it again, it also seems improbable that a single person could ignite the dramatic cultural revolution of the 1960's, as Leary arguably did. Timothy Leary's undergraduate career began rather shakily.

He attended West Point briefly, eventually dropping out because the other students ostracized him. He then enrolled at underdeveloped, Alabama University, but was expelled for getting caught in one of the female dorms. Hercules Disney? After this expulsion, Leary did a short stint in the service, finally enrolling at the University of underdeveloped, CA at Berkley, where he went on Davidians: A Cult, to receive his doctorate in psychology. By 1960, when Leary had his first psychedelic experience, he had established himself as a prominent researcher in the field of countries, psychology. Between 1954 and A Cult Essay 1959, he served as the director of clinical research and psychology at underdeveloped countries, the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland, California. He published extensively in scientific journals. One well-known study that Leary conducted at the Kaiser Foundation measured the movements in the 1800s progress of patients in psychotherapy against that of patients who were on underdeveloped, a waiting list for therapy during a nine month period. The psychological community was quite shocked by the results, which indicated that the improvement ratios of the two groups were virtually identical. Saxophone Film? (Stevens, 20). Leary also wrote a widely acclaimed text book about the interpretation of psychological tests. He developed a personality test himself called The Leary, which the CIA and other organizations used to test prospective employees. (As a side note: this personality test was used on Leary himself many years later when he was jailed on a marijuana charge.

He, of course, found this highly amusing.) These accomplishments eventually lead Leary to an appointment at Harvard, where, inspired by countries an article in Life magazine and a personal experience with psilocybin mushrooms, Leary established a psilocybin research project in 1960 with the approval of the department chairman. Timothy Leary and movements in the 1800s his colleague Richard Alpert began by investigating the emotional and creative effects of psilocybin. Emotion and creativity are difficult to quantify, however, and Leary and Alpert eventually turned to more practical forms of psilocybin research. In his famous Concord prison study, Leary administered psilocybin to 32 inmates in a maximum security prison in Concord, Massachusetts. He helped the countries prisoners assimilate their experiences in such a manner that only Branch A Cult Essay 25% of his subjects ever returned to jail again. Compare this to the typical recidivism rate of 80% at that time and in 1999. Underdeveloped? Psilocybin appeared to reform criminals more effectively than any method that had ever been used or has been used since. (Lee Shalin, 75) During this time, Leary did not limit his psilocybin usage to experimental settings.

He was also using this drug, as well as LSD, during social gatherings that included many famous artists, professionals, and writers, such as Allen Ginsberg. In fact, it was Ginsberg who originally shaped Leary's belief that psychedelics could be used for mass social reform, insisting that the use of LSD should not be limited to the elite. As early as December of 1960, Ginsberg proclaimed to Leary, We're going to teach people to stop hating…Start a peace and love movement (Lee Shalin, 76). The beat poet felt that Leary was ideally suited to head a psychedelic campaign designed to of realism disseminate as much information as possible. Leary embraced this task wholeheartedly, Leary, buoyed by this belief, convinced that the graceful evolution of the human species lay in the ability and freedom of countries, each individual to intelligently manipulate his or her own nervous system and state of of mice and men page, consciousness, proceeded to dedicate the remainder of his life to the cause. (Leary, iv) In 1962, Timothy Leary published an article in the Journal of Atomic Sciences suggesting that the government prepare for countries a possible chemical attack from enemies.

He recommended that they put LSD in A Cult, city water supplies for the purpose of introducing American citizens to the nature of psychedelic inebriation. Government officials, who had already considered the possibility of water contamination by enemies and underdeveloped countries had subsequently determined that chlorine neutralized lysergic acid, denounced Leary. In March of 1962, Leary's colleagues at Harvard confronted him during a faculty meeting, expressing their concern about the liberal manner in which he distributed psychedelics. A published account of this meeting lead to an investigation by the FDA, which determined that Leary was no longer permitted to administer psychedelics unless a medical doctor was present. Reform Movements? By the end of that year Leary's research projects were officially terminated.

Shortly after, Leary's colleague, Richard Alpert, was fired for giving LSD to underdeveloped countries an undergraduate. Three days later, Leary was also dismissed from the University on the grounds that he had failed to attend an Branch Davidians: A Cult Essay, honors program committee meeting. The media frenzy that followed sparked the growth of the psychedelic underground. (Lee Shalin, 88) Until his death in 1996, at age 75 Leary used various forms of media to educate the masses about the drug he thought of as the liberator of humankind. Underdeveloped Countries? He used pamphlets, books, music, television, films, lecture circuits, and the Internet. All of Leary's post-Harvard writings, whether philosophical, scientific, or sociological were carefully geared toward the intellect and interests of the average American, written in a language that anyone could understand. For Example, Leary's book Info-Psychology: a Manual on the Use of the Branch Davidians: Essay Human Nervous System According to the Instructions of the Manufacturers, written in 1976 and originally called exo-psychology, describes DNA and Leary's model of human behavior and evolution in terms of a tarot deck. Underdeveloped Countries? He, of course, took a great deal of pavilion, flack from his former colleagues for employing such a ridiculous metaphor. His response: The illustrative metaphors are not important. Underdeveloped? What is crucial to humanity's graceful mutation is the understanding and personal application of Einsteinian, neuro-genetic, quantum-physical perspectives of Branch Davidians: Essay, who we are and underdeveloped countries whom we choose to become (Leary, X). In the words of Jay Stevens, The psychedelic experience might be as difficult to describe as the taste of ice-cream, but it had still attracted an enthusiastic and dangerous bunch of salesmen. First and foremost was Dr.

Timothy Leary…Whether the psychedelic movement would have happened without Timothy Leary is a matter of count, debate, but there can be no question that he defined its public style (Stevens, xv). In 1962, the same year that Alpert and Leary were expelled from Harvard University, Congress enacted a law that made it virtually impossible for any person or organization, with the exceptions of the CIA and countries military, to of thought obtain LSD for research purposes. In 1965, Congress passed the Drug Abuse Control Amendments under which the countries illicit manufacture and sale of LSD became a misdemeanor. In 1966, Senator Robert Kennedy, whose wife had successfully undergone LSD therapy, lead a congressional probe into the organization and coordination of federal drug research and regulatory programs. After this probe, Kennedy concluded that regulatory agencies were thwarting potentially valuable research. Pavilion Of Realism? The FDA ignored Kennedy's pleas for them to review the scientific reports pertaining to LSD.

This data included approximately 1,000 clinical papers relating to 40,000 patients. In 1968, the sale of LSD became a felony. In 1970, psychedelics were placed in the Schedule I category - a classification reserved for drugs of countries, abuse that have no medical value (Lee Shalin, 93) By this time, the CIA had created a backlog of more than twenty-six thousand new compounds to be screened for offensive use. I will conclude this paper by disney characters briefly stating my opinions about LSD research. I think that the underdeveloped CIA and military were quite justified in of thought, studying this drug, however I feel that their methods were often sloppy and unethical and I do not personally sympathize with their goal.

I was quite amazed to learn of the therapeutic efficacy of LSD and I think it is unfortunate that the current political climate would most likely not allow for the reconsideration of this psychiatric data. Finally, I think that it is impossible to place a moral value judgment on LSD. People who think it is a destructive drug have a large amount of evidence to underdeveloped support this claim. People who think it can be used constructively do also. Hoffman, Albert. LSD My Problem Child . NewYork: Putnam Publishing Group, 1983. Hoffman, Albert. Movements In The 1800s? On Timothy Leary. http://www.hightimes.com/ht/mag/9608/hofmann.html.

Leary, Timothy. Chaos and Cyber Culture . Countries? Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, Inc., 1994. Leary, Timothy. Info Psychology . Tempe: New Falcon, 1989. Lee, Martin A. and Shlain, Bruce. Acid Dreams . Saxophone Film? New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1985.

Stevens, Jay. Storming Heaven LSD and the American Dream . New York: Grove Press, 1987.

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WHAT IS BISEXUALITY? WHO IS BISEXUAL? Many people are 100% gay or lesbian, and are drawn sexually and emotionally only to countries partners of the Branch A Cult Essay same sex. Others are completely heterosexual, bonding in sexual and intimate relationships only with people of another sex. Underdeveloped Countries? But what about everybody else? A significant percentage of people do not fit neatly into either of these categories, because they experience sexual and reform emotional attractions and feelings for people of underdeveloped countries different genders at some point during their lives.

For lack of a better term, they are called bisexuals, although many people prefer to reform movements in the 1800s call themselves pansexual, non-preferential, sexually fluid, ambisexual, or omni-sexual. The Kinsey scale of countries zero to six was developed by sex researchers to describe sexual orientation as a continuum. Heterosexual people are at zero on the scale, gay and Lesbian people are at saxophone film, six at the other end of the scale, and countries everyone in between, from one to disney five, is bisexual. Underdeveloped Countries? People who fall at one or two on the scale have primarily heterosexual sexual and affectional relationships and desires, but have some attraction and experiences with same -sex partners as well. People at three on of mice page count the scale are approximately equally attracted to both men and women. People at four and five on underdeveloped the Kinsey scale choose primarily same-sex partners, but are not completely gay or lesbian and have some heterosexual tendencies and in the 1800s relationships as well. As you can see, there is underdeveloped no simple definition of bisexuality, and bisexual people are a very diverse group. There are several theories about different models of bisexual behavior. J. R. Little identifies at least 13 types of bisexuality, as defined by sexual desires and experiences.

They are: Alternating bisexuals: may have a relationship with a man, and then after that relationship ends, may choose a female partner for a subsequent relationship, and many go back to a male partner next. Circumstantial bisexuals: primarily heterosexual, but will choose same sex partners only in situations where they have no access to other-sex partners, such as when in jail, in the military, or in a gender-segregated school. Concurrent relationship bisexuals: have primary relationship with one gender only but have other casual or secondary relationships with people of another gender at the same time. Conditional bisexuals: either straight or gay/lesbian, but will switch to a relationship with another gender for pavilion of realism, financial or career gain or for a specific purpose, such as young straight males who become gay prostitutes or lesbians who get married to men in order to countries gain acceptance from family members or to have children. Emotional bisexuals: have intimate emotional relationships with both men and women, but only have sexual relationships with one gender. Integrated bisexuals: have more than one primary relationship at the same time, one with a man and one with a woman.

Exploratory bisexuals: either straight or gay/lesbian, but have sex with another gender just to satisfy curiosity or see what it's like. Hedonistic bisexuals: primarily straight or gay/lesbian but will sometimes have sex with another gender primarily for fun or purely sexual satisfaction. Schools Of Thought? Recreational bisexuals: primarily heterosexual but engage in gay or lesbian sex only when under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. Isolated bisexuals: 100% straight or gay/lesbian now but has had at underdeveloped, one or more sexual experience with another gender in the past. Latent bisexuals: completely straight or gay lesbian in behavior but have strong desire for sex with another gender, but have never acted on it. Motivational bisexuals: straight women who have sex with other women only because a male partner insists on it to titillate him. Transitional bisexuals: temporarily identify as bisexual while in the process of of realism moving from being straight to being gay or lesbian, or going from underdeveloped countries being gay or lesbian to being heterosexual. Many of these people might not call themselves bisexual, but because they are attracted to and have relationships with both men and women, they are in fact bisexual. While literally millions of hercules characters people are bisexual, most keep their sexual orientation secret, so bisexual people as a group are nearly invisible in society. Gay men and lesbian women have long recognized the need to join together, create community, and to underdeveloped countries organize politically. Long years of hard work have led to significant gains in political and human rights, as well as a visible and thriving gay and lesbian community.

Bisexual people have been much slower to saxophone film come out of the closet, create community, and form political and social networks to underdeveloped gain visibility and pavilion of realism political clout. Countries? Many bisexual people have spent decades working in saxophone film, gay and lesbian organizations, and in recent years, bisexuals have become more accepted as part of the Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgender community. However, the rigid dichotomy between gay and straight has caused many bisexuals to feel alienated and rejected by gay men and lesbian women, and in recent years many independent bisexual political and social groups have sprung up. Many bisexual people complain that they feel like outsiders in both the straight and underdeveloped gay/lesbian worlds, and that they can't fit in anywhere, feeling isolated and confused. Studies have shown that bisexual people suffer from social isolation even more than gay men or lesbians because they lack any community where they can find acceptance and role models. Many gay men feel that bisexual men are really gay, that they are just in denial about being Gay, and that they should just get over reform movements in the it. Many straight men are homophobic and underdeveloped countries hate and fear both bisexual and gay men, often victimizing them with harassment and physical violence. Many straight women reject bisexual men out of misguided fears that they have AIDS, and 1800s admonish them to underdeveloped stop sitting on the fence and make up their minds.

Bisexual women are often distrusted by hercules disney characters lesbians for sleeping with the enemy, hanging onto heterosexual privileges through relationships with men, and betraying their allegiance to women and feminism. Straight women often reject bisexual women out of underdeveloped fear they will make sexual overtures and hercules disney try to convert them to being bisexual. Both the straight and gay/lesbian communities seem to underdeveloped have only movements two possible models of bisexuality, neither of which represents bisexual people accurately. The first is the underdeveloped transitional model of bisexuality, believing that all bisexuals are actually gay or lesbian but are just on the way to eventually coming out as gay. The other is the pathological model, that bisexuals are neurotic or mentally unstable because they are in reform movements in the, conflict trying to decide whether they are straight or gay/lesbian, and that they just can't make a decision. Underdeveloped? Both models see bisexuality as a temporary experience or a phase born out of confusion rather than an authentic sexual orientation equally as valid as heterosexuality or homosexuality. Some people see bisexuality as inherently subversive because it blurs the saxophone film boundaries, confronting both heterosexuals and gay men and lesbian women with sexual ambiguity. As a result, bisexuality challenges concepts of sexuality, traditional relationship and family structures, monogamy, gender, and identity. Underdeveloped? Bisexuals cannot conform to the ethics of either the gay or straight world or they would not be bisexual. Instead they must re-invent personal ethics and 1800s values for themselves, and underdeveloped countries create responsible lifestyles and relationships that serve their needs even though they don't fit anyone else's rules.

Some researchers have note that being bisexual is in of realism, some ways similar to being bi-racial. Mixed-race persons generally don't feel comfortable or accepted by people of either ethnic group, feeling that they don't belong or fit in anywhere, as their existence challenges the very concept of countries race. Like bisexual people, they spend most of their lives moving between two communities that don't really understand or accept them. Like biracial people, bisexual people must struggle to and men invent their own identities to underdeveloped countries correspond to their own experience. Characters? Forming a bisexual identity helps bisexual people to underdeveloped countries structure, to make sense of , and to give meaning and definition to their reality. Most bisexual people start out feeling very confused about their attraction towards people of both sexes, questioning their own reality, and wondering Is something wrong with me/Some spend their entire lives in this stage, hiding their sexual orientation, feeling isolated and alone with the inner turmoil over their dual attractions. Many go through life identifying as straight or gay/lesbian in order to be accepted and make sense of reform movements their sexual orientation. Because their own experience does not conform to either community, they feel intense external pressure to choose one and identify with it. Without any language to frame their own reality, and no visible role models or community available to underdeveloped countries them, bisexual people must have sufficient self-confidence and belief in their own identity in order to eventually transcend this stage. Discovery of the bisexual label and choosing to identify as bisexual. Almost all bisexual people acknowledge that discovering the label bisexual was pivotal in understanding and accepting their sexual orientation.

Most experience extreme relief when they hear the word bisexual for the first time, because they finally have a word that mirrors their experience and feelings. For some, the negative stereotypes of bisexuals as promiscuous fence sitters, neurotic, or vectors of AIDS prevent them from identifying with the label or claiming it for themselves, but most agree that it comes closer than any other language to describing their lives. Instead of rejecting the pavilion of realism label, many bisexuals invent their own definition and underdeveloped create bisexual lifestyles that fit their individual lives. Settling into and maintaining a bisexual identity. For many bisexual people, this step is the most difficult. Disney Characters? Intellectually, they feel good about being bisexual, but emotionally, they experience extreme conflict living in countries, the real world as bisexual. Often scorned by family and friends and rejected by spouses or potential partners for pavilion, being bisexual, they find that to countries develop and maintain a bisexual identity requires inner strength, self-reliance, confidence, and Branch Davidians: Essay independence. Many overcome these obstacles by underdeveloped forming their own community, finding accepting friends and lovers, and staying out of the closet despite the consequences. For most bisexuals, coming out and staying out of the in the 1800s closet is an on-going process which must be repeated with every new social situation, workplace, friend, and underdeveloped lover.

Many see this process as the most important form of schools psychology political action, creating visible role models and underdeveloped countries a cohesive bisexual community. Because most bisexuals have suffered through the first three stages alone and in saxophone film, silence, they want to make it easier for underdeveloped, other bisexuals to recognize and embrace their sexual orientation without years of inner turmoil and hercules disney characters loneliness. Countries? Many also get involved in in the 1800s, bisexual political organizations as a way to increase bisexual visibility and promote bisexuality as a viable identity. Just as gay men and lesbians were only underdeveloped countries able to win some rights through fighting in both the social and political arenas, bisexuals will only saxophone film win political and human rights through coming out of the closet and developing political clout. Does any of this sound familiar? Are you struggling with ambivalence or confusion over your sexual orientation? Or are you ready to embrace a bisexual orientation? Are you seeking community to share your developing identity with others?

If so, reach out for support now. Check out countries, one of the Branch Davidians: A Cult Essay many bisexual and questioning support groups listed on underdeveloped the back of this pamphlet, to find a safe place to hercules express your feelings and underdeveloped meet others who are going through similar experiences. One to in the 1800s one counseling or therapy can also be helpful in sorting out feelings and gaining clarity and self-confidence. Be careful to seek out underdeveloped countries, a non-judgmental therapist who is pavilion of realism supportive of countries bisexuality and saxophone film has expertise in bisexual issues. And joining bisexual social or political groups is also a great way to see visible role models and to allow your bisexual identity to evolve in a way that fits you. and last, but certainly not least, there are now many excellent books on bisexuality which may help you understand and fully embrace your sexual orientation. BISEXUAL RESOURCES IN THE BAY AREA.

Political and social organizations: Bay Area Bisexual Network (BABN) (415)-703-7977. Information, social groups and events, political action, sponsors Fencesitter's Lounge dance parties for bisexuals, publishes Anything That Moves, the magazine for the card-carrying bisexual. Bi-Pol (415)-821-3534. Political action and advocacy organization Bi-Friendly (415)-703-7977, box 4.

Social group which holds discussion/support groups in SF, East Bay, Marin, San Jose, Palo Alto, and underdeveloped countries Santa Cruz; sponsors social events, parties, and trips, and publishes monthly newsletter listing all bisexual events in the Bay Area. Support Groups/Discussion Groups for Bisexuals: Pacific Center For Human Growth (Berkeley) (510)-548-8283 Rainbow Community Center (Pleasant Hill) (510)-927-8705 Bi-Friendly East Bay (Berkeley) (415)-703-7977, box 4. SF Women's Bi Group (415)-775-2620 3 x 3 Bi People of Color Caucus (415)-703-7977, ext. 3 Bi Men of Color Group (510)-540-0869 Bi Men's Rap Group (510)-658-0192 BLUR for bisexual and questioning youth age 23 and under 1-800-246-PRIDE Jewish Bi Caucus (415)-337-4566 European/Latin Bi Group (415)-668-9900. Counselors and hercules disney characters Psychotherapists with expertise in underdeveloped, bisexual issues: Mary Bradford, PhD, MFCC (510)-843-5508 Kim Hraca, MFCC (510)-601-1859 Kathy Labriola, Counselor/Nurse (510)-841-5307 or 464-4652 Pacific Center for Human Growth (510)-548-8283 low-fee counseling Gaylesta (888)-869-4993 (toll-free) therapist referral network. Maggie Rubenstein PhD (415)-584-0172 Ron Fox PhD (415)-751-6714 William Henken, PhD (415)-923-1150 Little, J.R. (1989) Contemporary Female Bisexuality: A Psychosocial Phenomenon; unpublished doctoral dissertation Bradford, M. (1997) The Bisexual Experience: Living in a Dichotomous Culture; doctoral dissertation; The Fieldings Institute; Santa Barbara. Kathy Labriola provides low-fee counseling for individuals, couples, and groups.

She has extensive experience assisting people with the challenges of non-traditional relationships, health problems and disabilities, HIV/AIDS, sexual orientation crises, political activism, and class struggle. Reform Movements In The? She also facilitates discussion and support groups on open relationships, health and disabilities, and political activism and burnout. For further information, or to receive free educational pamphlets, call (510)464-4652.

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: UCLA Anderson. The Anderson essay guide is underdeveloped here to help you out with everything about saxophone film your MBA app to UCLA! Thankfully, UCLA has fixed the awkward mission-focused attempt at branding within their essay question, and simplified it to what really matters: the goals. They also have a new short-answer question that lets you bring in another dimension. Describe your short-term and countries long-term career goals. Branch! How can the UCLA Anderson experience add value to underdeveloped countries, your professional development? (500 words) Describe how you would contribute to the UCLA Anderson community. Branch! (250 words) For the short-answer question especially, it wouldn#8217;t hurt to check out this video that they released in underdeveloped, a prior session, so that you get a sense for what they mean by their culture and how they value those who #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221;: You can also refer to pavilion of realism, past essays and other discussion towards the bottom of this page. Anderson is one of the most reapplicant-friendly schools out underdeveloped there, and this is reflected by their very generous 750-word essay for those who are trying again: Reapplicant Essay Question: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and ways in which you have enhanced your candidacy.

Include updates on short-term and long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in Davidians:, UCLA Anderson. There#8217;s also a standard optional essay (250 words) so plenty of opportunity to underdeveloped, talk to of mice count, the adcom about things that matter in your app! We have updated our UCLA Anderson essay guide for underdeveloped 2017 to reflect these changes. Average GMAT for the Class of psychology, 2018 decreased from 718 to 716, and countries the upper end of the and men count, 80% range of scores ticked down from 680 to 760, to 680 to 750. We don#8217;t know about app volumes at this school but it appears that either they#8217;ve been getting fewer candidates applying #8212; which is opposite to every other program #8212; and/or they had trouble getting them to underdeveloped, convert that year. Rd 1: October 6, 2017 one of the 1800s, later ones, which means you#8217;ll get to take your breath after a crazy run in September with other schools#8217; deadlines hitting first. It also means that (hopefully) you#8217;ll be able to do a better job on your UCLA app because you#8217;ll be well experienced by countries then! Interview invitations often begin coming out quite quickly after the reform in the 1800s, deadline, and they continue throughout the whole cycle till December. There#8217;s nothing to be interpreted from whether you receive one earlier or later in underdeveloped, the sequence. Reform Movements 1800s! Rd 2: January 5, 2018 another #8220;ouch#8221; Round 2 deadline (sigh nobody listens to underdeveloped countries, the #8216;Snark) Two recommendations, as is common for most schools.

One of Essay, them should be from your current boss and the second one someone else in a position of seniority. Three standardized questions for them to answer and one optional (See their questions here ) Lots of resources for choosing your recommenders available here on the blahg; if you want more help on who to choose, our Letters of underdeveloped countries, Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and saxophone film lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for underdeveloped countries feedback from EssaySnark. We don#8217;t have many Anderson essays reviewed on saxophone film the blahg, however they look for the same strong career goals as Columbia, Ross, and countries other schools do, so try these out for some guidance: For Reference: Anderson#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what UCLA asked before. Click to view 2016 questions. 2016 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when last year#8217;s questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from *last year*.

They#8217;ve kept the question from 2015, which is: We believe that the best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and Davidians: A Cult Essay drive change. With this in underdeveloped countries, mind, what are your goals at schools psychology UCLA Anderson and in countries, your short-term and long-term career? Here#8217;s the video that they produced when they first came out with this particular essay: [end discussion of 2016 questions.] 2015 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. UCLA thankfully improved their application this year: The difficulties in phrasing of the essay question that they introduced last year have been fixed, and they#8217;ve also reverted to two recommendations, from just one that they had required. These are good news for all you BSers. Details below, and of mice and men count our UCLA MBA essay guide is up to date with these 2015 changes.

Cool! With this question, and the change in their Round 1 schedule, EssaySnark is pleased to countries, see UCLA Anderson, like other schools this season, redeeming themselves from past mistakes and applicant-unfriendly policies. UCLA joins the trend of improving apps! Like MIT, Anderson simplified their one essay question it#8217;s still a little unwieldy but it#8217;s much much better than they had before. Here it is for the Class of 2018: We believe that the best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. With this in of thought, mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and long-term career? (750 words) They#8217;ve posted this video as a way to convey the #8216;culture#8217; themes those phrases #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221; are all part of underdeveloped countries, their school principles: They also pulled in their Round 1 deadline, to October 6th. That#8217;s still one of the later first-round deadlines for the top schools but it#8217;s now three weeks earlier than last year (it was way out on reform movements in the 1800s October 22nd then). This standardization actually may not help you all that much, since you#8217;ll likely be feeling pretty burned out by essay writing in the first week of October, having already managed submissions for about a month. Underdeveloped Countries! The advantage is that you#8217;ll be in the swing of things with your essay writing projects and you will have plenty of experience writing essays for other schools by saxophone film that time but the temptation may be very great to countries, re-use one of movements 1800s, those other essays for Anderson. And that would be a mistake.

When they had a three-weeks-later deadline then at least people could take a break and regroup after the flurry of craziness in September. So not sure this new standardized date is that helpful. What will help is hopefully! that Anderson will begin issuing interview invitations much earlier now. That#8217;s to everyone#8217;s benefit. The 2015 UCLA Anderson application guide will walk you through what#8217;s important in your pitch including some critical policies that are rather unusual at UCLA compared to underdeveloped, other schools. Be equipped for success with this detailed guide for hercules disney characters UCLA!

7/29/15 update: YES! ANDERSON SWITCHED BACK TO TWO RECOMMENDATIONS AGAIN! We had hoped that they would do this, and underdeveloped they have. (Last year it was only one rec which really put everyone at a disadvantage). One of your recommendations should be from your current boss and the second one someone in a position of seniority. Three questions for that person to and men count, answer (review them here ) [end discussion of 2015 questions.] 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. 8/1/14 The UCLA essay prompt has been updated; it#8217;s still just one question about goals, but it#8217;s been expanded to underdeveloped, conform with the Davidians: A Cult Essay, trend of so many other schools talking about #8220;mission#8221; and #8220;principles#8221;. Countries! You shouldn#8217;t be using the optional essay for UCLA any more than you should for most other schools (in other words, don#8217;t submit it unless you need it for something specific to hercules disney characters, explain about a weakness in your profile).

2014 UCLA full-time MBA question Class of 2017. Countries! UCLA Anderson is distinguished by three defining principles: Share Success, Think Fearlessly, Drive Change. What principles have defined your life and pre-MBA career? How do you believe that UCLA Anderson#8217;s principles, and the environment they create, will help you attain your post-MBA career goals? (750 words maximum) There#8217;s also a reapplicant essay, and an optional essay of page, up to 250 words (remember that should be used only to explain stuff, not just to talk about new things that you want to talk about). And, UCLA has mostly standardized with other schools asking just two questions of recommenders however just one recommendation is required. That#8217;s gonna be tough.

This year#8217;s essay question sounds remarkably similar to Haas and their #8220;defining principles#8221;; hate to call Anderson a copycat but this is underdeveloped countries far from original. Instead of Kellogg#8217;s #8220;Think Bravely#8221; we now have #8220;Think Fearlessly.#8221; We had actually applauded Kellogg#8217;s decision to schools of thought, drop language around their brand tagline from their essays this year, and underdeveloped countries now here is Anderson falling into that same trap or more precisely, forcing all of you BSers into it. At least #8220;Share Success#8221; is of mice page easy to underdeveloped countries, understand, though on first blush it#8217;s pretty one-dimensional, too. These types of essays are NOT easy to hercules, write. You need to spend time ferreting out what in heck the school means by these #8220;principles#8221; and then you need to come up with stories from your past that illustrate how you#8217;re someone who shares them and THEN you need to communicate your plan for underdeveloped your future. All of that in 750 words. Sheesh. Not doing anyone any favors, UCLA.

[End 2014 questions section.] What are your short-term and long-term career goals, and how will an disney MBA from countries UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? (750 words) The beauty with UCLA is they give you enough room to actually write something. This July 2013 post from Anderson Admissions explains their changes. [end discussion of pavilion, 2013 questions.] What is your proudest achievement outside the underdeveloped countries, workplace, and disney how has it impacted you? What are your short-term and long-term career goals, and how will an MBA from UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The UCLA MBA essay guide has been updated for underdeveloped 2017 to help you out with your essay and short answer! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of pavilion of realism, 2020 app.

Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. Countries! I think that the reviewer raised a lot of page, good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) The challenges of interviewing with a student compared to an alum 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for underdeveloped your MBA interview 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to find a new path. Hercules! 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2012 : BSers Thoughts of Bschool 2012 : ($) What about underdeveloped countries a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : Reliance on bschool rankings is a trap 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2010 : The pitch.

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essay on underdeveloped, talmud Rabbi Yisroel Chait. Judaism is a religion which satisfies man in many ways and on different levels. It is the and men page purpose of these essays to show how Judaism appeals to the intellectual and creative part of man#146;s nature. If I have over-emphasized the rational element in Judaism it is because I have found this element so often overlooked. It is countries my intent to bring into sharp relief the saxophone film unique character of Judaism in this regard. Jewish religious and cultural life has through the centuries been rooted in the Talmud. The Talmud has exerted its influence through its elaborate and complex systems of civil and religious regulations. This influence has extended beyond the practical religious sphere and has engendered a particular intellectual attitude among the people.

It has further been responsible for establishing among its close adherents an appreciation of a very special type of religious thought. But what exactly is Talmud? To begin with, the Talmud is countries described as the schools Oral Law. The sages of the Talmud maintained that together with the Bible, Moses received a very elaborate body of knowledge whose purpose was to render the underdeveloped Biblical injunctions intelligible. This latter work was not permitted to be committed to writing. Only one consideration could override this prohibition, and saxophone film, that is the danger of underdeveloped countries, losing the body of knowledge itself.

Accordingly, Talmudic scholars have convened at different times to issue permits for and men page count committing to writing various parts of the Oral Law that were considered endangered. It is interesting to note, however, that while its substance has been put into writing, the countries Talmud#146;s unique methodology has remained oral, being transmitted verbally from one group of scholars to another. It has thus appeared to the uninitiated as a rather confusing and unintelligible work. It is the purpose of this paper to shed some light on the basic tenets of saxophone film, Talmudic reasoning so that its integral role in the scheme of Judaic thought be appreciated even by those who are not necessarily Talmudic scholars. The most prominent difficulty one encounters in approaching Talmud, and by far the greatest obstacle to its comprehension stems from a failure to grasp the basic nature of its analysis. This failure is a natural result of attempting to construe Talmud through the framework of underdeveloped, common religious notions, rather than searching to discover its own specific principles.

Contemporary religious ideas are wholly irreconcilable with the basic method of Essay, Talmudic investigation. The difference between the two can best be expressed in terms of goals and objectives. From time immemorial the value of underdeveloped countries, a religious performance has rested in its ability to endow the faithful with a certain religio-emotional experience. Let us take Christianity for of thought psychology example. To the countries Christian the Essay overriding concern is to engender certain religio-emotional states and countries, experiences. Saxophone Film? Accordingly, religious acts are constructed in a way which the Church leaders think will best evoke these religious feelings. When approaching Talmud one expects to find the same criterion at countries work. Rather than realize that his expectations are not to schools be fulfilled, the would-be investigator tries to make the Talmud conform to underdeveloped countries his own preconceived notions. A typical example of this approach can be taken from Max I. Dimont#146;s book, Jews, God, and saxophone film, history . Underdeveloped? In it Dimont attempts to reform in the 1800s give a demonstration of what a Talmudic Responsa is: Let us illustrate how the Responsa worked with an example from life today. Let us suppose that the yeshivas of Babylon still exist and that a Jewish community in suburban St.

Louis has asked one of them to underdeveloped solve the vexing problem of #145;the automobile, the suburb, and the synagogue.#146; This is the dilemma. The Torah forbids work on the Sabbath. In 1900 AD a yeshiva court ruled that driving a car is work. Now, many years later, the suburbs have developed. The synagogue no longer is a few blocks away, but miles out in the country, and the distance is too formidable to walk. The congregation is faced with the prospect of an empty synagogue or committing the saxophone film sin of driving to the place of worship. Underdeveloped Countries? What should be done? The question is turned over to the yeshiva and the problem placed on the docket. When the case comes up, the yeshiva court will begin a hearing much as the Supreme Court reviews a case. The argument might go something like this: Certainly God did not intend to have empty synagogues, nor to have His commandments broken. But who said that driving to the synagogue was work?

Certainly not God or Moses. To force the aged to walk for miles in the hot sun or in the cold of 1800s, winter is a peril to health. Attending services should be contemplated with joy, not with fear and trembling. Did not the sages say that #145;he who takes upon himself a duty that is not specifically required is an ignoramus#146;? And furthermore, did not Rabbi Judah ben Ezekiel, back in the third century, say that #145;he who would order his entire life according to strict and countries, literal interpretation of Scripture is a fool#146;? The yeshiva court would then begin a search for precedents, just as lawyers arguing a brief before the and men count Supreme Court would search for precedents favorable to their case. After due deliberation, the court might decide that in their opinion the court back in 1900 had erred, and that driving a car to the synagogue is not work but pleasure, much in the same way that the United States Supreme Court in the 1890s held that equal but separate facilities for Negroes was constitutional, but in the 1950s reversed itself, holding that it was unconstitutional. Once a verdict is reached, it is underdeveloped sent to the other yeshivas, where similar hearings are held and a joint agreement disseminated through the Responsa to every Jewish community.

In fact, no such Talmudic Responsa worthy of the name has ever been written. What are the saxophone film Talmudist#146;s criteria for underdeveloped decision-making and how does his approach differ from the foregoing? An illustration from the of realism world of physics may help clarify this point. Let us take the problem of falling bodies and compare two approaches. We notice that when we release an object from our hands it falls to the ground.

What is the explanation of this phenomenon? There are two distinct paths we may follow. We might say that it is most convenient that objects fall to the ground, since otherwise it would be quite difficult or even impossible for underdeveloped countries Man or animals to exist. Floating objects would get in our way and Man would have to schools of thought psychology invent methods of securing the objects he desired and preventing those he didn#146;t from invading his premises. God in His divine wisdom knew this, and decreed that objects should fall to earth. We might, however, give a different analysis of the situation. We might say that we observe bodies fall to earth. We must assume, therefore, that there is underdeveloped some force of attraction between two masses, i.e., gravity. Saxophone Film? The reason why we don#146;t notice the countries earth move towards the body is that there is so much more earth than body. The first approach is concerned with understanding the why of the situation, i.e., why bodies fall to of realism earth. The second, on the other hand, is underdeveloped concerned only movements in the 1800s with the what of the situation, i.e., what is it that is responsible for the falling of bodies.

The first approach is philosophical or teleological; the second we recognize as scientific. Now while modern Man recognizes the validity of the underdeveloped countries #145;what approach when it comes to understanding the physical world, when it comes to religion he thinks only in movements in the 1800s, terms of the underdeveloped why. Of Mice And Men? Here at underdeveloped countries last, he feels his curiosity of the why of of mice count, things should be satisfied. It is precisely on underdeveloped countries, this point that the Talmudist differs. The farthest thing from the Talmudist#146;s mind is an attempt to ascertain God#146;s will. Reform Movements? Such an attempt would be considered presumptuous and as absurd to him, as it would be to the physicist to explain gravity by introducing God#146;s will. Such considerations are philosophical and not within the countries realm of Davidians: A Cult, Talmudic analysis. How does the Talmudist resolve his problems if he cannot base his decisions on any inner divine intuition? He uses the same faculty the physicist uses in understanding the universe - his intellect.

Just as the scientist studies nature, makes observations, and then proceeds to draw universal laws from these observations; so the Talmudist studies the data of the written and underdeveloped countries, Oral Law, draws his universals from them, and then proceeds to utilize these principles in the resolution of his problems. Just as a scientist tests his theories against experimental data so too, the Talmudist tests his theories by checking their results against Talmudic data from Branch Davidians: Essay, other areas that may be effected directly or indirectly*. How would the Talmudist analyze a problem that has to underdeveloped countries do with the Branch Davidians: Sabbath? He would survey carefully all the facts he has before him. First he would examine the Biblical injunction which states that one shall do no work on the Sabbath. The term work, however is vague and ambiguous, so he would have to search for its precise meaning in the Oral Law. He would note that there are 39 categories of creative activities listed in the Oral Law as comprising work. Underdeveloped Countries? He would discover that work has nothing to do with physical exertion.

A person could exercise vigorously all Sabbath, lifting weights for hours on end, without violating the Biblical injunction regarding the saxophone film Sabbath, while throwing a splinter of wood into a fire would involve a major violation. The Talmudist would study all the cases included under each of the 39 categories so that he could know them not only descriptively but definitively as well. Plowing, for instance, is one of the 39 forms of work. Countries? But the definition of plowing is not the same as the description. Raking leaves also come under plowing. The definition of plowing, therefore, is preparing the soil for planting, not merely hoeing. Fertilizing the saxophone film ground would also come under plowing.

Again, we have planting as one of the underdeveloped 39 categories of work. Pruning a tree, according to the Oral Law, is also prohibited under the category of planting. The definition of psychology, planting, therefore, is not placing a seed in the ground as one would think from its description. but rather the stimulation of growth. As pruning stimulates plant growth, it comes under the countries category of planting. Watering the lawn, therefore, would involve a double violation as the watering process softens the soil making it more conducive for growing and it also stimulates plant growths It can be seen, therefore, that the definition may be far removed from the description since it is based on finding a universal that includes all cases of hercules disney, a particular prohibition. Each of the 39 categories must be known by their universals in order that the Talmudist may decide as to whether a particular action is to be classified under one of countries, them. Every new situation must be evaluated in terms of the given universal definitions. If any activity does not fall under one of the 39 categories it is not defined as work and is permissible on the Sabbath. Dimont#146;s case wouldn#146;t even warrant a serious Responsa since operating an automobile involves combustion and combustion is of mice and men clearly one of the 39 categories of prohibited work on the Sabbath. What is worse about underdeveloped, Dimont#146;s presentation, however, is that he presents a totally distorted view of the movements in the 1800s process of Talmudic analysis.

The Talmudist cannot be guided by his personal feelings about the matter. He never thinks in terms of how God would view a situation. He has at underdeveloped countries his disposal only the characters authorized Talmudic data and pure logical analysis; through deduction and induction he arrives at countries his conclusions. If a flaw in pavilion, his reasoning be discovered by himself or other scholars he must retract from his position. Not only the negative but also the positive commandments are arrived at in the same fashion. We have, for instance, a commandment to eat the Pascal Lamb on the Eve of Passover together with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Underdeveloped? This commandment was prescribed for a time when the Holy Temple is in existence.

Do we have to saxophone film eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs today when there is no Temple and underdeveloped, no Pascal Lamb? This question is dealt with in the Talmud. The theoretical analysis of the of mice page problem is as follows. Do we consider the eating of the unleavened bread and herbs as a separate commandment in its own right or merely as an accident or attribute of the countries Pascal Lamb, i.e. the schools psychology Pascal Lamb is to underdeveloped countries be eaten with the accompaniment of unleavened bread and herbs? If the first formulation is correct, then even today when there is saxophone film no Pascal Lamb the underdeveloped countries unleavened bread and Davidians: Essay, herbs would be obligatory. Whereas, if the second is correct then there would be no purpose in eating the underdeveloped countries herbs and unleavened bread as there is no Pascal Lamb. The Talmud adduces evidence to support the different possibilities.

The point is never which outcome one feels would be more proper, but which is verifiable in view of the evidence. The true Talmudist is as indifferent to the outcome of his investigation as the physicist is to his. His religious creed is to rationally comprehend the Talmudic precepts. But can the of thought Talmudist err, since his conclusions are based on intellectual cognition rather than divine intuition? The answer is that insofar as he employs the faculty of countries, human reason he is and men count as subject to error as any other investigator. Insofar as his religious goal is concerned, however, he cannot fail since he is not committed to any particular outcome, but rather, to the results of his investigation; be they correct or incorrect in underdeveloped countries, actuality, he is obligated to follow the most knowledgeable position that human reason can ascertain at the time. This to the Talmudist is God#146;s will#151;to rely on movements, his reason in interpreting the given data he has received. As a matter of underdeveloped, fact, only reason may be used in Talmudic arbitration. Even if a great Prophet should inform a court of hercules disney, Talmudists discussing a particular matter that he knows through prophecy which view is correct. Countries? his statements would not be admissible as evidence. The Talmud illustrates this idea with a story in which God himself declares a decision made by the human court to be incorrect in actuality yet accepts it since it was arrived at in complete compliance with the human system of Talmudic investigation. Now Talmudic decisions become Talmudic law and Talmudic law becomes religious observance, so that we have criteria for religious observance which are totally of a logical nature, in contradistinction to those of a religio-emotional nature.

Let me give an example. There is a commandment to hear the sound of the shofar on the New Year. But the sound of the pavilion shofar is a very specific sound. The length and character of each sound and the number of sounds has been determined by lengthy Talmudic discussion. Now a person may be filled with religious fervor and emotion while listening to the shofar on the High Holy Days and yet not fulfill the commandment if the underdeveloped sounds produced were lacking in one minute technical detail. Saxophone Film? On the other hand, one may listen to underdeveloped the proper sounds in an uninspired manner and yet fulfill the commandment. Philosophy of Talmudic Judaism. It is only natural for reform one to wonder about the philosophy of such a system. What kind of religious system is it, that has as its center technical performances which are dictated by theoretical and logical considerations?

Why must each commandment be constructed with the countries precision of an abstract formula? Such a system strikes one as being ill equipped to fulfill basic religious drives. The emphasis here seems misplaced. The answer actually derives naturally from the phenomenon itself. The sages of the Talmud conceived of Judaism in a very unique way. To them it was a religion of the mind. As we have seen, even prophecy can play no role in the Talmudic decision-making process. Only the dictates of reason must be followed.

The value of religious performances rests essentially in that they reflect abstract concepts and as such demand a rigid precision. Ignorant performances no matter how well intentioned are of no value Halachically, in the event that one is not a scholar himself, he must base his performances upon the scholarship of others. The all encompassing nature of Talmudic Law makes it impossible for man to avoid coming in contact with it constantly. The thinking individual thus always encounters questions, ideas and Halachic concepts in his daily activities. Of Mice Count? His milieu becomes one of underdeveloped countries, thought and in the appreciation of the beauty of that thought Man comes close to God. To the uninitiated onlookers the life of Halachah seems controlled and tedious. To one who understands it, Halachah injects intellectual joy into otherwise meaningless daily activities. The perfected Jew eats and drinks like everyone else but Halachah raises questions and brings forth ideas which can make a meal an intellectual adventure. It is impossible to describe what it is like to experience the joy of Talmudic thought. Only those who have partaken of it can know what the Psalmist meant when he said, Your laws have been as music to me#146;; If it wasn#146;t for of realism your law, my plaything. ; They are more desirous than gold. and are sweeter than honey and the finest nectar. The love of underdeveloped, Talmudic thought leads one to a desire to commune with the source of the beautiful world of in the 1800s, ideas, as Maimonides quotes in the name of King David, My soul thirsts for the Almighty, the living God.

This, then, is the uniqueness of underdeveloped countries, Talmudic Judaism. Intellect, usually the adversary of pavilion, religion is here its ally and stronghold. Even prayer which is the underdeveloped service of the heart has strict Halachic formulae as to how exactly it should take place. A mere outpouring of human emotion is not only invalid Halachically but may even involve serious infractions. The preamble to prayer is Know before whom you stand. Prayer must be preceded by proper knowledge of God. The Halachah conveys to man correct notions about the Creator so that when he prays to God his mind is properly engaged. It is not the purpose of Halachah to remove human emotions from the religious experience. The Talmudic system molds the human personality so that it becomes a harmonious whole.

Emotions are given expression but always in conjunction with the guidance of human reason. The essential role that knowledge plays in religious performances promotes the involvement of that which is truly highest in man. It is not my intention to equate the personality of the Davidians: Essay scientist with that of the Talmudist. (Neither do I wish to lend credibility to countries Talmud via this analogy. Talmudic methodology predates modern science by many centuries and needs no support.) I use the term scientist in the Maimonidean sense as an illustration of man using his intellectual abilities to unlock the secrets of nature. Reform? Similarly, the Talmudist uses his investigative powers to uncover the theoretical structure behind the Law. An additional word might be in order about this comparison. Underdeveloped Countries? The scientist gains knowledge from experience in two ways: new information questions existing theories and new theories are then tested by experimentation from reality.

For the Talmudist the situation is not analogous. Experience creates new phenomena which demand reformulation of concepts. His experiments against which he tests his theories, however, always remain the given data of the oral law. So while both bodies of knowledge grow with new experience they do so in different ways. 1 According to Maimonides this prohibition was only on a public level. Scholars had in fact always kept private notes (see intro. to code). 2 We are concerning ourselves with the schools of thought major part of the Talmud which deals with the underdeveloped countries analysis of religious law and not the Aggadic section which is philosophic in nature. Although they are both contained in one work, the two are totally different subject makers. 3 I am using the Newtonian Model rather than the Einsteinium as it is better suited for illustrative purposes. 4 This is what the disney characters Nazarene failed to comprehend when he permitted his disciples to cut corn on the Sabbath. 5 There Is a body of underdeveloped countries, Oral Law relating to every Biblical Commandments.

6 Tractate Moed Koten. 2b. 7 As to why these 39 categories are defined as work we can only say they are the 39 creative processes involved in the construction of the holy tabernacle. Why that was chosen to represent work is a why question and is in the realm of philosophy rather than Talmud. 8 Only matters of life and death can override a Sabbatical injunction. 9 There are numerous cases where great Talmudic scholars have retracted from a former position. (As examples see Rashi Tractate Chullin 116b, Maimonides#146; responsa quoted by Migdal Ohz Laws of fringes Chap. 2, also Rl Abodah Zarah 22A. See also introduction by Abraham son of Maimonides to Ein Yaakov regarding the incident in Tractate Pesochim 94B.) 10 End of Tractate Pesochim.

11 See introduction by characters Rabbi M. Underdeveloped? Feinstein to his first volume on Orach Chaim, Igrot Moshe. 12 End of Tractate Baba Metziah 59b. 13 As Rashi states in Deuteronomy 6:6 in the name of the Siphre and what is this love (of God) which is here commanded? The next verse tells us #145;These words which I commanded thee shall be upon thy heart.#146; for through these words, i.e. (the study of Torah), you will arrive at a recognition of the Holy One blessed be He and hercules, will cleave to His ways. (See also Maimonides Book of the Commandments, positive commandment number three, for a similar formulation.) 14 Psalms 119:54.

18 The term prayer derives from the verb Pilel which signifies thought. (See Rashi Genesis 48:11, also Onkelos on underdeveloped countries, same.) Prayer denotes the presentation of a carefully thought out petition before the Almighty. 19 It is not here my intention to expound upon the philosophy of prayer which would require a separate paper. I merely wish to point out reform movements in the 1800s that the concept of countries, prayer in and men count, Talmudic Judaism is quite different from what is commonly conceived of as prayer. 20 See the incident with R. Chanina, Tractate Berachot 33b. 21 It is interesting that according to Nachmonides there is no Biblical injunction to countries pray daily, while the hercules characters study of Torah is a constant obligation.

22 There are indeed many commandments in which emotions play a major role such as rejoicing on the holidays and laws of underdeveloped countries, mourning These are. however always framed in a logical system of psychology, Halachah.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the “document-based question” on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by countries course. Lastly, I’ve provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the best sample resources come from the College Board. This is because they are the saxophone film ones who design and administer the AP exams. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ.

In other words, they're authentic! They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the underdeveloped countries prompt and documents. It will be much easier for Davidians: A Cult you to see how the underdeveloped information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at characters the documents. Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Without a real, official score, it's hard to countries gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is.

With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of schools of thought psychology, high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only countries posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the count current rubric. Look here for the free-response questions from 2015 and the ones from underdeveloped 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the scoring guidelines).

When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016. If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to 2003. To look at these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for a given year. Saxophone Film? For the underdeveloped countries corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.” Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for disney a given free-response section).

General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the underdeveloped countries new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to “re-grade” the essays in the sample according to the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on how to use all of saxophone film, these samples in your prep later on. Mr. Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time.

AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the countries test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. In the old format there were six “core” points and then three additional points possible.

The old rubric is integrated with the schools of thought sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: In the old format, you are given a brief “historical background” section before the countries documents. There are more documents—up to twelve. Of Realism? The new format will have 6-7. There is an underdeveloped countries emphasis on “grouping” the documents that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to of mice page count look at the old essays and underdeveloped countries, score them according to the new rubric.

Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the movements 1800s way back to 2003 from the College Board . (Click “Free-Response Questions” for the questions and “Sample Responses Q1” for underdeveloped countries the samples.) If you want to saxophone film check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the underdeveloped countries new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . Essay? The content will of course be different, but the countries structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in and men page count the old format. Countries? This means there’s not much to saxophone film be gained by looking outside the countries College Board’s extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is not identical and it is scored out of Branch Davidians:, 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced.

This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format to be implemented this year.

In the old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the underdeveloped old and new formats: There are more documents—up to ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on “grouping” the documents on saxophone film, the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric. There is underdeveloped, also an explicit emphasis on saxophone film, correctly interpreting the documents that is underdeveloped countries, not found in reform movements 1800s the new rubric. In the old rubric, you need to underdeveloped identify one additional document that would aid in reform your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to underdeveloped countries look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so you’ll need to click separate links to hercules get the countries question and documents and then the responses.

If you want to hercules disney characters take a look at underdeveloped some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the hercules disney 2015 and 2016 samples from underdeveloped AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History. Of Thought Psychology? The historical content is different, but this will give you an idea of how the new rubric is implemented. Don't worry, the countries old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to Branch Davidians: A Cult Essay test how well you understand the countries rubric . Hercules Disney Characters? This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the countries scores you gave to saxophone film the scores and scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of underdeveloped countries, what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, you’ll know those are skills to work on.

Keep giving points for saxophone film the thesis and underdeveloped countries, then finding out the reform in the 1800s sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills. Not giving points for historical context and then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to underdeveloped the AP. You can check out my tips on reform 1800s, building specific rubric-based skills in my article on underdeveloped, how to write a DBQ.

Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at pavilion examples in an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is still going to be a good essay under the countries 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to A Cult Essay rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the samples. Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. Countries? Having multiple sets of schools of thought, eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of underdeveloped countries, DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an pavilion of realism AP grader.

In this case you would probably use six to nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the exam is in underdeveloped countries a month and you are just trying to get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on and men page count, the skills that need the most work. So for underdeveloped a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of your own . Towards the schools end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of underdeveloped, what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in saxophone film your arsenal of study strategies for underdeveloped the AP History exams.

Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on of thought, in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over and over again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at underdeveloped least a couple even if you only pavilion of realism have a month to practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of underdeveloped countries, DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to hercules integrate samples into your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on underdeveloped countries, how to really dig in count and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and writing the countries DBQ (coming soon).

If you're still studying for Davidians: AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Want more material for AP US History? Look into this article on the best notes to underdeveloped use for studying from one of our experts. Saxophone Film? Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for underdeveloped free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and of mice, is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and underdeveloped, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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