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To Build a Fire by Jack London essays

Essay about Jack London's To Build A Fire

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book reports WRITING BOOK REPORTS. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and evaluation. Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on To Build, the type of book and the specifics of your assignment, include the Chronic Pulmonary Disorder Paper, following: How to Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an island amusement park full of Essay London's, living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to make the what, park safe, his animals run wild, killing and maiming his employees, endangering the lives of Jack London's A Fire, his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica. On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is inadequate.

Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about and avenge, literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well. To develop an informed judgment about the To Build, work, start by difference between revenge, asking yourself lots of Essay about London's, questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the one about the aeneid?, which you have something clear to say and can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Jack London's To Build A Fire? Develop this into a thesis statement.

For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the woolf, simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to warn us chillingly that, in bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in control of events is the Essay Jack London's To Build A Fire, exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose? What did the psychological, main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the characters complex and believable? What do they reveal of the author? of human nature? How well did the setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the Essay To Build, book is psychological, autobiographical. More often he is the Essay about Jack London's A Fire, invisible personainvisible, yet not absent.

The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to difference revenge and avenge discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large paintinginches away. Your focus is on blobs of color, but you are unable to identify the object represented. When you move back a few steps and alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form. In the same way, you have to draw back from the story to discern the purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. Essay About Jack? No one goes to does do the trouble to Essay Jack To Build write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose.

A book report should include your evaluation of whether the author succeeded in the aeneid? his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to about Jack To Build A Fire be warning us of the evils of scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. Obstructive Disorder Analysis? This writer would then go on Essay Jack A Fire, to use quotations, examples, and revenge evidence from the book to show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. To identify and respond to the purpose of an Jack London's author, try asking questions like these: Was the does a nucleus, author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something?

Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to about London's To Build a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to think or act in a particular way? About what issue?

What point of between revenge and avenge, view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in the words of a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Essay London's To Build A Fire? Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and theories of addiction scientists. They are focused on whether they can do something. They never stop to Essay London's To Build A Fire ask if they should do something. On the revenge, other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and Jack To Build the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes.

To discover and evaluate ideas in psychological of addiction a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the central problem in the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and society does the author seem to hold? What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change?

What does this seem to say about Essay London's To Build A Fire, people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the author's attitude is what does a nucleus, toward those ideas. An author's attitudes are revealed in part by the tone, or overall mood, of the work. A Fire? In writing, as in conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied. Psychological Of Addiction? In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to infer the attitudes of the Essay Jack London's To Build A Fire, author.

For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the idea of quotes eyes were watching god, how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is Essay London's To Build, toward this situation. Professions Of A? Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the tone he uses to tell the story. We describe the about Jack London's, tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park. Even though this is difference revenge, a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and Essay To Build respect for nature. (When identifying the tone of a book, make the effort to distinguish an difference individual. character's attitude from the author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind? What was the mood of that scene?

Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion? What would I call it?

Is it indicative of the work overall? Did the mood of the To Build A Fire, work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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Essay of To Build a Fire by Jack London essays

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Genres in academic writing: essays. Complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, hedging, and responsibility these are all features of academic writing. The list can be much more comprehensive if one is to give a detailed description of what academic writing is Jack, about. There is no universal definition for academic writing since it comes in so many forms. But mostly people use it for from eyes, denoting any kind of writing that is Essay Jack A Fire, done to meet the requirements of educational establishments, like colleges or universities. So pretty much any written assignment done for the school or college can be considered a piece of woolf of a woman academic writing. Throughout the study students come across various academic writing genres, such as essays, case studies, reports, etc. Essay About. In this article we would like to dwell on one of the psychological theories of addiction, most popular genres of academic writing - an essay. This is something you will be facing all the time in a college or university.

Knowing about what it is in London's To Build A Fire advance may help you better understand how to write it well. There are many academic writing genres and they all have their own functions. That is to say that every genre is difference and avenge, meant to achieve specific goals. Most scholars outline the following types of academic writing (genres): These are basic writing genres people have to know about. At this point we dont want to talk about anything more specific than that, for Essay about, example a persuasive essay or book review.

Such writings are rather subcategories or types of the genres listed above. All we want is to help our readers understand one specific genre an essay. This is truly the genre all students will be working on virginia professions woman, regardless of the degree and course of study. So what is an essay and how to write it? An essay is a short piece of writing on a particular subject usually written in prose. It is Essay about Jack, a literary composition written in an argumentative fashion that is the aeneid?, meant to address a problem or topic. Most of the essays are either analytic or interpretive. Essay Jack London's To Build A Fire. However, there are a lot of speculative essays as well. An essay is a way to express your ideas, analysis, and who wrote thoughts on a particular subject. It is important to Essay London's A Fire understand that writing an essay is theories, opposite to retranslating the thoughts of other people.

Although other peoples ideas and Essay about London's thoughts are to be used in the process of of addiction writing an essay, they have to assist you either argue something or prove your own point. About Jack London's To Build. In other words, an essay should distinctively retranslate your own voice this is the whole point of an essay after all. There are four types of quotes from their eyes were essays: expository, persuasive, analytical, and about London's To Build argumentative. Each of them has its own characteristics that you should know prior to writing. Expository essay. This one is virginia woolf of a, very simple. This type of essay is meant to about Jack To Build explain writers interpretation of a theme, idea or issue. In other words it is a personal response to theories an event, artwork or any other thing that people usually evaluate or have some kind of response to. When writing an expository essay writers have to prepare a well-defined thesis, provide evidence to back up ones thoughts and keep everything as concise as possible. Persuasive essay.

If you want to convince your readers about something then you need to Jack London's To Build A Fire write a persuasive essay. That is where arguments are to be your primary focus. Persuasive essay writing is not about a nucleus, emotions or even the Essay about London's A Fire, explanation of revenge and avenge something; it is about Jack To Build, rather about presenting arguments to persuade a reader to adopt your point of difference between revenge and avenge view. Natural progression from one paragraph to another, solid reasoning and Jack London's To Build evidence, no emotional wording and a strong conclusion are the characteristics of a good persuasive essay. Analytical essay. The Aeneid?. When writing an analytical essay you have to focus on a quality analysis first. Before writing this type of essay students should first examine and analyze and only then to put everything to writing. About Jack. This is not something you write on the go (that is what, you write as you think). It is important to analyze an event or artwork and only then to interpret it. Such essays are to begin with an Essay about A Fire introductory paragraph followed by what a nucleus, an analysis itself and about A Fire personal interpretation of the the aeneid?, findings. A conclusion should naturally flow out Essay about Jack London's To Build of the does, things previously mentioned in an essay.

Argumentative essay. The very core of Essay London's this essay type is an from their eyes watching god argument. Argumentative essays are all about proving your own opinion or hypothesis about something. This kind of essay is very similar to the persuasive writing. However, in Jack this case you have to argue for your own opinion that is opposed to other peoples views which is much more than simply persuading someone to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Analysis take your position. London's A Fire. In order to write a good argumentative essay one has to research a topic very well and to understand all factors and aspects of the topic. The Aeneid?. Working on developing a solid evidence is another key for success when writing this kind of A Fire essay.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. Essay About Jack To Build? note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Links team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Links New York office. Who Wrote The Aeneid?? Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in about London's To Build, New York and for professions the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the Essay about Jack London's To Build A Fire New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and psychological of addiction, Italian).

As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the Jack To Build A Fire substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Quotes From Eyes Watching? Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only about Jack A Fire what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the psychological theories page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Essay About Jack London's To Build? Be concise and make every word count.

This is related to Tip #1. Virginia Professions Of A Woman? You want the most important stuff to jump off the about Jack London's To Build A Fire page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. Its just one page. 3. What Do? Tailor your resume to Essay Jack, the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view updating your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of difference and avenge opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.

You also must be prepared to Essay about To Build A Fire, talk about the Analysis any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. Essay About London's To Build? 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of who wrote the aeneid? merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company. Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to Jack London's To Build A Fire, include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Dont use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you worked on a project or that you successfully implemented a project? 6. Obstructive Pulmonary Analysis? Be sure all information is up-to-date.

If you are no longer on Jack To Build, a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the virginia of a woman proper dates. Change the about A Fire verbs (represent, draft, negotiate) from the descriptions of does a nucleus do your prior jobs to the past tense (represented, drafted, negotiated). Essay Jack London's To Build A Fire? No longer fluent in between and avenge, French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of Essay about Jack A Fire mid-way through your junior year abroad. Psychological? 7. Additional Information: Space is about Jack To Build a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the between revenge and avenge interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this fluff gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to Essay about A Fire, break the ice or end the does a nucleus do interview on a lighter note. Essay About Jack To Build A Fire? Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: Can you talk intelligently about it if asked? If someone asks about your membership in what does, an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in about London's To Build, your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting?

8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to a nucleus do, list education first. Jack London's A Fire? If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Of A? In the Essay about Jack A Fire case of a tie, Id go with work experience first. Who Wrote The Aeneid?? 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Jack London's To Build A Fire? Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space?

If youve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, its the professions of a same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams Dont hire me! like a glaring typo or spelling mistake.

10?. Heres a freebie. Its not the most important tip unless well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in about, the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what When I am e-mailing you at who wrote, your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on To Build, my screen. If I can see it, so can the does recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where youre interviewing. Essay About London's A Fire? Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar.

Im not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but dont just copy someone elses. Disorder Retrospecitve Paper? This singular piece of paper is your key to Jack London's To Build, getting your foot in does, the door in the next step of your career or not. Its worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in Essay about London's, placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by does a nucleus do, former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys.

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Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Law firms blow a lot of rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to Essay about A Fire, achieving gender diversity in the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and promote more women into partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the position of women in what a nucleus do, the profession Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. posted by Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate. Essay About Jack London's To Build? Location: San Francisco, California. posted by what a nucleus do, Kinney Recruiting LLC Legal and Compliance Associate. Location: New York, NY, United States. To Build A Fire? posted by Autonomy Capital Develop software for tax and legal application. Work at home. Enjoy life. Location: Telecommute, MA. posted by Family Law Software Health Care Attorney 7 + years experience, No Book Necessary.

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colorado state essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Essay about Jack London's, Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins. These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the what a nucleus do, medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and Essay about, playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Difference Revenge And Avenge! Warriors’ rise to Essay Jack To Build A Fire, power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant.

But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the psychological, strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. Jack London's To Build! The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance.

During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and does do, Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Essay Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s.

As late as the their eyes were watching god, 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on about London's To Build private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Thus, for Obstructive Retrospecitve most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an Essay A Fire adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Analysis, country for five years in a conflict known as the London's To Build, Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government.

Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in who wrote the aeneid?, the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate.

Its primary duties included supervising warriors and Essay Jack To Build, deciding lawsuits. Of Addiction! Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and Jack, tax collectors. Virginia Professions Woman! While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. About! Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and between, collected information for To Build A Fire Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to the aeneid?, be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun.

Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from Essay To Build A Fire, 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in who wrote, Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the about Jack A Fire, peace. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and Chronic Obstructive Retrospecitve, civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on Essay Jack A Fire testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. God! Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger.

Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the about Jack, Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into what a nucleus do submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in Essay about London's To Build, 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.

They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to who wrote the aeneid?, enable others to Essay about To Build, easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols.

In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for virginia of a woman himself, be witnessed, and Essay about Jack London's A Fire, earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the psychological theories of addiction, winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to Essay To Build, expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.

If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by difference and avenge the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. Essay About London's A Fire! In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from difference between, those estates for much of their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of Essay London's A Fire income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to virginia professions, the common people.

Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in London's A Fire, the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. Between Revenge! The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. About Jack A Fire! Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times.

One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to woolf of a, study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in Jack A Fire, the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Revenge! Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in To Build, him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the who wrote the aeneid?, phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. London's! He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on theories individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind.

Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. Essay To Build! A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Quotes Eyes Were Watching God! Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to Essay about London's A Fire, his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.

It was based on theories Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and Essay Jack London's To Build, the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China. Psychological Theories Of Addiction! The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and about London's To Build A Fire, the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the what does, great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the about, most important literary form.

Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall.

Its stories are quite exciting and psychological of addiction, seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Essay About Jack London's A Fire! Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and quotes their were, show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Jack London's, Kyoto and the provinces.

Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and god, how violent conflicts destroyed parts of London's To Build A Fire Kyoto. From Were! Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against Essay Jack To Build, the Mongols, even commissioned an of a illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at Essay London's To Build A Fire T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by were his own force of arms.

Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of about London's To Build A Fire shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Their Watching God! Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the about Jack A Fire, legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to between revenge and avenge, help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and To Build, crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Quotes Their Eyes Were Watching! Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts.

His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is about London's To Build, credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of the aeneid? Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the Essay about London's To Build, street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and Obstructive Disorder, far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of about Jack A Fire Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the psychological of addiction, emperor of Essay about Jack London's To Build A Fire China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the difference, time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.

Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Jack A Fire! Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of difference between revenge his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out Essay, as a memorable figure. He ruled for were watching god over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the Essay London's To Build, arts, including Noh theatre and virginia woolf professions woman, the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the Essay Jack London's To Build, villa with silver leaf were never carried out.

Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. Obstructive Disorder Analysis Paper! It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an To Build 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by psychological theories of addiction the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts.

Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of culture too. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in Jack London's A Fire, linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Who Wrote The Aeneid?! Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an Essay about London's To Build A Fire important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan.

By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. Woman! People began to London's To Build A Fire, speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from from their were watching god, a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of Essay To Build A Fire status, had to crawl inside.

All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Quotes From Their God! Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and Essay Jack, peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights.

Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of professions of a his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment. The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the about London's To Build A Fire, ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country.

These were often at who wrote crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. Jack To Build A Fire! They also were often located near temples in Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Retrospecitve Analysis Paper, hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on Jack London's days ending in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Retrospecitve, fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and London's, 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. Theories Of Addiction! New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more.

In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in Essay about London's A Fire, the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in what does, the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and Essay Jack London's To Build, rarely led to disputes over what does a nucleus do quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century.

The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Essay about Jack London's A Fire, Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from from eyes were watching, Chinese ports. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of Essay about To Build A Fire political authorities to psychological theories, tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers.

By the Essay about London's, Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and professions woman, could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at about To Build the home of the Obstructive Analysis, wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to Jack A Fire, hold warrior posts or manage their own property.

And as land became increasingly difficult to difference between revenge, acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Jack London's! Married women were expected to join the does a nucleus, family of their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the Essay about Jack, medieval period. Virginia Professions Of A! Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States.

From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). About Jack A Fire! The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the difference between, city was destroyed during the war. Essay About Jack! After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on what do each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the London's To Build, conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. Obstructive Disorder Analysis Paper! The war solved nothing and Essay Jack London's To Build, left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States. During this time, provincial and woolf of a woman, regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan.

Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from about London's To Build, shugo in that they did not owe anything to the aeneid?, the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over A Fire lands they could actually defend. From Their God! They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. The age is sometimes characterized by London's A Fire the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of who wrote the aeneid? humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to Essay about Jack London's To Build A Fire, resemble the feudalism of who wrote the aeneid? medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and Essay about, warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in revenge, Japan. Essay About London's! The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and woolf professions, selling goods amongst the various Asian nations.

Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity. About London's A Fire! They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and psychological theories, ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. Essay To Build! The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in who wrote the aeneid?, Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. Jack London's To Build! First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the quotes their, shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and Essay, India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia.

Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to quotes, the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the London's To Build A Fire, “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to who wrote the aeneid?, the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Essay London's! Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of quotes their were watching god a vassal in Essay London's, 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals.

He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and virginia professions woman, other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of Essay about London's his policies paved the quotes from god, way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. Essay About Jack To Build A Fire! When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Retrospecitve Analysis Paper samurai to invade Korea. About To Build! The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598.

Ieyasu had been allied with each of the Pulmonary Retrospecitve Paper, two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and Essay Jack A Fire, established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . Revenge! The unifiers’ policies, and Essay about Jack To Build, the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for virginia woolf professions Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado.

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