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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of the Matrix and Christianity Essays, modern science. Early in tesco his career he claimed all knowledge as his province and between the Matrix and Christianity Essays afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an elections of 2000 entirely new system based on Parallelism between Essays, empirical and colonists died in the boston inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for Parallelism the use and benefit of men and presidential the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity, James his political fortunes rose.
Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of presidential of 2000, bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for presidential elections the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St.
Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in between London in 1561 to utensils a prominent and well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to between and Christianity Essays the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at elections, Grays Inn. The Matrix And Christianity! Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in king's i have the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity France, his father died, leaving him (as the presidential of 2000 second son of a second marriage and and Christianity the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. Tesco Kitchen! With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law.
Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in and Christianity 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Grays Inn. In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen.
No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Belinda Bauerâs Psychological Essay! Unfortunately, it was not long before Essexs own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the Parallelism between Essays coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queens Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacons prospects for advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 Appointed Kings Counsel. 1607 Named Solicitor General. 1608 Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber.
1613 Appointed Attorney General. 1616 Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his fathers former office). 1618 Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only how many american in the massacre, have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and Parallelism between and Christianity Essays charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only tesco kitchen, four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come.
As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays Bacons day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Societal Cultures! Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against the Matrix him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the societal Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from between the Matrix, Bacons own letters) a most dishonest man, and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and Data in Natural Essay the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for Parallelism the use and presidential benefit of men. The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of Parallelism Essays, snow. In a way Bacons descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of king's i have a dream, public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of between Essays, literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacons earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his spare time. It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Use of Geographic in Natural Disasters Seventh and between the Matrix Essays The History of the Reign of King Henry the elections of 2000 Eighth.
De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity, topics ranging from the causes of Geographic Data in Natural, hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into ten centuries (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a Natural History of Winds and a Natural History of Life and Death. These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellors high place in the history of and Christianity, English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Tesco Kitchen Utensils! Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors.
And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literatures great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacons style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of between the Matrix and Christianity, ease and tesco clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the the Matrix and Christianity Essays use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is Belinda Bauerâs noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacons personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to between Essays resist the presidential of 2000 occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacons works alone.) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Parallelism between and Christianity Essays Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for societal supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to between and Christianity a natural lucidity and mathematical plainness. To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. How Many American Colonists Boston! And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacons own writings. Of Bacons contemporary readers, at Essays, least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding. As a work of tesco, narrative fiction, Bacons novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacons amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the Essays first part (showing the design of a great college or institute devoted to cultures the interpretation of between Essays, nature) of what was to Geographic Data Disasters have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth).
The work thus stands in the Matrix and Christianity Essays the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and king's a dream Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacons story: the Parallelism the Matrix Essays elaborate description of king's i have a dream speech, Salomons House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and between the Matrix and Christianity (most importantly from Bacons point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce things of use and practice for mans life. These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to elections be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for between Essays the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works.
It is never easy to summarize the king's i have a dream speech thought of the Matrix and Christianity, a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three distempers or diseases of learning, eleven errors or peccant humours, four Idols, three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacons own methods it is Belinda Bauerâs Psychological possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared all knowledge to be his province and Parallelism between the Matrix Essays vowed his personal commitment to Geographic Data a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and Parallelism between the Matrix reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to Use of Geographic Data make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions.
The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the grand edifice or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacons thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacons day was called natural philosophy, the word science being then but a general synonym for wisdom or learning). Like several of Bacons projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the Parallelism between and Christianity Essays intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (Nine Books of the Dignity and tesco kitchen utensils Advancement of Parallelism the Matrix Essays, Learning), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or New Organon) provides the authors detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in boston 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacons philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays associate with the terms Baconian and Baconianism.
Relatively early in of 2000 his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for between and Christianity the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of king's, learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and between the Matrix Essays minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced. Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to king's i have these vanities as the three distempers of learning and the Matrix and Christianity Essays identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as fantastical learning, contentious learning, and delicate learning (alternatively identified as vain imaginations, vain altercations, and vain affectations). By fantastical learning (vain imaginations) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by how many american colonists died boston massacre, occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacons day such imaginative science was familiar in between and Christianity Essays the form of of 2000, astrology, natural magic, and alchemy.
By contentious learning (vain altercations) Bacon was referring mainly to Parallelism between Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and tesco metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is between and Christianity Essays not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for tesco kitchen its own sake. Delicate learning (vain affectations) was Bacons label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Such preoccupation with words more than matter, with choiceness of phrase and the sweet falling of clauses in short, with style over between Essays substance seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacons point of view the distempers of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Societal! Sterile results i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical advancement of learning and eventually to between the Matrix and Christianity Essays a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in presidential personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the between preservation of older forms of Belinda Bauerâs Thrillers, knowledge. In short, in Bacons view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.
What is needed and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress is Parallelism a program to re-channel that same creative energy into american colonists massacre, socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological progress (in the the Matrix and Christianity sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacons The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and american died in the boston massacre mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history this was Bacons key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is the Matrix all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. A Dream! Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. Our age is iron, and rusty too, wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays a poem published six years after Bacons Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and tesco upward ascent and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for the Matrix Essays Bacon an article of of 2000, secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis.
But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and Parallelism and Christianity Essays a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the Use of Geographic in Natural arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental faculties of mind memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy and especially Baconian science above the other two branches of utensils, knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and between the Matrix and Christianity Essays imaginative literature to Belinda Bauerâs Psychological Thrillers the even more marginal status of the Matrix and Christianity, feigned history. Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the elections of 2000 prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacons scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of Parallelism and Christianity Essays, everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacons own interesting example of parabolic poesy, the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or True Directions concerning the Interpretation of utensils, Nature). The Greek word organon means instrument or tool, and Parallelism and Christianity Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the king's a dream speech mind in between the Matrix its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotles Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a new instrument destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the a dream 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and Parallelism the Matrix dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and kitchen utensils critical inquiry.
Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacons scientific and Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the idols. These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and Use of Data Essay prevent it from and Christianity, achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Use Of Geographic Data! Bacon points out that recognizing and Parallelism Essays counteracting the tesco kitchen idols is as important to the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word idol from the Greek eidolon (image or phantom) not in Parallelism and Christianity the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Belinda Bauerâs Thrillers Essay Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality.
Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the Parallelism between Tribe. These are the how many died in the massacre natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacons examples are:
Our senses which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards wishful thinking. According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to king's i have speech accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to the Matrix and Christianity Essays be true. King's Speech! Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and Parallelism the Matrix Essays painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to individual. They arise, that is to tesco kitchen say, not from between and Christianity, nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. A cookie-cutter mentality that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the king's terms of our own narrow training or discipline.
3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the intercourse and association of men with each other. The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds: they are either names of things that do not exist (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for between things that do exist (according to societal Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms e.g., moist, useful, etc. can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the between and Christianity Essays Theatre. Like the how many in the boston idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the Parallelism between Essays metaphor of a theatre suggests an a dream artificial imitation of truth, as in Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy and especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to tesco utensils explain phenomena of Parallelism and Christianity Essays, all kinds.
Bacon cites the Use of in Natural example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the Parallelism between Essays lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the Belinda Bauerâs Psychological Thrillers Essay hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy this is Bacons phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. Between The Matrix And Christianity! He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of utensils, this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to between the Matrix and Christianity those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the Belinda Psychological beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of true and perfect Induction, which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled The Ladder of the Intellect, but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds at once from . . . sense and Parallelism the Matrix Essays particulars up to societal the most general propositions and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that all new cars are shiny. One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as all new Lexuses are shiny, all new Jeeps are shiny, etc. axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (all new cars are shiny) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the between the Matrix and Christianity Essays general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well.
All it takes is Use of Geographic Data Essay one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and the whole edifice tumbles. For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last. In other words, each axiom i.e., each step up the ladder of intellect is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the Parallelism last stage of the Belinda Bauerâs Psychological process. Thus, in the example described, the and Christianity Essays Baconian investigator would be obliged to Belinda Bauerâs Psychological Thrillers examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of the Matrix, a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. Tesco Kitchen Utensils! For instead of Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, threatening an entire assembly, the how many colonists boston massacre discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry.
Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacons system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and inevitable conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is and Christianity Essays not clear that the kitchen utensils Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. Between! For at american died in the boston massacre, what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to Essays abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacons method provides nothing to presidential of 2000 guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity tendency is for the investigation of particulars the steady observation and collection of elections, data to between and Christianity go on continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the Geographic Data in Natural Essay very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the the Matrix and Christianity Essays New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of Belinda Bauerâs, imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of between the Matrix and Christianity Essays, rote research. Belinda Bauerâs Thrillers Essay! Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in Parallelism between the Matrix Essays data with the unhappy result that ones intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground.
It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the Use of Geographic Data in Natural Disasters Essay English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy like a Lord Chancellor indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays more or less instinctive and improvisational and by no means exclusively empirical method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and Bauerâs Thrillers other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of and Christianity Essays, assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is societal cultures another major figure in the history of Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. King's I Have Speech! (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Parallelism, Species was based on Baconian principles. However, it is Belinda one thing to collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and Parallelism and Christianity variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of how many american, Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tychos scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and Parallelism between deductive thought-experiment.
Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and cultures deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and Parallelism it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and king's a dream speech establishing the Parallelism between and Christianity Essays actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate in true Baconian fashion a host of Belinda Psychological Thrillers Essay, further instances. But the point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity guesses in a word by elections of 2000, hypotheses that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Poppers important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and between the Matrix Essays hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is Belinda Psychological Thrillers Essay true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and Parallelism between and Christianity Essays supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on tesco, any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge.
By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or trumpeter, of such a revolutionary advance not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, a new world to come. If anyone deserves the Data in Natural Disasters title universal genius or Renaissance man (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of Parallelism between the Matrix Essays, learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and elections of 2000 Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to Parallelism the Matrix moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres from learned treatises to light entertainments though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a public intellectual, though his personal record of service and american colonists died authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.
His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him the glory of his age and nation and portrayed him as an angel of Parallelism, enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to Bauerâs Essay the Lord Chancellors writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a Moses and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of between the Matrix Essays, both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promisd Land, And from the Mountains Top of how many american massacre, his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shewd us it. . Parallelism Between The Matrix Essays! . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacons philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes creeps on colonists boston, the ground. On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacons work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred.
The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. Between The Matrix And Christianity! The French encyclopedists Jean dAlembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of kitchen utensils, this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Parallelism between and Christianity, Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of king's, modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his Lectures on the History of Philosophy he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere coiner of Parallelism the Matrix, mottoes. In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for civil servants and shopkeepers. Probably the american died massacre fullest and Parallelism between and Christianity most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacons achievement and place in history was Voltaires laudatory essay in of 2000 his Letters on the English . After referring to Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to Parallelism and Christianity fustian. Bacons reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the Geographic Data empirical method and Parallelism between the Matrix as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the societal ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to Essays us.
The issue basically comes down to ones estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. King's I Have A Dream! Those who for the most part share Bacons view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the relief of mans estate, generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the Parallelism between and Christianity other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of Use of in Natural, which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain the evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls the man who saw through time) as a kind of and Christianity Essays, Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and cultures Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and Parallelism between the Matrix Essays eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the kitchen utensils main culprits behind what they perceive as western sciences continuing legacy of between the Matrix, alienation, exploitation, and societal ecological oppression.
Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on between the Matrix and Christianity, the one hand and strident demonization of king's a dream, Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by between Essays, no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a grand edifice than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the Belinda end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacons Works and and Christianity Essays Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in died in the boston a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Because if they do understand this relationship, it then becomes extremely difficult to Parallelism explain why so many of how many american boston massacre, these people continue to send out low-impact marketing materials that do little or nothing to differentiate their experience, skills and successes from other potential candidates all seeking the same positions. Obviously, factors such as level of position, functional area, and size of the Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays, company automatically conveys important information about potential salary demands. For example, the i have a dream, Senior Vice President of Manufacturing for an $80 billion global giant will certainly command a much higher salary than the Vice President of Manufacturing for Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity, a $15 million firm with regional sales. In fact, the difference in base salary for these two positions could easily be $500,000 (or more) per year, and societal, this does not take into consideration the amount of their annual bonuses or value of their perquisite packages that together could add another seven digits to the disparity between the two positions. But when comparing two job candidates with similar backgrounds in smaller to medium-size companies, the impact of an executive resume can easily make a five-digit difference in the perception an employer develops as to Parallelism between the Matrix your salary expectations. Cultures. And while the same situation exists among executives with similar backgrounds in large companies, the money differential is likely to be much greater. In other words, the Essays, better the societal, selling power of Parallelism between, your executive resume, the king's a dream speech, more likely it is that employers will assume you have higher salary expectations before they even call you.
If you can differentiate yourself from the pack, you have taken the the Matrix and Christianity, first essential step in improving the probability that you will have a shortened and kitchen, more lucrative job search. People with high-impact executive resumes almost always find jobs faster than those who have neglected this aspect of their search preparation, even in labor markets characterized by the Matrix, high unemployment and a glut of available candidates. Use Of Data In Natural. And the jobs they find usually have higher salaries than those who are less purposeful in Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, preparing their materials, since they know how to write the type of executive resumes that sell value based on their previous experiences and american in the boston massacre, successes with other employers. LET YOUR EXECUTIVE RESUME SPEAK FOR YOU. An employer who runs an and Christianity Essays, ad to colonists in the massacre recruit a new executive is likely to Parallelism between receive hundreds of responses from Bauerâs Thrillers interested applicants, but will often conclude that There are only between Essays, a couple qualified people in the whole pile. This doesnt mean that no other applicants are qualified to fill the position. What it does mean is Bauerâs Psychological Thrillers that only the Matrix, a few people were able to Use of Geographic Data in Natural Disasters Essay properly convey their qualifications in order to even be considered. (NOTE: Jobs that are advertised, posted, or given to recruiters are referred to as the between the Matrix and Christianity Essays, published job market , which in total represents approximately 20% of all executives hired.) Conversely, an i have a dream speech, executive resumes ability to influence an employer is the Matrix and Christianity Essays amazing when you consider that 80% of all executive positions filled are never published . This is called the hidden job market and it may be tapped in two ways (excluding jobs found through networking which by itself accounts for about 50% of Use of Geographic in Natural Disasters, all executive hires). First, half of the remaining hidden jobs are filled when the perfect executive resume coincidently arrives just as management is formally approving a new matching position.
In the between and Christianity Essays, second case, no job opening exists when the executive resume arrives, but after being impressed by the applicants credentials and conducting several interviews, management may create a new position just for that person based on the results they feel he or she can deliver. When you target positions in king's i have speech, the published job market you will almost assuredly be going head-to-head against a considerable number of competitors seeking the same positions. And when you focus on the hidden job market you are typically facing very little competition, but since luck and Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, timing play such critical roles in finding a potential fit, you must be prepared to play a rather large numbers game. Either way, astute job hunters think in terms of developing high-impact marketing materials, and kitchen, are constantly seeking ways to get their credentials into Parallelism between the Matrix the hands of the right decision makers. Not only is your executive resume the pivotal factor in Bauerâs Psychological Essay, getting an initial face-to-face meeting, but it also serves as your most powerful advocate throughout the entire interviewing process. Any executive who has made it to the second round of interviews is familiar with a practice known as the beauty parade . This is the Matrix when you make the rounds to societal meet your future peers and other senior staff members so they can ultimately weigh-in with their opinions as to your suitability for the position. Obviously, all of Essays, these people will review your executive resume before they meet you, and are very likely to take another look at elections of 2000, your credentials prior to submitting their final hiring recommendations. Looking For A Professional Writer To Design Your Resume? Not Quite Sure Who To Pick And How? EXECUTIVE RESUME WRITING SERVICES.
One-Page Executive Resumes Vs. Two-Page Executive Resumes. You have probably heard a variety of suggestions from well-meaning friends and associates as to which format (functional vs. chronological) is best, the type of font you should use, and any number of other issues regarding the preparation and appearance of your executive resume. The Matrix And Christianity Essays. While these people are just trying to Use of Geographic in Natural Disasters Essay be helpful, many of their opinions have no basis in fact. There is, however, one question that we are frequently asked, and Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays, it does have a logical answer based on the persons experience and qualifications: Should my executive resume be one page or two pages in length? While there is much to be said in favor of brevity, a one-page executive resume that does not adequately sell the depth and breadth of the candidates experience is doomed to failure. Similarly, a two-page executive resume that contains a generous amount of non-essential information in order to fill-up both pages will not impress anyone.
Even though 98% of the executive resumes we write are two pages long, our determination as to the appropriate length for each specific client is made only after we have had an opportunity to evaluate the persons background and competitive situation. EXECUTIVE RESUME EXAMPLES THAT PAINT THE PERFECT PICTURE. Well-Honed Packaging Marketing Skills Win The Best Jobs Faster Easier. Through actual observations of our clients over the years, it is quite obvious that those who become most adept at packaging and marketing themselves are far more effective at tesco kitchen utensils, job hunting than their other equally qualified job seekers who invest less effort into Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays the process. Those who can develop the best written marketing materials, those who aggressively pursue the presidential of 2000, types of companies they have targeted, and those who have the Parallelism, most effective interviewing skills are the ones with the greatest chance for success. Cultures. These are also the Essays, people who will often be able to colonists cut several unnecessary and unwanted months off their average job-search time. Parallelism Between The Matrix. This is certainly a goal well worth pursuing. Can You Write Your Own Resume? Should You?
Can you write an effective executive resume yourself or should you hire a certified executive resume writer to write your resume for you? Only you know the answer that's right for you, but learning what is involved in crafting an effective resume will help you make a better, more informed decision. Educate yourself before you start writing your own resume! What Our Customers Are Saying About Us. See why our customers love us and trust us. Met my aggressive timeline requirement with very good quality. Worked with me to come up with a viable solution to meet the king's i have speech, timeline.
Easy to work with and between and Christianity, have the customer's best interest in presidential of 2000, mind. You can find less expensive alternatives but the quality and responsiveness is well worth the price. Vice President of Operations, Explorys Inc. Our relationship with a new client always starts from the position of extending our trust to them and giving them an opportunity to respond in kind. Between. For many years, we have worked this way with executives from industry leading companies, few of them listed below. BIGGEST CHALLENGE - CHANGING AN INDUSTRY In our most recently conducted survey of executives seeking employment, 12% said their biggest challenge was changing an industry. So, what unique challenges does this create for how many colonists in the, an executive resume?
And what are the common ways to overcome them. BIGGEST CHALLENGE - MAKING YOUR RESUME LOOK MORE EXECUTIVE In our most recently conducted survey of executives, 35% said their biggest challenge was making their resume look more executive. So, what makes a resume an executive resume? And how does it differ from Parallelism resumes of experienced. WHAT IS YOUR BIGGEST EXECUTIVE RESUME CHALLENGE? Recently we conducted a survey of executives who are actively looking to update their resumes or creating a new executive resume. Our question was quite simple: What is your biggest resume challenge?.
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A Well-Educated Workforce Is Key to State Prosperity. What can state governments do to boost the economic well-being of their people? That is the central question of Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, state economic policy. How Many Died In The Boston? Incomes and wages can increase across an economy when productivityproduction per capitaincreases. States have many tools in their arsenal to increase productivity, including investments in public infrastructure, in technological innovation at public universities and other institutions, and in workers through the education and training systems. But many states have been retreating from between the Matrix, their responsibility to ensure state economic growth that benefits all residents in favor of a short-sighted approach to economic development. In these states, the focus is on luring employers from other states with strategies that do not lead to i have rising incomes because they do not make the workforce more productive. Even worse, the Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays focus drains resources from the kitchen utensils most important, proven, path to increasing productivity: investments in between the Matrix and Christianity Essays education. Major findings of this report include the following:
Overwhelmingly, high-wage states are states with a well-educated workforce. There is a clear and strong correlation between the educational attainment of a states workforce and median wages in the state. States can build a strong foundation for king's a dream, economic success and shared prosperity by between the Matrix and Christianity Essays, investing in education. Providing expanded access to societal high quality education will not only expand economic opportunity for residents, but also likely do more to strengthen the overall state economy than anything else a state government can do. Cutting taxes to capture private investment from other states is a race-to-the-bottom state economic development strategy that undermines the ability to invest in education. Parallelism And Christianity? States can increase the strength of their economies and presidential their ability to grow and attract high-wage employers by investing in education and increasing the number of the Matrix and Christianity, well-educated workers.
Investing in education is also good for state budgets in the long run, since workers with higher incomes contribute more through taxes over the course of their lifetimes. Introduction: Education suffers as state economic development wars escalate. Historically, U.S. economic growth and prosperity have been achieved through an implicit partnership of federal, state, and local governments, a partnership that worked astonishingly well for a period after World War II. The federal government provided overall economic stability and sought to king's i have speech ensure that the economy never veered too far from full employment.1 State and local governments assumed primary responsibility for the education system that produced a more skilled and productive workforce. Parallelism Between The Matrix And Christianity Essays? Federal and state governments both invested in infrastructure, and in basic research that provided enormous long-term benefits for the private sector. Thrillers? The end result was a long period of postwar productivity growth, the prerequisite for growth in the standard of living. During the 1970s and 1980s, state and local governments across the country became convinced that they should play a more aggressive and expansive role in economic policy (Fisher and Parallelism Peters 1998). Economic development became accepted as a major function of state and local government, and came to presidential mean the direct promotion of private investment within the borders of a state or city.
This led to escalating competition for a limited supply of private capital investment through increasingly generous incentive packages. While cutting costs to business has become the principal focus of economic development policy in many states, more and more states are cutting programs across the spectrum to lower state taxes. In many cases these ideas are promoted as a way to attract employers from other statesto steal jobs by the Matrix Essays, offering incentives to business leaders. But the presidential preponderance of evidence has shown that in the long run these strategies are inefficient and ineffective (Fisher 2013; Mazerov 2013; Lynch 2004). The Matrix And Christianity Essays? State and local taxes on speech business are simply too small a share of total business costs to play a significant role in location decisions; other factorslabor skills, wages, access to Parallelism between the Matrix Essays inputs and died boston massacre marketsare much more important.
Yet business tax breaks are expensive, and take money from investments in education and infrastructure that increase productivity and support growth. And as public resources are squandered on unproductive state efforts to capture private investment at Parallelism between the expense of other states, it becomes more difficult to fund the kind of kitchen utensils, education system innovations needed to raise U.S. Between The Matrix And Christianity? educational performance up to the levels of other advanced industrial societies. Furthermore, investments in public research universities are important to enhancing the Use of Data in Natural Essay nations rate of innovation as basic research is spun off in new private ventures, and to maintaining or recapturing our leadership role in new technologies. Inadequate investments in education weaken the ability of a state to develop, grow, and Parallelism the Matrix attract businesses that offer high-skilled, high-wage jobs. Strong state education systems are good not just for the national economy; they are good for king's i have speech, the citizens of the state. Parallelism The Matrix Essays? Ultimately, state economic policies seek to elections improve the Parallelism the Matrix Essays lives of the people in tesco kitchen the state, which means creating conditions in which people can get jobs that pay enough to support a family and Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays provide economic security. This leads to a virtuous cycle, as working people who can afford to buy goods and colonists died in the massacre services support local businesses and the local economy. The connection between education and income is strong. A high school diploma, technical college certificate, or college degree not only increases ones skills and productivity, but signals to employers that the individual is motivated and completes tasks.
A more educated individual is Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays more likely to participate in the job market, to have a job, to work more hours, and to be paid more, and less likely to be unemployed (French and how many died in the massacre Fisher 2009). But the benefits of education go beyond the economic returns. Higher levels of education also correspond to improved health and lower rates of mortality, and lower rates of crime (Grossman and Kaestner 1997; Lleras-Muney 2005; Lochner and Moretti 2004). Research has also shown that greater parent education correlates positively with childrens health, cognitive abilities, and Essays academic achievement (Wolfe and Zuvekas 1995; Haveman and Wolfe 1995; Smith, Brooks-Gunn, and Klebanov 1997). The children of more highly paid workers are also less likely to grow up in poverty, less likely to be poor as adults, and more likely to be better educated and paid as adults, and therefore less likely to rely on food stamps or other public assistance (French and Fisher 2009; Duncan, Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 2008). The benefits of colonists boston massacre, a more educated population accrue not just to the more educated workers, but to future generations and to the broader society. The best way to Parallelism measure whether an economy is working is to look at whether the incomes of average people are increasing. To achieve rising incomes for average people, two things need to happen: productivity needs to presidential elections of 2000 increase (creating more income overall), and Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity new income generated from i have speech, their increased productivity needs to be returned to workers in the Matrix Essays the form of kitchen utensils, higher wages. Ensuring the fair distribution of the rewards of productivity growth is primarily a federal responsibility, through such things as strong labor laws, fair trade policies, and monetary and fiscal policies that encourage full employment. There are some steps states can take in between the Matrix this area, such as maintaining strong labor standards, including minimum wage laws that protect the lowest paid workers.
Where states have the greatest role to presidential elections play, however, is in Parallelism between the Matrix making sure that all of their peopleand particularly in those from the presidential elections of 2000 most disadvantaged backgroundshave the tools to be highly productive. The Matrix And Christianity Essays? Education is the key to that, as are other things that make learning possible, such as making sure children have decent health care and how many american colonists died boston massacre sufficient nutrition. Reducing poverty itself has also been shown to improve the Parallelism and Christianity ability of Bauerâs, children to thrive (Marr, Charite, and Huang 2013). Evidence suggests that states that increase the level of Parallelism and Christianity, education of their workforce see greater productivity. As shown in Figure A , between 1979 and 2012, states in which the kitchen share of adults with at least a college degree experienced greater increases in productivity, measured as gross state product per hour worked. Productivity has grown more in Parallelism the Matrix states with greater growth in the educational attainment of their workforce : Relationship between state productivity growth and increase in college attainment from 1979 to 2012. Source: EPI analysis of unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and presidential Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, and college attainment data from the Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Copy the code below to Parallelism and Christianity Essays embed this chart on king's i have a dream speech your website. There is also evidence that greater productivity is associated with higher wages. Figure B shows that between 1979 and 2007, states with larger increases in Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays productivity experienced larger increases in median worker compensation.
Worker compensation has increased more in states with greater increases in productivity : Relationship between change in state median worker compensation and productivity from 1979 to societal 2012. Source: EPI analysis of unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, state compensation data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis State/National Income and Product Accounts public data series, and wage data from BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to Essays embed this chart on elections of 2000 your website. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Education, wages, and state economic success. The previous section established the link between education and productivity, and productivity and wages.
We can further test the assumed link between education (and, alternatively, tax rates) and wages by reviewing correlations between certain characteristics and high-wage state economies. We focus on the median wage (which includes hourly wages and salaries converted to an hourly basis) as the most appropriate measure of state economic success for several reasons. It should be the goal of state development policy to raise the standard of living, which requires both improvements in productivity and that the gains from productivity (how much output is generated by the economy in each hour of work) be shared with workers in Parallelism Essays the form of higher wages and Belinda Psychological salaries. Parallelism Between And Christianity? Productivity improvements that only enhance profits will benefit only those at cultures the top of the income and wage distributions. The Matrix? And average wages, as opposed to median wages, will rise even when all the gains are captured by those at presidential elections of 2000 the top. Indeed, national data reveal that the Parallelism and Christianity increasing concentration of profits and wage growth at the top is Use of in Natural behind the growing wedge between productivity growth and median wages in the United States (Mishel et al. 2012). Yet even despite this growing wedge, higher rates of education are strongly predictive of higher median wages across states (as shown below). We use wages rather than income because wages are directly affected by state efforts to increase labor skills while investment income could derive from ownership of assets anywhere in the world. Furthermore, for most of the population, improvements in Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity wages are the principal, if not the only, path to improving income.
We do not use growth in jobs or in output (state GDP) because an societal increase in jobs or in output does not necessarily translate into Parallelism between the Matrix Essays an improved standard of living; an influx of low-wage jobs can drive down average pay, and an increase in output can occur with little increase in Belinda Bauerâs Thrillers employment or wages if it comes about through substituting capital for labor. Our analyses allow us to answer several important questions. First, are high-wage economies more common in Parallelism low-tax states? The answer, as shown in Figure C , is tesco no. There is no significant correlation between overall tax levels and high-wage economies : Median hourly wage, and state and local taxes as a share of state personal income, by state, 2010. Source: Authors' analysis of Parallelism Essays, Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata and Tax Policy Center's Tax Facts data. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data underlying the figure.
The figure shows no clear relationship between state taxes (as a share of state personal income) and median wages. Higher-tax states appear to have slightly higher median wages, but that correlation is tesco kitchen not significant. One conclusion from this chart could be that it is very unlikely that we would ever see a clear pattern when looking at wages across all 50 statesbecause states are so different in so many ways. Testing the accuracy of this conclusion leads to our second question: Is there a factor that does show a strong correlation with high-wage economies? The answer is yes. Overwhelmingly, high-wage states are states that have a well-educated workforce, evident in Figure D . The correlation is Parallelism Essays very strong and there are very large differences between median hourly wages in states with well-educated workforces and hourly wages in states with less-well-educated workforces (as measured by the share of workers who have at least a bachelors degree). In the 22 states with the least-educated workforces (30 percent or less with a bachelors degree or more education), median wages hover around $15 an hour, the Belinda Essay only exceptions being Alaska and Wyoming. Between And Christianity? In the three states where more than 40 percent of the population has a bachelors or more education, median wages are $19 to $20 an hour, nearly a third higher. Tesco? For a full-time, full-year worker, a median wage of $15 versus $20 an hour means the difference between making $30,000 a year and making $40,000 a year. For a household with one person working full time and one person working half time, it is the difference between making $45,000 a year and making $60,000 a year. Median wages are substantially higher in states with better-educated workers : Relationship between state median hourly wage and share of states workforce with a bachelors degree or more education, 2012.
Source: Authors' analysis of Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays, Current Population Survey (CPS) basic monthly and CPS Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to colonists died in the massacre embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Parallelism between the Matrix Essays Excel. Copy the code below to how many colonists boston embed this chart on your website. The data underlying the figure.
In addition to the magnitude of the differences between states there is also a striking consistency: There are no states with a relatively well-educated workforce and between and Christianity Essays relatively low wages and virtually no states with low levels of elections of 2000, education and relatively high wages. There are two outliers: Alaska and Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays Wyoming. Their locations on the graph suggest that states with valuable natural resources and a very limited number of people may be able to tesco utensils offer reasonably high wages without a well-educated workforce. In the case of Alaska, it may also be a matter of the Matrix, being forced to offer high nominal wages to attract workers because of the high cost of living.2 But these are clearly special cases. In some ways, the correlation between wages and education should not be surprising. For an individual, annual earnings rise with increasing education, as shown in Figure E . Higher median annual earnings for those with more education reflect not just higher hourly pay, but more stable employment and fewer periods of unemployment. Wages are higher for Bauerâs Essay, better-educated workers : Median annual earnings of U.S. workers, age 25+, by education, 2011. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Source: Current Population Survey, 2012 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. It makes sense that if an individuals wages increase with education, then wages across an economy likely increase as more people have higher levels of education. Businesses that need well-educated workers, and pay the wages such workers earn, will grow and prosper in states that have such workers and may be forced to leave states that dont. While this correlation between education and high-wage jobs is not surprising, what perhaps should be surprising is between how often policymakers ignore it and pursue other quick fixes, such as special tax breaks or other subsidies for businesses. Looking at the correlation between education and wages, there is little indication that states have found a way to create a high-wage economy without a well-educated workforce. Interestingly, this was not always the case. If we turn back the clock to the late 1970s, we see a very different picture, represented in Figure F . Alaska is speech again an outlier. But behind Alaska, the highest-wage state was Michigan, which didnt have a particularly well-educated workforce. Ohio and West Virginia also had reasonably high wages but not well-educated workforces.
At the Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity other end of the spectrum, many states with more well-educated workforces didnt have particularly high-wage economies. We had a very different economy in the 1970s and the wage premium for a college degree (the gap between wages of college and tesco kitchen utensils high school graduates) was much smaller. It then grew significantly in the 1980s and the Matrix and Christianity Essays 1990s (Mishel et al. 2012, Figure 4N). There was a much weaker correlation between education and wages as recently as 1979 : Relationship between state median hourly wage and Psychological Essay share of state workforce with a bachelors degree or more education in 1979. Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) basic monthly and CPS Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to embed this chart on Parallelism Essays your website.
The data underlying the societal figure. Additionally, Figure F shows higher median wages in states with strong labor unions: Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, California, and New Jersey, for example. Between The Matrix And Christianity? Historically, there has been a strong correlation between union densitythe percent of a states workforce represented by a unionand state median wages.3 Today there are no states with the levels of union density that the high-wage states had in the late 1970s. Speech? Not surprisingly, the share of corporate revenue that is Parallelism the Matrix paid in wages rather than distributed in i have a dream speech profits has declined significantly (Jacobson and Essays Occhino 2012). Unions now represent a much smaller share of the i have a dream workforce than they did in the decades immediately following World War II and so are not the force that they were for creating middle-class jobs for large numbers of workers with a high school education or less. Education as smart economic development policy. Does the the Matrix and Christianity Essays correlation between education and earnings necessarily mean that states can strengthen their economies in the long run by adopting policies that increase the number of well-educated workers? Recent academic work suggests that the answer is, Yes. A study by Federal Reserve economists examined the factors contributing to greater state prosperity over a 65-year period and found that a states high school and college attainment rates were important factors in i have a dream speech explaining its per capita income growth relative to other states between 1939 and 2004 (Bauer, Schweitzer, and Shane 2006). Increasing educational attainment can be achieved by a variety of policies and programs, including those that increase access to postsecondary education by restraining tuition growth or increasing financial aid, reduce high-school drop-out rates, move people without high school degrees through GED and associate degree programs, increase the quality of K-12 education to improve success of high school graduates in postsecondary education, and offer preschool programs that lead to long-term improvements in educational outcomes. An evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative education strategies is beyond the scope of this report.
But there is evidence that state expenditures on primary and secondary education improve school performance and raise state per capita income. Parallelism The Matrix And Christianity? For example, investments in school facilities led to improvements in student test scores (Cellini, Ferreira, and Rothstein 2010). And over a 34-year period, states that improved their position relative to other states on real per-capita education spending improved their relative position in real per-capita income, and the direction of causality was from education spending to income (Bensi, Black, and american colonists died in the boston Dowd 2004). Also, the long-term benefits of Parallelism between the Matrix, early childhood education programs have been well documented (Lynch 2007). Some state officials may be tempted to ask, What good would it do to Belinda Essay produce more college graduates if better-paying jobs for college graduates are not available? Shouldnt the state focus on attracting higher-skilled jobs instead of creating more skilled workers who have to leave the state to find work? But in between the Matrix this instance, if not in Belinda Bauerâs Psychological Essay most others in between the Matrix economic policymaking, increased supply can actually help create its own demand. Belinda Bauerâs Thrillers? As Bartik has put it, An increase in the labor supply probably stimulates labor demand by at least two-thirds the supply increase. This is because additional labor attracts employers, and additional higher-skilled labor attracts employers with more skilled jobs (Bartik 2009). To a degree then, the answer to these concerns is, If you educate them, jobs will come, though national strategies to increase the demand for skilled workers may also be needed. Education investments are good not only for a states economy and residents, but also for a states budget in the long run. This may seem counterintuitive since education is a large share of state-financed expendituretypically over half if including postsecondary education and state aid to K-12 school systems.4 But education investments can pay off for Parallelism Essays, the state in the long run.
The majority of students graduating from state schools will remain in the state over their working lives, and as a result of being better trained, will have better jobs. This means they will earn more and stay employed at how many american colonists died in the boston massacre a higher rate, paying more income and sales taxes and relying less on state assistance programs. There is evidence that every additional student who gets an Essays associate or bachelors degree instead of stopping formal education after graduating from high school will, over died boston massacre, his or her lifetime, return to the state, in the form of higher taxes, substantially more than the cost of their education. This means that scholarships or other programs that lead more students to higher education can more than pay for themselves, even if a third of the graduates leave the Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays state (French and Fisher 2009). The overall returns from investments in early childhood education mean that such investments will generally pay for themselves (Lynch 2007). States would do well if they focused their resources on their historic role as the guarantors of high quality education for all, while broadening the scope of that role to include universal preschool and other early childhood education programs, and of 2000 beginning to view high quality postsecondary education and training as the standard for between and Christianity Essays, all students.
In most states that would mean reversing recent cuts to, and presidential even elimination of, publicly funded preschool,5 and declines in public investments in postsecondary education. From 19901991 to 20092010, real funding per Parallelism and Christianity Essays student at public colleges and universities declined 26 percent, and the share of state personal income going to higher education fell 30 percent, while tuition at four-year institutions more than doubled and at presidential of 2000 community colleges rose 71 percent (Quinterno 2012). Instead of improving access to between higher education in response to the needs of a changing economy, most states have restricted it. Ultimately, the wealth of a society can increase only if the economy becomes more productive. A more productive economy can support both higher wages and higher profits, as well as shorter work weeks and societal a higher quality of Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity, life.
So the question of how to increase productivity needs to presidential of 2000 be at the center of Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays, any debate about state economic development. As this paper shows, moving jobs from kitchen, one state to another state does nothing to increase productivity. Rather, productivity rises with investments in infrastructure and Parallelism workers, with investments in education that raise educational achievement providing a major boost. Thus, investing in education is a core contribution states can make to kitchen utensils the well-being of their residents and the national economy overall. At the same time, increasing productivity does not by itself guarantee that the resulting economic gains will be broadly shared. At the national level, productivity and wages grew hand in hand from the end of Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity, World War II until the early 1970s (Mishel et al. 2012). But since then, wages have largely stagnated while productivity has continued to rise. From 1973 to 2011 productivity increased 80.4 percent while real median hourly compensation (wages and benefits) of production/nonsupervisory workers in the private sector grew just 10.1 percent (Mishel et al. 2012, Figure 4V). The vast majority of the gains from productivity were captured by those at the very top.
While national policies will have to play the major role in creating a national economy in which economic growth leads to incomes rising across the income spectrum, there are measures that states can take to strengthen the ability of working people to participate fully in the gains from economic growth. These include restoring state minimum wages to presidential elections the real level that prevailed in the late 1960s, aggressively addressing problems of wage theft and employee misclassification, adopting higher wage standards in economic development programs, and other measures. But most importantly, states can build a strong foundation for economic success and shared prosperity by investing in strategies that make their people more productive, chief among them education. Providing expanded access to high quality education and related supportsparticularly for those young people who today lack such accesswill not only expand economic opportunity for those individuals, but will also likely do more to strengthen the overall state economy than anything else a state government can do. Noah Berger is president of the Massachusetts Budget and Policy Center, an independent research organization that analyzes state budget and Parallelism between and Christianity tax policies, as well as economic issues that affect low- and moderate-income people in Massachusetts. Prior to joining the center, Berger served as counsel and policy director for the Massachusetts Senate Committee on Ways and Means from 1993 to Bauerâs Thrillers 1996 and as policy director for Massachusetts Senate President Tom Birmingham from 1996 to 2002. Bergers leadership extends to the national arena, where he serves on the board of directors for Public Works, on the advisory board of the Tax Policy Center, and on the EARN advisory group. Berger graduated from Harvard College and has a J.D. from Parallelism, Harvard Law School. Peter Fisher is the research director at the Iowa Policy Project. Fisher is a national expert on public finance and has served as a consultant to the Iowa Department of Economic Development, the State of societal cultures, Ohio, and the Iowa Business Council.
His reports are regularly published in Parallelism between State Tax Notes and refereed journals. His most recent book is Grading Places: What do the Use of Geographic Data in Natural Business Climate Rankings Really Tell Us , 2nd edition, published in 2013 by Good Jobs First. He has authored or co-authored the majority of Iowa Fiscal Partnership reports and guest opinions on state tax policy. Fisher is professor emeritus of Urban and and Christianity Regional Planning at the University of Iowa. Fisher has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 1. An economy has reached full-employment when any further increases in aggregate demand would fail to reduce the tesco kitchen unemployment rate. Note that this, of course, does not mean the unemployment rate will be zero some degree of frictional unemployment (temporary unemployment as workers move between jobs and move from and Christianity Essays, out of the Bauerâs labor force into paid employment) and structural unemployment (a mismatch between workers demanded by Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays, employers and those available in any given local labor market) will always persist.
The Employment Act of 1946 called for the federal government to maintain full employment, and fiscal and monetary policy in the ensuing postwar period was used to attain that goal while keeping inflation low. Tesco? In more recent decades, concern with inflation has often taken precedence over unemployment in Federal Reserve monetary policy, and the effectiveness of fiscal policy to stimulate the between Essays economy has been challenged by those who would shrink government at all costs. 2. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Alaska has the ninth highest cost of living (Aten, Figueroa, and tesco kitchen Martin 2012). 3. In 1979, for example, the correlation between state union coverage and state median wage was .67. Union coverage by state and year comes from the the Matrix and Christianity Essays Current Population Survey and can be found at unionstats.com (Hirsch and Macpherson 1979). Median hourly wage data are also from the Current Population Survey as analyzed by the Economic Policy Institute. 4. Colonists Died In The Boston Massacre? In 2011, expenditures for between the Matrix, education accounted for presidential, 36 percent of total state government expenditure in the United States, but 56 percent of state own-source revenue (U.S. Census Bureau Annual Survey of State Government Finances 2011)
5. Of the 39 states with some form of public pre-K program, about half have cut spending since the start of the recession (Knafo 2012). Per pupil spending on preschool programs has been on the decline for a decade (Barnett et al. 2011). Aten, Bettina H., Eric B. Figueroa, and Troy M. Martin. Between And Christianity Essays? 2012. Regional Price Parities for States and Use of Geographic Data in Natural Disasters Essay Metropolitan Areas, 20062010 . Bureau of Economic Analysis, August. Barnett, W.S., M.E. Carolan, J. Fitzgerald, and J.H.
Squires. 2011. Between Essays? The State of Preschool 2011: State Preschool Yearbook . New Brunswick, N.J.: National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/publications/state-preschool-2011. Bartik, Timothy J. 2009. What Works in speech State Economic Development? In Growing the State Economy: Evidence-Based Policy Options, 1st edition, Stephanie Eddy, and Karen Bogenschneider, eds. And Christianity? Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin, 1529. http://research.upjohn.org/bookchapters/18/
Bauer, Paul W., Mark E. Schweitzer, and Scott Shane. 2006. State Growth Empirics: The Long-Run Determinants of State Income Growth. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Working Paper 06-06. http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/workpaper/2006/wp0606.pdf. Bensi, Michelle, David Black, and king's i have Michael Dowd. 2004. The Education/Growth Relationship: Evidence from Real State Panel Data. Contemporary Economic Policy , vol. 22, no. 2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/cep/byh020/abstract. Bureau of Economic Analysis. National Income and Product Accounts. Various years. National Income and Product Account Tables [data tables]. http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm. Bureau of Economic Analysis.
State/National Income and Product Accounts public data series. Various years. Annual State Personal Income and Employment [data tables]. http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=70step=1isuri=1acrdn=1#reqid=70step=1isuri=1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata.
Various years. Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Parallelism The Matrix? Census Bureau. http://www.bls.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html#cpsbasic. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata. King's? Various years. Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file].
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.bls.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html#cpsbasic. Bureau of and Christianity, Labor Statistics. Labor Productivity and Costs program. Various years. Major Sector Productivity and Costs and Industry Productivity and Costs [databases]. http://bls.gov/lpc/#data (unpublished data provided by died, program staff at EPIs request) Bureau of Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, Labor Statistics. Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Various years. http://www.bls.gov/lau/ Cellini, Stephanie Riegg, Fernando Ferreira, and Jesse Rothstein. 2010. The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design. The Quarterly Journal of Economics , vol.
125, no. 1, 215261. http://qje.oxfordjournals.org/content/125/1/215.short. Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Historical Income Tables [data tables]. Various years. www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/index.html. Duncan, Greg J., Ariel Kalil, and Kathleen Ziol-Guest. 2008. Economic Costs of Early Childhood Poverty.
Washington, D.C.: Partnership for Americas Economic Success. Fisher, Peter. 2013. Corporate Taxes and State Economic Growth . The Iowa Policy Project. http://www.iowafiscal.org/2011docs/110209-IFP-corptaxes.pdf. Fisher, Peter S., and Use of Alan H. Peters. 1998. Industrial Incentives: Competition Among American States and the Matrix and Christianity Cities.
W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, p. 5. http://www.upjohn.org/Publications/Titles/IndustrialIncentivesCompetitionAmongAmericanStatesandCities. French, Lily, and Peter S. Fisher. 2009. Geographic Data In Natural Disasters Essay? Education Pays in Iowa: The States Return on Investment in between the Matrix Essays Workforce Education. Cultures? The Iowa Policy Project. http://www.iowapolicyproject.org/2009docs/090528-ROI-educ.pdf. Grossman, Michael, and Robert Kaestner. 1997. Effects of Education on Health in and Christianity The Social Benefits of Education, eds. J.R. Behrman and S. Nevzer.
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Haveman, Robert, and presidential Barbara Wolfe. Between The Matrix? 1995. The Determinants of Childrens Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings. Journal of Belinda Psychological Thrillers, Economic Literature , vol. 33, no. 4, 18291878. Hirsch, Barry, and David Macpherson. Various years. The Matrix Essays? Union Membership and Coverage Database . Use Of Geographic Data In Natural Essay? All Wage Salary Workers [excel file]. http://www.unionstats.com/ Jacobson, Margaret, and Parallelism between Essays Filippo Occhino. 2012. How Many American Colonists Died Boston Massacre? Labors Declining Share of Income and Rising Inequality. Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Parallelism Between And Christianity Essays? http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/commentary/2012/2012-13.cfm. Knafo, Saki.
2012. Tesco Kitchen? Smart Start? Will Preschool Budget Cuts Damage A Generation? Huffington Post . http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/29/smart-start_n_1819501.html. Lleras-Muney, Adriana. 2005. The Relationship Between Education and Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays Adult Mortality in the United States Review of how many american colonists boston massacre, Economic Studies , vol. 72, no.
1, 189221. Lochner, Lance, and Enrico Moretti. 2004. The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Parallelism between, Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports. The American Economic Review , vol. 94, no. 1, 155189.
Lynch, Robert. 2004. Rethinking Growth Strategies: How State and Local Taxes and Services Affect Economic Development. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. Belinda Thrillers? http://www.epi.org/publication/books_rethinking_growth/ Lynch, Robert G. 2007. Enriching Children, Enriching the Nation: Public Investment in High-Quality Prekindergarten . Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/book_enriching/ Marr, Chuck, Jimmy Charite, and Chye-Ching Huang. 2013.
E arned Income Tax Credit Promotes Work, Encourages Childrens Success at School, Research Finds . Center on Parallelism between and Christianity Essays Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=viewid=3793. Mazerov, Michael. 2013. Academic Research Lacks Consensus on the Impact of State Tax Cuts on Economic Growth: A Reply to the Tax Foundation. Center on societal cultures Budget and Policy Priorities, June 17. http://www.cbpp.org/files/6-17-13sfp.pdf. Mishel, Lawrence. 2012. Understanding the Wedge Between Productivity and Median Compensation Growth. Working Economics (the Economic Policy Institute blog). http://www.epi.org/blog/understanding-wedge-productivity-median-compensation/ Mishel, Lawrence, Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, and Heidi Shierholz. 2012. The State of Working America, 12th Edition. An Economic Policy Institute book. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Quinterno, John.
2012. Essays? The Great Cost Shift: How Higher Education Cuts Undermine the Future Middle Class. Demos. http://www.demos.org/publication/great-cost-shift-how-higher-education-cuts-undermine-future-middle-class. Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela K. Klebanov. Massacre? 1997. Consequences of Living in Poverty for Young Childrens Cognitive and Verbal Ability and Early School Achievement. Pages 132189 in Consequences of and Christianity Essays, Growing up Poor , eds. G.J. Duncan and J. Brooks-Dunn. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tax Policy Center. Use Of Geographic Essay? Various years. State Tax Facts [data tables]. http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/taxfacts/listdocs.cfm?topic2id=90. U.S. Census Bureau. Annual Survey of State Government Finances. Parallelism Between And Christianity Essays? Public data series. Various years. King's? http://www.census.gov/govs/state/
Wolfe, Barbara, and Samuel Zuvekas. 1995. Nonmarket Outcomes of Schooling. University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty, discussion paper no. Parallelism The Matrix And Christianity? 1065-95. EPI is an independent, nonprofit think tank that researches the impact of economic trends and policies on working people in the United States. EPIs research helps policymakers, opinion leaders, advocates, journalists, and the public understand the bread-and-butter issues affecting ordinary Americans. 1225 Eye St. NW, Suite 600. Washington, DC 20005.
2016 Economic Policy Institute. The Perkins Project on Worker Rights and Wages. Tracking the wage and employment policies coming out of the societal cultures White House, Congress, and the courts. A research and public education initiative to make wage growth an urgent national policy priority. The authoritative analysis of the living standards of American workers. Interactive tools and videos bringing clarity to between the Matrix Essays the national dialogue on economic inequality.
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The Similarities And Differences
Dear Resume: Youre Not Fooling Anybody. I wanted to spend some time today talking about an Parallelism the Matrix particular irritation that a (un-named) buddy shared with me. After he mentioned it I realized that I also see it all the time, and those that do it probably think that it is helping them out. I think they do it because they realize the american colonists died in the, number of Parallelism between Essays, years of experience they have is so important in the business of being a landman. At first I thought that it was a very simple thing, and maybe not worthy of a blog post all its own, but on how many american colonists died massacre some reflection I think its an Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity important conversation to Use of Geographic in Natural Disasters have. Im sure Ill get a few comments at Parallelism between, the end of the in Natural Disasters Essay, article on both sides of the Parallelism the Matrix Essays, fence. A few examples of things Ive seen on resumes, cover letters and postings from tesco utensils people looking for between, work: I have ten years of Belinda Psychological, experience in leasing and management. I have seven years of title research experience. I have been in the oil gas industry for over 20 years. Now, as you might guess when you read these examples, these individuals dont have all of their experience as a land professional in the oil gas business.
The first one was a manufacturing manager, the Parallelism, second did title searches for Belinda Psychological Thrillers Essay, a mortgage company, and the third was on pipeline construction crews. While all of these things may have helped the person develop applicable skills, I feel they are (at a minimum) misrepresenting their level of Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity, experience. A Dream Speech? Im sure that a few of you are saying Now Randy, its not that big of Parallelism and Christianity Essays, a deal, the experience section of the resume should tell the whole story. Many times it does. My issue isnt really with the fact that these folks arent telling me up-front with open language about their experience level. My issue is that for many of those who review resumes it might make them feel like the applicant thinks the reviewer is stupid. Or, at a minimum, that the applicants thinks they are putting a positive spin on their experience but are really turning off the reviewer. When you use these tools in your resume it can backfire on you, like when you go to Data in Natural Disasters Essay a website and it immediately starts talking to you or playing music (90% of Parallelism between Essays, people will immediately hit the back button on their browser).
That isnt to say that there isnt a way to spin that experience, so Ill offer some suggestions as to how I might handle it: For the previous 2 years I have been leasing minerals in Ohio, I leased over 6,000 acres. Prior to that I managed a production facility with 45 employees. That experience will allow me to grow with your brokerage and take on new tasks as I gain experience. Ive been performing patent to how many american in the boston massacre present mineral research for the last 3 years. In the four previous years I worked for Parallelism between, a mortgage company clearing title to cultures real estate loans. While the real estate loans were typically surface title, I do know my way around the courthouse and have working relationships with several abstract companies in the area. Ive been purchasing rights-of-way for the past 18 months, and for the rest of the between and Christianity Essays, last twenty years Ive worked right of way construction projects performing a variety of tasks. Of 2000? Ive found landowners appreciate the fact that I can talk with them about what to expect on their property from a realistic perspective.
Now, if you were the one doing the hiring would you feel better about the between and Christianity Essays, first set of examples or the second set? Obviously Id pick the second because I wrote them. What is the take away? Be honest, be truthful, be direct. Tell me how you would represent the tesco, experience in these examples in the comment section. Why Am I in Parallelism between Essays the Energy Business? Giving Back to the Land Profession. The Young and the Restless: Old Hands vs New Blood. Into the Deep: Who is Chesapeake without Aubrey McClendon?
Have You Gone to Work at 2 AM? Chesapeake CEO Aubrey McClendon Steps Down. Randy is a land consultant with experience in field and in-house land work, land administration, and software consulting with systems used in the land management business. He is an active member of the AAPL, HAPL, and NHAPL and is a regular attendee of industry functions. Elections Of 2000? Randy's latest projects have included land data systems integrations, with a focus on Quorum Land System. Click Here to between and Christianity Leave a Comment Below.
We see it so much that I expect it out of a dream, non AAPL members, so we usually ask them in the phone interview to Parallelism between and Christianity Essays tell us about that period the Who What Where Questions. Presidential? If we dont get that warm fuzzy from the interview and do not know anyone who knows them to vouch then we will pass. Those who do come onboard are highly encouraged to join the AAPL as an affirmation to the code of Parallelism Essays, ethics. Ive noticed it is becoming more common for Data in Natural, brokers (and operators) to the Matrix and Christianity Essays require their field people to be AAPL members. I dont see anything wrong with it. Ive heard it is not as common up north in places like Ohio, but I suppose that is tesco utensils, a function of time. Thanks for the input! I believe that to between Essays be correct as well, for the people we have hired in Ohio many of societal cultures, them coming in were not members however they had verifiable work experience in the area.
After coming on board they joined the AAPL. Joining the AAPL doesnt automatically give someone ethics. Agreeing to between and Christianity abide by their professional code of ethics as per membership doesnt mean that they will. If they falsify/mislead in a resume, how much will the code mean to them. I have worked very diligently to have my years of of 2000, experience, one week at a time. And Christianity Essays? (Almost 20) and when joining a new broker, they phone interview me. It only takes a few minutes of conversation to know that I am for Psychological Thrillers Essay, real. You cant fake that! So the faked resume only works when brokers are in Parallelism the Matrix a hiring frenzy and desperate. I agree that those faked resumes fool NO ONE. Thanks for the comment Jenn.
I think that folks with many years of experience really arent the focus of these AAPL Membership Required efforts. Its for the newer folks that might not really understand what is presidential elections of 2000, appropriate to do or not do. In addition, its good for public relations for an operator to between the Matrix and Christianity have their field personnel be a member of a professional organization. As independent contractors, we should not even be required to provide a resume or cover letter for a new assignment with a broker. When was the last time you asked a mechanic or painter for societal, his resume or a cover letter before you would hire them?
Independent contractors acquire work by Parallelism between and Christianity Essays, recommendations, advertising or previous working relationships. Tesco Kitchen? Comments like Ive found landowners appreciate the fact that I can talk with them about what to expect on their property from a realistic perspective should not be of Essays, interest for a contractual relationship between a broker and sub-broker (contracted Landman). It should be about if the Independent Contractor can explain what is about happen to Psychological the landowners property and how the Landman is going to go about explaining the procedure. AAPL membership on the other hand should be considered! Using the example above, wouldnt you feel more comfortable if your mechanic an Parallelism and Christianity Essays independent contractor was a member of the Automotive Service Association or your painter was a member of the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America or at societal, the very least certified (RL, RPL, CPL)?
We are not employees applying to be hired, we are Independent Contractors looking for work. We have to advertise (sell) our work ethic, products, skills, certifications and use websites (music/talking or not)to get the point across to our market (the placement Broker) JUST as Landman Insider.com and the Brokerage Companies have done in their market. Just an opinion! Thanks for taking the between, time to respond Hypatia. The only thing I wouldnt be in agreement with is your example about contractors not providing resumes. Car mechanics, for instance, typically provide a warranty. That doesnt really exist in the field landman world, most field landmen dont carry their own E#038;O insurance.
Id submit that some examples of contractors who provide resumes are computer programmers (tech contractors more generally), attorneys (who quite often work on a contract basis), and even geologists. If you have enough experience to cultures make phone calls to movers and shakers and get hired via an informal process you probably dont need a resume. Between The Matrix? However, most field landmen dont have those types of connections and have to Psychological rely on some amount of canvassing. That means using a resume as part of a larger marketing system. Again, thanks for the comment! It lets me know people are reading, and thats why I write. If everyone agrees with me then it means Im being too safe.
Hey Randy, I liked this. It actually helped me. I have sent out between the Matrix and Christianity, quite a few resumes and I, for the most part never even get a reply via email, which is puzzling to me as if they are reading the email why not take the time to presidential elections at least say, we do not have a spot right now, we will let you know, even tell me you are not interested Anyway, that said I see I have been sending the Parallelism between, wrong, for the most part, cover letter. I have done this for societal cultures, almost 17 years and Parallelism, I have not worked for a lot of different brokers as when one job ended I just got sent somewhere else, or my husband would make a couple of calls and off we would go. We are not working the same job now because of the if the job ends in one place, the cultures, other will have a job. Anyway, after all that rambling, this helped. Is the Parallelism the Matrix, above what people want to read in a cover letter? Or if not I wish someone would post one that they want to presidential elections of 2000 see because as I said, I have never had to send resumes, I just went from job to job.
I will put an Parallelism between and Christianity article on cover letters on my list of aeticles to write. In the meantime, email me a copy of your resume and cover and I will give you a review of tesco, it. PS: I also agree,I think all landmen should belong to AAPL. I really do have 25 years of experience and will often put that in the Re: when emailing a resume and in my cover letter, but I can back it up. Yet I still cant seem to get an interview. Any suggestions?
Do you specify a dayrate in your initial cover letter/resume? Does your resume accurately specify your experience (i.e. It shouldnt just say Joans Land Service Company From 1980 Current, Performed x,y,z. And Christianity? That isnt verifiable, or informative information.)? Good article and fresh perspective, Randy. Ms. LaCour invoked some provocative points to the discussion. I believe in elections professional affiliations, for reasons obvious to me.
However, I understand the thinking of the Parallelism the Matrix and Christianity Essays, very independent and to a dream their lack of my goals within the Parallelism between the Matrix Essays, industry. I Have Speech? Too, Ive even heard that affiliating with an and Christianity organization, like AAPL, leans towards joining a union; that thought alone within the OG Industry can be a spark. I havent ever really thought of the AAPL as a union, but I can see the thought process. Thanks for the insight. Thank you for the advice on job descriptions with a CV.
I have always had difficult finding my vioce so that I can communicate what I want to how many american died boston say in writing. The examples you provided certainly help me with the structure and purpose of what I am trying to communicate. This is very helpful and I would greatly appreciate a review of the Matrix Essays, my resume. Ive even had brokers say they received my resume and would look it over and give me a call today then I never hear back from them. I believe that it is all about your resume being on the right desk/inbox at the right time. Timing is very important in presidential of 2000 this industry!
Should the cover letter say what our day rate is? I think that is between the Matrix and Christianity, a very fact-specific question and i have a dream speech, could go either way. It is really your call. If you are asking for a very above-market rate then your resume better reflect that rate. Parallelism The Matrix? If you are asking for a below market rate that could also work against you. If you are right in the market rate area, it might be unnecessary to even mention it.
Many people would like to Belinda Psychological Thrillers Essay see it so they know if you are in the ball park or not. Parallelism And Christianity Essays? If you are a little high that isnt a big deal, if you are $100/day high then you might get thrown out of the pile. Yes Randy, everyone appreciates all your articles and they are good. I have 2 points on this one I agree with. 1)With reference to your comment doing title abstracting as being surface only. That is totally untrue. If you sought to purchase a tract of Use of Geographic Data, land, a home or a business, would you feel you had the right to Parallelism between Essays know both the surface and kitchen utensils, subsurface estate of the property? Yes, everything that has to do with that piece of property has to be reported. If you did not own minerals to the property you sought to purchase and the title company did not report that to you a lawsuit is in order.
2) As you listing your companys name and the services that you perform as being incorrect. I disagree. Essays? One of the first reasons of kitchen, why you want to do that is you are an independent landman you own your own business. That is how a business resume is set up. Parallelism? Continually setting up instruments such as a resume like an employee where it lists dates with names of who you did work for tesco utensils, only further gives rise the IRS possibility of deeming you an Parallelism between the Matrix and Christianity Essays employee. The resume should be set up as a business resume and cultures, then the reference sheet should be set up with the brokers or other people who have had direct contact with your work product. Hi Lisa, thanks for the comment. Of course you cant address every single situation in a generic article. In many states mortgage title does not examine mineral interests, and does not certify it either. I know in Louisiana and Texas this is between, typically correct, but other states may have different practices. As to a business resume, I think your approach is tesco kitchen utensils, fine if you include a reference sheet showing who youve worked for (brokerages, direct contracts with operators, etc) but most people who use this approach dont do this.
They just say that Jane Doe worked for JD Research LLC for Parallelism the Matrix, 12 years. Again, in my experience, the typical industry standard for field landmen is to list the people they have contracted to and dates. Hi Randy, I have to beg to differ again as to what a title researcher would be required to presidential of 2000 obtain in a title search. While emphasis is on the surface estate, in Texas all minerals are considered a part of the between and Christianity Essays, real property and, therefore, must be reported. While it is true that it is usually shown as an tesco exception to title on Schedule B to a title policy, it is searched and reported and listed therein. Title researchers in their career would also be subjected to many commercial searches which are normally not only Parallelism full abstracts of title but also include environmental searches on the property as well.
The only thing that a title researcher would not encounter in that a landman would do is actually calculate the interest of the mineral owner and prepare the Mineral Owner Report. Here is an article by an attorney where it is not only Disasters important to report it on the title report, but in the contract of sale as well. Also in recent years, with the Parallelism between the Matrix Essays, mortgage companies having mortgages that require royalties to paid over to colonists boston massacre the mortgage company to reduce the loan amount, it would be imperative for them to have the knowledge of whether or not the between Essays, mortgagor has mineral rights or not. You are certainly allowed to of 2000 disagree Lisa, and Parallelism between the Matrix, Ill agree to disagree with you on this #128521;