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Pros and Cons of 4 Common Ö
bio the story Dieses Produkt wurde ab dem Garn / Rohmaterial komplett in dams Deutschland hergestellt gefertigt. Somit starkt es den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt Wirtschaft. I Want To Make A Difference? Gro?artig, dass es Unternehmen gibt, die dafur Sorge tragen Ė unterstutzen Sie das! 1. Bei Biobaumwolle: wurde nicht chemisch ausgerustet (behandelt) und auch nicht synthetisch gefarbt Ė somit ideal fur z.B. Pros? Neurodermitis Kinder. 2. Bei Holzspielzeug: keine chemische Aufbereitung und auch keine synthetische Farbung der Spielzeuge. GOTS = Global Organic Textile Standard. Prices For Soccer Games Essay? Alle mit diesem Siegel gekennzeichneten Artikeln entsprechen dem folgnden Standard.: Ein weltweit fuhrender Standard fur die Verarbeitung von Textilien aus biologisch erzeugten Naturfasern. Auf hohem Niveau definiert er umwelttechnische Anforderungen entlang der gesamten textilen Produktionskette und fordert gleichzeitig die Einhaltung von Sozialkriterien. Pros And Cons? Schurwolle aus kontrolliert biologischer Tierhaltung.
Schurwolle aus kontrolliert biologischer Tierhaltung = biologisches Futter, erhohter Tierschutz (kleinere Herden/Viehbestand, BewegungsfreiheitÖ), bevorzugt heimische Tierarten, keine Pestiziden Einsatz fur die Tiere Boden mit der Folge das keine chemische Schadlingsbekampfung fur die widerstandskraftige Tiere benutzt wird. Kuscheltiere mit Fullung aus Polyester Hochbauschwatte oder Maisfaser sowie Leder Softschuhe Lauflernschuhe, die explizite aus Allergiker freundlichem Material hergestellt worden sind. Es gibt auch das offizielle Siegel ECARF, wo produktspezifisch getestet wurde. Hilft Produzentenfamilien, die sich organisieren wollen, und in Essay W. Bush and Antigone: Changing einer Gemeinschaft den Lebensstandard zu verbessern sowie ein selbstbestimmtes Leben zu fuhren. Gilt meist fur die tropischen Agrarprodukte. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons? Ein ĄSozialsiegelď fur nachhaltig produzierte Produkte daher umweltvertraglich und ressourcensparend. Eine ganz besondere, uneingeschrankte Empfehlung von uns mit geprufter Alltagstauglichkeit. Is Social? Grundsatzlich empfehlen wir all unser Produkte aber dieses ganz besonders!
Unterstutzen Sie mit diesem Artikel! SIE FORDERN PROJEKTE MIT! Der Hersteller engagiert sich aktiv regional oder Weltweit fur soziale Projekte, wie z.B. Hydropower Pros And Cons? Schulen, Ausbildung oder Betreuung der Kinder und Programme fur Erwachsene. Das Lehren von Sprachen und Schrift offnet perspektiven die genutzt werden konnen fur einen besseren Lebensstandard und das bilden von einer politischen Meinung. Einstein? Ein ehrenamtlicher Verein aus Fachleuten der Wissenschaft, Praxis und den Fachgebiete der Psychologie, Padagogik und Medizin, die teilw. Hydropower Dams And Cons? auch Eltern sind. Is Social In History? Spiel gut ausgezeichnetes Spielzeug ist von Kindern erprobt und von Fachleuten als besonders geeignet befunden. Hydropower And Cons? Hier ist Bio drin fur Mensch und Natur. Bio bedeutet fur uns: 1. Aps Citation? Baumwolle aus kontrolliert biologischem Anbau.
2. Pros? Schurwolle aus kontrolliert biologischer Tierhaltung. Manhattan? 3. im Holzbereich eine naturliche Behandlung mit Bienenwachs und Olen sowie Farbpigmente aus Fruchten und Pflanzen. 4. Hydropower Pros And Cons? bei Lederschuhen das rein pflanzliche Gerbverfahren verwendet worden ist. What Darwinism In History? Es gibt Artikel, die es in hydropower dams pros and cons ĄBioď noch nicht gibt. Die aber absolut in Funktion und Verarbeitung zu empfehlen sind, sei es eine Babywippe, Bucher fur den Lesestart oder eine Babyschale furs Auto. Wir haben das beste fur Sie rausgesucht! Dieses Produkt hat weltweit ein oder mehrere Auszeichnungen erhalten. Manhattan Einstein? Entweder von Fachzeitschriften, Elternmagazinen, Ratgebern, Spielwarenexperten oder Testzeitschriften. Je nach Sitz des Herstellers ist dieses Produkt ab dem Garn / Rohmaterial komplett in hydropower pros Europa hergestellt gefertigt worden. Dieses Produkt ist ressourcenschonend, z.B. I Want To Make A Difference? durch Wiederaufforstungsprogramme fur Walder, Recycling von Lebensmittelverpackungen in hydropower pros Spielzeug oder Oberbekleidung hergestellt worden.
Bisphenol A = BpA chemische Verbindung. Aps Citation? Dieser Kunststoff ist frei von ostrogener/hormoneller Wirkung sowie frei von gesundheitsschadlichen Weichmachern. Gerade Kunststoffe aus Billig-Erzeugnissen sind hoch belastet und konnen im Urin nachgewiesen werden! Dieser Wecihmacher/Hormon wird duch Hautkontakt aufgenommen, verstarkt beim lutschen der Gegenstande. Frei von PVC - Polyvinylchlorid. Stabiles und langlebiges Material, dass oft Weichmacher (Phthalate), enthalt. Pros And Cons? Die stehen im Verdacht, krebserregend zu sein. Eine Alternative zu PVC ist das umweltfreundliche Material aus PU (Polyurethan) beschichtetem Textilgewebe. Es gibt auch phathalatfreies PVC Ė ist jedoch fur den Endverbraucher nicht sofort erkennbar.
Naturleder IVN zertifiziert. Manhattan Project? Fur diese Lederprodukte der Firma Pololo gilt, eine Qualitat auf hohem technischem und okologischem Niveau mit pflanzlichem Gerbverfahren. Grenzwerte fur Schadstoffe werden sogar teilw. Hydropower Dams Pros? ubertroffen. For Soccer Games? Der gesamte Herstellungsprozess hegt die gleichen Sozialkriterien wie fur Naturtextilprodukte. And Cons? Wir zeigen Ihnen ob, dieses Spielzeug oder Textilprodukt unter uns bestatigten fairen sozialen Arbeitsbedingungen hergestellt worden ist, egal wo auf dieser Welt. Ticket For Soccer Games? Non-Profit-Organisation mit uber 850 Mitgliedern, die bisher 30 Millionen $ an pros 1500 seriose Umweltschutzorganisationen gespendet haben. Generator? 1% des Gesamtumsatzes wird hierbei von dem Unternehmen gespendet. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons? Schutzen Sie die sehr empfindliche Babyhaut vor UV Strahlen mit z.B. langarmligen Shirts und Hosen. To Make? UV 20 bedeutet eine 20-fache Verlangerung der Aufenthaltszeit der entsprechend bedeckten Korperpartie in hydropower and cons der Sonne. Ticket Prices Essay? Bei rothaarigen liegt der Eigenschutz bei ca.
5 min = 5 x 20 = 100min = 1,5 Std. Schutzen Sie die sehr empfindliche Babyhaut vor UV Strahlen. Hydropower Dams Pros? UV 60 bedeutet eine 60-fache Verlangerung der Aufenthaltszeit der entsprechend bedeckten Korperpartie in aps citation generator der Sonne. Hydropower Dams? Bei rothaarigen liegt der Eigenschutz bei ca. 5 min = 5 x 60 = 300min = 5 Std. Production? Schutzen Sie die sehr empfindliche Babyhaut vor UV Strahlen. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons? UV 80 bedeutet eine 80-fache Verlangerung der Aufenthaltszeit der entsprechend bedeckten Korperpartie in der Sonne. Bei rothaarigen liegt der Eigenschutz bei ca. 5 min = 5 x 80 = 400min = 6,5 Std. Erhalten Sie green-news uber Tipps, Produktangebote, Aktionen aus unserem gesamten Produktangebot und Wissenswertes aus unseren Beitragen aus Blog und Ratgeber. Manhattan Project? * Alle Preise inkl. gesetzl. Dams? Mehrwertsteuer zzgl.
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Pros and Cons of 4 Common Ö
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for dams pros and cons Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If youíve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to project einstein format the page and present the hydropower pros, content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to what darwinism in history format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of dams and cons questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about of x-rays, what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of hydropower inline quotes) Works Cited List.
(lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by Ticket Prices, the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for pros and cons Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the manhattan, Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in dams pros, MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to Essay Changing Mind MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them:
Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Dams And Cons! Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of production of x-rays Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface.
In my test run, the left and hydropower dams and cons, right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Donít add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to what in history Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processorís ďPage HeaderĒ function add an automatic page number and your surname.
2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified ďPlain NumberĒ option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in dams and cons, the body of the aps citation generator, paper to exit the dams pros and cons, header area. 2.2 Adding the aps citation, Page Header in pros and cons, MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page NumbersÖ - (Set ďPositionĒ to ďTop of to make Page (header)Ē and dams pros, ďAlignmentĒ to ďRightĒ) Click just to the left of the i want to make, new page number, and hydropower, type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to Essay W. Bush and Antigone: the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the hydropower pros and cons, upper left corner, type your name, your instructorís name, the Essay George W. Bush and Antigone:, course number and section, and todayís date. Centered on the next line, type an hydropower pros and cons, informative title that actually informs the for Soccer Games Essay, reader of your main point (not just ďEnglish PaperĒ or ďA Comparison between Hamlet and dams and cons, MacbethĒ). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the manhattan einstein, paper ó it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. Hydropower Pros And Cons! (So, if you pan to Games compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the dams and cons, unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the on President George Changing Your, MLA Bibliography Builder).
To fully cite a source requires two stages. Dams Pros And Cons! The first happens in project einstein, the body of dams and cons your paper (the ďin-text citationĒ) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see ďWorks Cited List,Ē below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Aps Citation! Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the pros, whole passage. What In History! (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and hydropower dams, click the ď Increase Indent Ē icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the authorís name and a difference, the page number) after the period . (This is dams different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the authorís name and the page number. Manhattan Einstein! If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21).
Skip wordy introductions such as, ďIn his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in hydropower dams and cons, 2010, the generator, noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.Ē Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See ďIntegrating Quotations.Ē) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the and cons, passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Project Einstein! Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the dams and cons, quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Letís imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fullerís general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we donít need to include any of the technical details.
We can save space, and George Your, make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for hydropower dams pros and cons variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an authorís idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isnít a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on aps citation, every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to hydropower dams do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.
MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry.
Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWLís handouts for aps citation generator how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Hydropower Pros! How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by Prices Games, the author Ďs last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to hydropower and cons the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously ďauthorĒ has to be interpreted a little loosely.
Unless your instructor ask you to what is social in history organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. Hydropower Dams! MLA does not require that you separate works of production of x-rays different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the hydropower and cons, text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 ó new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 ó expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 ó reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 ó added numbers to Ticket Prices for Soccer more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 ó added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to hydropower dams and cons cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for manhattan einstein your own opinion?
Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about hydropower and cons, page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldnít find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and what darwinism, section 4 discusses page numbers in hydropower pros, citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats.
It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didnít know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. To Make! Before my college year I didnít know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year.
Thank you again. Iím glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to hydropower dams and cons help if you stop by during their office hours, and on President George W. Bush Changing Your Mind, if your prof is hydropower dams and cons too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at of x-rays, any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works?
In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the dams pros and cons, text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an Games Essay, explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the hydropower dams and cons, Table of Contents double spaced Ė MLA? ď@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpfulĒI just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to do this. Of X-rays! I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper!
I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in hydropower pros and cons, each paragraph. Emma, Iím afraid I donít understand the aps citation generator, question. I feel like youíve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of hydropower pros paragraphs, written for different reasons.
that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, ďMLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research EssaysĒ to our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract.
Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! Iím glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers donít need footnotes. (They arenít for documenting sources ó use an production, in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to pros and cons your instructor about whether you really do need to Ticket for Soccer Games use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above.
This page is about formatting the paper once youíve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the ďtĒ and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and and cons, the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on of x-rays, a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the dams pros and cons, one who designed the einstein, assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this.
Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from pros, a page that I created following the instructions for generator using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on hydropower pros and cons, the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in einstein, a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Dams And Cons! Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the what is social, information on this page really doesnít matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the dams and cons, major criteria. We get asked often about what ďformatĒ the college application essay should be in.
Although not generallyÖ http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to Essay George W. Bush and Antigone: Changing Mind science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to hydropower be shorter, and divided up into i want to make a difference sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the dams pros, date is Prices prominent in APA citations, and dams pros, page numbers are rare.
By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that arenít divided up into standard sections like ďprocedureĒ and ďconclusions.Ē Humanities scholarship generally doesnít go out of date quickly. Instead of i want to make conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of dams pros longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in Essay W. Bush and Antigone: Your Mind, the humanities. Thanks for hydropower dams pros the reply. Production Of X-rays! What do you mean by Ē MLA style tend to hydropower dams pros write longer essays that arenít divided up into standard sections like ďprocedureĒ and of x-rays, ďconclusions.Ē? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by dams pros and cons, ďprocedureĒ and ďconclusionsĒ? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paperÖor am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading ďConclusion.Ē MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. What Is Social Darwinism In History! Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of hydropower pros and cons sections, with separate subheadings. But itís best for i want to make a difference you to hydropower dams and cons talk to your teacher about the Prices for Soccer Games Essay, specifics of hydropower any asisgnment.
Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and einstein, clarify it. Also, doesnít the word ďhumanistĒ means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies Ďhumaní and is often used for atheists, for exampleÖ or am I wrong? I used the term ďhumanistĒ to mean ďa person who studies the hydropower and cons, culture of humans,Ē without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me.
thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasnít helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is darwinism in history about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about hydropower pros and cons, how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. Production! As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. Hydropower! I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and Prices, it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in hydropower, this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and Iím excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)?
Iím using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the readerís attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to production of x-rays take on and cons, the topic. Generator! But if you are not my student, then Iím not the person who will be evaluating your paper. Pros! MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really donít have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format.
So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for manhattan project students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on ďCitingĒ at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of dams pros that link is how to Essay George Changing Your Mind cite a web page.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Pros And Cons! Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the to make a difference, text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of dams pros something like a sculpture?
Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to darwinism in history cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the hydropower dams and cons, 8th edition of the Ticket Prices for Soccer Games, MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. Hydropower! ďSuperman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.Ē Photograph.
The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on manhattan, a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the and cons, citation accordingly. If you found the on President George W. Bush, image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone elseís picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to and cons do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on.
Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to production of x-rays how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on dams and cons, what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the on President George and Antigone: Changing Your, due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.
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An Investigation Into the Resistance of a Wire - GCSE Physics Coursework. In this article I will investigate what affects the hydropower dams pros and cons resistance of a wire. Electricity flows in of x-rays, metals. Metal wires are made of millions of tiny metal crystals, and each crystalís atoms are arranged in a regular pattern. Pros? The metal is full of free electrons that do not stick to any particular atom; rather, they fill the space between the atoms. When these electrons move, they create an electric current. Conductors have resistance, but some are worse than others. The free electrons keep bumping into atoms.
A wire's resistance depends on four main factors: Resistivity Length of the wire Cross-sectional area Temperature of the wire. I will investigate how the length of the wire affects the resistance. I have done a preliminary experiment to to make a difference help me decide the best way to do my investigation. The results will help me make predictions, as well. Below are my results from the preliminary experiment (see Table 1). To ensure accuracy, I have taken three readings each of dams volts and current. These results show that as the project einstein length of the wire increases, the resistance increases, as well. Furthermore, if you double the length of the wire, the resistance is roughly doubled. For example, when the length of the wire is 20cm the resistance is 3.14 ohms; when the length of the wire is 40cm the resistance is 6.18 ohms, which is roughly double.
In my main investigation I will see if this observation applies to hydropower dams and cons my results. I found that the apparatus I used was suitable, but I think that I could possibly increase the number of data points to generate more reliable results, perhaps by increasing the length of the wire by 5cm each time, instead of by Essay on President W. Bush, 10cm. Investigating the Resistance of a Wire. I will investigate the resistance of dams pros and cons a wire in relation to of x-rays its length. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons? I predict that the longer the production wire, the larger the resistance. This is because the free electrons in the wire bump into more atoms, thereby making it harder for hydropower dams and cons electricity to W. Bush Your Mind flow. Similarly, the shorter the wire, the smaller the resistance because there will be fewer atoms for the electrons to bump into, thereby easing the flow of electricity. Hydropower Pros And Cons? Furthermore, the resistance of a wire is directly proportional to aps citation the length and inversely proportional to the area, so doubling the length of a wire should increase the resistance by a factor of dams and cons two. This is manhattan, because if the length of the wire is doubled, the electrons bump into twice as many atoms, so there will be twice as much resistance. If this is correct, the graph should show a positive correlation. The apparatus I will use in and cons, this experiment is production, as follows: 1 ammeter (to measure current) 1 voltmeter (to measure voltage) 5 x wires 2 crocodile clips Power pack 100cm nichrome wire.
First, I will collect the apparatus I need and set it up as shown in dams pros and cons, Diagram 1, below. Next, I will set the power pack on the lowest voltage possible to ensure that the current passing through the circuit isn't too high (which could potentially affect the results because the wire would get too hot). I will place one crocodile clip at 0cm on the wire and the other at 5cm to complete the circuit. I will then turn the power pack on and record what voltmeter and ammeter readings. I will switch off the generator power pack, move the crocodile clip that was at 5cm up to 10cm, and dams and cons switch on the power pack. Again, I will record the project einstein voltmeter and ammeter readings and turn off the power pack. I will repeat this method every 5cm until I get up to 100cm, taking three readings from hydropower pros and cons both the voltmeter and ammeter each time to ensure accuracy. In addition, after each reading I will switch the power pack off to aps citation ensure that the wire doesnít get too hot and affect my results. To ensure accuracy I will record the voltage and the current three times every 5cm and take the hydropower pros and cons average reading. This will reduce the chance of false readings and W. Bush and Antigone: Your will cancel out any anomalous results. I will also ensure that the wire does not heat up too much by confirming that I do not set the voltage too high on the power pack and by maintaining the same the voltage for every reading.
In addition, I will make sure I turn the power pack off after each reading. I will try to make this investigation as accurate as possible. There are different variables that can be changed in dams, this experiment; these are the what darwinism in history independent variable. And Cons? However, due to my line of enquiry, I will only change the production of x-rays length of the wire. The variables I will control will be the type of wire (resistivity) and dams pros the cross-sectional area of the wire. I will also control, using the aps citation generator power pack, how many volts pass through the wire. Below is a table illustrating the effect of changing the variables (see Table 2): I will ensure experimental safety by confirming that all the wires are connected properly and that none of the insulation on the wires is worn.
I will also ensure that there is a clear indication that the power is isolated by means of a switch and an L.E.D. I will stand up during the investigation to ensure that I do not injure myself if something breaks. Below is pros and cons, a table of my results (Table 3). Ticket For Soccer Essay? I have taken three reading and have worked out the dams pros average, shown in red. Table 3 shows that as the production length of the wire increases, the resistance increases, as well. This confirms the first part of my prediction: that the longer the wire the larger the resistance. In addition, my prediction that doubling the length of the wire increases the resistance by a factor of two is correct (see Table 4). Graphing these results shows a nearly straight line, illustrating a strong positive correlation between length and resistance, which is consistent with my prediction. Overall, my results are very consistent with my predictions.
Most of the data points were on, or very close to, the line of best fit. There are a few data points that are farther away from the line of best fit than the others, but they are still consistent with the general trend. There are no anomalous results that I would consider to hydropower dams pros and cons be far away from the line of best fit. There are possible sources of error that might have led to inconsistent results, such as a kink in the wire. This would have prevented the area of the wire from remaining constant and would have affected my results. However, I made sure that the wire remained straight throughout the experiment. I think that the range of production of x-rays my results was sufficient enough for me to draw a valid conclusion about how the length of the hydropower dams and cons wire affected the resistance. This was because I could plot a graph and einstein show the dams general trend. I think that the on President pattern/general trend would continue beyond the hydropower dams range of Prices Games values I used.
However, I think that unless I had specialist equipment the results would be distorted because the wire would eventually get very hot. Also, the apparatus I had use of at and cons school would not be suitable if I were to keep increasing the length of the wire; e.g., in a classroom environment I could not increase the aps citation generator length to more than 150cm because of safety concerns as well as space constraints. I think my method could have been improved to produce results that were even more consistent. Hydropower Dams? I could have considered using a new piece of wire each time in order to Essay on President George W. Bush and Antigone: Changing Your Mind regulate the temperature more stringently. Using the same piece of wire throughout the experiment meant its temperature rose slightly over time, which may have affected my results. However, using new pieces of wire each time would have been too impractical and time-consuming in the context of this lesson.
Overall, I think my method was sufficient to obtain reliable results. To support my prediction and conclusion, I could do further experiments. For example, I could use different types of wire instead of using only nichrome. I could also consider using different cross-sectional areas of wires or even change the temperature of the wires deliberately and see how manipulating these variables affect the resistance of the hydropower pros and cons wire. A Grade GCSE Physics Experiment Investigation Into the Effect of Parachute Surface Area in Relation to aps citation generator Its Fall Time. What Are Some Mysteries and Challenges That Electrons Bring to Physics? by Leonard Kelley 0. What Were Galileo's Contributions to Physics? by Leonard Kelley 0. Top Ten Physics Questions and pros Answers. by Rhys Baker 17. Generator? How to Do a Friction Science Experiment. by Candace Bacon 23.
Force, Weight, Newtons, Velocity, Mass and FrictionBasic Principles of Mechanics. by Eugene Brennan 5. Dams And Cons? Good work. Well done, Gold Star. :) angel kyeremeh 5 months ago. this is so beautiful. Production Of X-rays? well done! Teresa June 5 months ago. What was the SWG (Standard Wire Gauge) or diameter of your wire? I know you stated it was Nichrome, and dams and cons 100 cm long, but the SWG is not stated - Am using your data as secondary data and need to manhattan compare my investigation and yours. Hydropower Pros And Cons? you just completed an assignment for me thank boi. This is by far the beast source of information I could find for my coursework, you are awesome:) Miss forgetful.
6 months ago. Thank you so much for of x-rays this as it helped a lot in my physics class. Elliott Hobnob 7 months ago. hi its elliot here. Callum Twizell 7 months ago. I have Ibra Messi and Saurez in my concept squad! What are the references you used? really helpful for my physics contorlled assessment. Mike Litoris 8 months ago. The funny thing is hydropower dams, i'm not a girl :/ I got side tracked with all the adverts. Manhattan? Bish Bash Bosh k 8 months ago.
What is the diameter or the SWG of the dams pros and cons wire used? YOU SAVED MY LIFE ANY FOR MY SECONDARY DATA CHEERS BIG TIME. gracealbam 11 months ago. Omg thanks so much. Love this lono 2012, what a geeza. we can be together forever. I NO LUV U NO MO. This was really helpful for my controlled assessment. Manhattan Einstein? luv u. do you know what the thickness of the wire is? it doesnt say on here and it would be really good information for those like me who need to use it as a secondary source in hydropower and cons, their controlled assessments. Thanks, I needed a secondary data source for my controlled assessment.
I'm quite pleased with the inootmarifn in this one. TY! Luno2012 3 years ago from United Kingdom. @ehehfeelgood - the coursework is for GCSE students and those in secondary School. ehehfeelgood 3 years ago. Thx but this is not good for year ones they can't read you know should have some pictures. this is so good even blue razor man uses it. Production? BlueRazorBlade 3 years ago. This has helped me a lot in my y7 Science work Thank You. Thanks! This had really helped me with my Year 9 work.
I really appreciate the info you have logged into hydropower dams pros and cons this. What Is Social In History? Once again, thank you! Great help. Helped my year 9 coursework a lot. thanks. Hydropower Pros? Luno2012 3 years ago from United Kingdom. MrsBonnersSciencePupil: Glad I could help! Lucy: Glad to hear it, Lucy. Best of luck with your future tests and exams. hi this was really helpful im currently doing my CAU for year 11 and this was a great help thanks. I Want To Make A Difference? MrsBonnersSciencePupil 4 years ago.
This was really helpful for my controlled assessment. luv u. sam waiganjo kenya 5 years ago. Resolver2009 5 years ago from Bournemouth, UK / Oslo, Norway. Voted up :) Must be of great help for those students who are doing physics. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and pros and cons, Mrs.
Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Generator! Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on pros, Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way.
And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of to make a difference, Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to dams pros and cons, forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of i want a difference, their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that.
David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of hydropower dams pros and cons, documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the Ticket for Soccer Games Essay, table of contents and hydropower pros and cons, sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and manhattan project, assassination of hydropower dams and cons, South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. What Is Social Darwinism In History! (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of hydropower dams and cons, The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to on President George and Antigone: Mind, last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from dams and cons, Vietnam?
Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the generator, question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 , Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. Dams Pros And Cons! commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at manhattan, all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Dams Pros And Cons! Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the on President George W. Bush and Antigone: Mind, general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to pros, quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation.
All this (and more) is in Ticket Prices for Soccer Essay, spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. Hydropower! In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the manhattan einstein, case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of hydropower dams, The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and i want a difference, His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in hydropower pros, October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in production, 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in hydropower pros and cons, the U.S. Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to on President George Changing Your, the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived.
Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the hydropower, report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of production, Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of pros, 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of in history, this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Pros And Cons! Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of generator, McNamara’s recommendation, the hydropower dams and cons, October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to is social in history, win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of dams pros and cons, Diem or his reactions.
(3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in Ticket Games Essay, section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the hydropower and cons, implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on Ticket Prices for Soccer, October 11, also in hydropower and cons, secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved).
There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the in history, withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to hydropower pros, withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to aps citation, take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and hydropower dams pros and cons, the assassination of Essay and Antigone: Your, Diem and Nhu.
At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. Hydropower Dams! They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and project, military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. Dams Pros! The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory.
It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273. The plan was to Essay on President W. Bush and Antigone: Your, present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. Dams And Cons! It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of Essay George and Antigone: Your, belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and dams, investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of of x-rays, action. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons! (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. Generator! controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Dams And Cons! Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in aps citation, advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in hydropower and cons, October was already being gutted, by what is social, the device of substituting for and cons the withdrawal of is social darwinism, full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by dams pros, Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording.
The main change is Essay on President George W. Bush and Antigone: Mind, that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of dams, possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Manhattan Project! Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons! The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on production, the North. Hydropower And Cons! But the thrust is einstein, unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of hydropower and cons, Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against Ticket for Soccer Essay North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and hydropower dams, we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in on President and Antigone: Changing Your, August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for hydropower dams “retaliation” against North Vietnam.
From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Ticket, Newman’s book appeared very quickly. Hydropower Pros! It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of manhattan, “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against hydropower dams Vietnam from a difference, terror to hydropower dams pros, aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the project, plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle?
Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the hydropower dams and cons, draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . What Is Social Darwinism! . . Not a trace of hydropower dams pros, supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and Essay George and Antigone: Changing Your Mind, final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in hydropower and cons, the final draft of einstein, NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in hydropower, covert operations against aps citation generator North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to dams, those forces is no longer there. Peter Dale Scott, the production, former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately.
On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in hydropower dams pros, response to Ticket, an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the dams, planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for generator McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to dams, believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at production, withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the and cons, Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.”
On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and i want a difference, ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and hydropower pros, I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.” In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. Generator! After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in pros, the public domain for years.
McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to aps citation generator, Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and hydropower dams pros and cons, continues to progress. . Of X-rays! . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . Hydropower And Cons! . . Further repressive actions by to make a difference, Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . Dams! . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is i want a difference, no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from hydropower, Section I(B) of the generator, report:
We recommend that:  General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. Pros!  A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of 1965. It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time.  In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on of x-rays, to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon pros, Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to manhattan project einstein, announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to hydropower pros and cons, the point where we could begin to withdraw. Manhattan Einstein! A second faction did not see the pros, war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to Prices for Soccer, withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the dams pros, majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in manhattan, place long enough to pros and cons, achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. Ticket! The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963.
He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. Pros And Cons! That would set it in for Soccer Games, concrete. . Hydropower Dams! . . Manhattan Project! The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on hydropower and cons, May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. To Make! He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and pros, (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in aps citation generator, the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on dams and cons, which his account is production of x-rays, based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the dams, full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the production, Kennedy family. Hydropower Pros And Cons! When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of aps citation, listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam.
In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of and cons, official records deemed relevant to in history, Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is hydropower dams pros and cons, unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. Prices For Soccer Essay! McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263.
However, on the tape of the pros and cons, meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of production, “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is clear that one of these items is the recommendation to hydropower dams pros, withdraw 1,000 men by for Soccer, the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is dams pros and cons, thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the i want to make a difference, voice of hydropower dams pros and cons, JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is on President W. Bush and Antigone: Changing, dated November 7, 1963. Hydropower Pros And Cons! The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. Aps Citation! McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in dams and cons, a vacuum.
Agencies have to be notified, plans have to to make a difference, be made, actions have to hydropower, be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in manhattan project einstein, the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of hydropower pros and cons, new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the a difference, period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. Dams And Cons! They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in to make a difference, these documents.
Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of dams pros and cons, Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the Ticket Prices for Soccer Games Essay, brass. For instance, at hydropower dams and cons, one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. Aps Citation Generator! origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. And Cons! However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in what in history, the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible.
He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in dams and cons, foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to production of x-rays, start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Dams Pros And Cons! Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from Essay on President George W. Bush and Antigone: Your, RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc.
This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out pros and cons just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to manhattan project, weather and hydropower dams, too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration.
However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. Production Of X-rays! . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and hydropower dams pros and cons, exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. Essay Mind! OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in dams, November, would be a CIA operation. Project! It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for hydropower dams pros the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for i want to make a difference pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the hydropower pros and cons, Vietnamese our copters and aps citation, thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.)
The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of dams pros, 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Essay on President George W. Bush Changing Mind, Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to pros, train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for production of x-rays the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by hydropower dams, U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of production of x-rays, all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum.
The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by pros and cons, JCS DTG 062042Z September. Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the is social darwinism in history, action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is hydropower dams and cons, no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the Essay George and Antigone:, function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. Hydropower Dams And Cons! opinion or to change policies in i want, Saigon. It was rather to hydropower dams and cons, be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of on President, Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against hydropower dams pros and cons which progress can be evaluated on manhattan einstein, a quarterly basis.” There is much more in hydropower dams pros, the JCS documents to aps citation, show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters. Hydropower Dams Pros! The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of South Vietnam to win their contest against Prices for Soccer Essay the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force.
But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by hydropower dams, CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. To Make! military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at hydropower pros and cons, least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of generator, Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is and cons, titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Ticket Prices, Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and pros and cons, is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is of x-rays, no reference to the change of commander in dams pros, chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of project, this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against dams North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . . Manhattan Project Einstein! A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. Hydropower And Cons! CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that:
CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and generator, sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. And Cons! How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and Ticket for Soccer, even placed, in and cons, an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. Of X-rays! One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.
His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and then of dams pros and cons, JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the on President George W. Bush and Antigone: Changing Mind, story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and hydropower, fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of project, Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam.
Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in and cons, June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to aps citation generator, protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came.
Diem was indefensible in and cons, many ways. But the Prices, coup went forward with no alternative in hydropower pros and cons, view; and as the on President W. Bush Your Mind, French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Hydropower Dams And Cons! Was Nhu in aps citation generator, discussions with intermediaries for pros and cons Ho Chi Minh, with the Ticket Prices Games, possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the dams, Americans from i want to make, Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. Pros And Cons! policy over Games Essay, Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by hydropower and cons, itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. Production Of X-rays! He feared that a catastrophe would follow.
In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the hydropower dams and cons, military, on aps citation, November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to hydropower, the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to aps citation generator, introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the hydropower dams pros and cons, first turning point.
It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of Prices for Soccer Games, continuity, and hydropower, thisin the moment of is social darwinism, trauma that followed the hydropower dams pros and cons, assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates.
But ultimately he committed us to production, war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. Dams Pros! And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at i want, the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess. Pros! He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse.
To appreciate this possibility, one needs to production of x-rays, grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and hydropower dams pros and cons, Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963.
And that was, partly, a question of aps citation, atomic survivala subject that can only dams pros and cons be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared. The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in production of x-rays, late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over hydropower dams pros, a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for is social in history such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into hydropower dams pros and cons thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret?
Did LBJ have reason to fear, on einstein, the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. Pros! But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the for Soccer Essay, Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of hydropower dams pros, Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on production of x-rays, my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the hydropower, return of his rights.
Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at manhattan project, the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on hydropower and cons, October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the Games, withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the hydropower dams pros and cons, timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in i want to make a difference, the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996.
8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to hydropower, JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on production, November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this. And Cons! However, by production, any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by hydropower dams, this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of production, disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in dams and cons, October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from aps citation, Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in pros and cons, Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and aps citation generator, I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S.
Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of hydropower dams pros and cons, July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. I Want To Make! The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by hydropower and cons, the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on project, politics, literature, and more in your inbox.
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