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Mahasweta devi

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GCSE Food Technology Controlled Assessment. The controlled assessment makes up 60% of your overall grade so it is really important that you know what is mahasweta involved and take an interest in researching the products you are making and developing. Definition! You cannot work on your controlled assessment outside of lesson time, however you can research recipes and developments, existing products and ask others for their opinions on products you have made and might want to make for the project. This is how your work is assessed: The first stage is choosing an mahasweta appropriate design task. You should choose a top and brief that interests you and reactivity series definition that best suits the skills that you have developed. You should choose from the attached list of tasks: As a starting point you should then research the topic and mahasweta devi find out reactivity, about as much information and existing products as you can. A useful way to present this information is as a moodboard. This is only a starting point but will help you gather a wide range of information in one place as a starting point. Your work will be presented on A3 landscape so you need to take this into devi consideration when setting out your work.

2. Design Brief and reactivity Analysis of the Task. Mahasweta Devi! The design brief is the start of the GCSE coursework. You will be provided with a task by your teacher which has been selected from a list of Food Addiction tasks provided by AQA (the examination board). Your design brief should clearly state your intentions and what you hope to achieve. In order to gain top marks you are required to read the context, highlight the key words and write a summary where you analyse and list the key points. What ingredients could be suitable? Will the ingredients have a social/moral/cultural aspect related to them? e.g fairtrade, organic, food miles etc. Mahasweta Devi! Who is the target market? How could the ingredients be used/combined? What finishing techniques could I apply? What manufacturing processes could I use to manufacture my product?

What is the in the Public, products main purpose? i.e which meal/snack/tmg. What will its appearance, theme be? How big or small could it be? What will be the most appropriate shape/weight? Where will the devi, product be sold/consumed? Are there any suitable standard components you could use? 3. Specialist Research into the Design Brief.

4. Existing Product Research. This is a summary of current products available similar to the one you have chosen to develop as your final product. You will also need to carry out a detailed product dissassembly of louisa ellis a similar product before you begin your development section. 5. Social, Moral, Spiritual and Cultural Aspects of the Design Brief. 6. Customer Research Questionnaire.

A very important aspect of research work is a survey or questionnaire. Devi! This will show the Essay, examiner that you have produced individual research relating directly to your project. Devi! A questionnaire is usually composed of a series of questions that are put to what causes nervous a number of people. The results can be collected as a table of results and/or a graph or pictogram. Questionnaire#8217;s) can help you design your product because they may tell you what the market wants. –A number of possible options is given e.g. What’s your favourite vegetable? –This type restricts the answer to a Yes or No e.g. Do you like broccoli? –This type of question allows to interviewee to mahasweta answer in more detail. Who Invented! These type of questions can be useful but can make it difficult for the results to be displayed graphically e.g.

What do you think the benefits of eating wholemeal pasta are? –This allows the answer to be given according to how strongly someone feels e.g.: Do you think that pasta is a good source of energy? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Present your results in graphical form where possible. This is a good opportunity to use your ICT skills. On your results page make some conclusions.

What do your results tell you? How will it help you in your design? Use the #8220;findings from#8221; box for a final summary of what you#8217;ve learned. Mahasweta Devi! e.g. From the question below we can infer that the Reflection Nursing Decision, most popular fruit is raspberry, this helps with my design as I now know that this would be a popular flavour to incorporate into devi my product . 7. Analysis of Research and Design Specification. Research Analysis needs to summarise all the things you have learned from your research section. Essentially putting all your #8220;findings from#8221; together. What Nervous! The analysis of your research should lead you on to your design specification as follows: A design specification list of requirements that your designs should aim to fulfill. This will be used to measure the success of your final design so you must always design towards these limitations. All the criteria must come from the mahasweta, results of your research (otherwise your results have no value and you will have wasted a big number of marks).

Write your specification points in full sentences, not in note form. Explain them if necessary, say how they’ve been decided and why (relate to your research). For example: The price of the meal should be between ?1.50 and ?2.75 as this was the range of prices I found when I did my supermarket research. To avoid having too many restrictions in your specification give a range so that your designs can meet the specification more easily. For example: The results of my consumer survey show that the Decision, type of dish should be continental. This can include Indian, Chinese, Mexican, etc. Mahasweta! Your initial design ideas are an opportunity to explore possible solutions that meet the design brief that has been set and Reflection on My Decision the specification. Mahasweta Devi! You should produce 12 initial ideas.

Annotation should be added to High Testing Public Essay explain your ideas in detail and depth. Annotations should include: name of mahasweta product description of product weight size (h,w,d) appearance (colour) ingredients (inc. functions and High Testing in the Public System Essay nutrition) sensory vocabulary (i.e. sweet, chewy, crunchy, soft, hot, spicy etc.) comment on positive/negative health benefits allergies/special diets notes on devi decoration or finishing techniques (e.g. piping, glazing, grilling) standard components used preparation skills/techniques involved in manufacture special equipment required to manufacture (i.e. pasta machine) When producing your design ideas you should be as imaginative as possible, use your research carefully and design new and innovative solutions to the problem set, linking them to the target market identified. 9. Design Ideas/Recipe Trials. quantities of who invented the airbag ingredients (inc. Devi! functions) skills used equipment used specification points product meets photo cost evaluation development ideas sensory evaluation (star profile) Peeling Slicing Dicing Grating Marinating Coating Glazing Bread Making Sauces Pastry Making Pasta Making Grilling. Addiction! Frying Baking Stirfrying Roasting Microwaving Boiling Simmering Poaching Steaming Rubbing in Method Melting Method Creaming Whisking. This is a more detailed specification, usually written when the devi, final product has been decided upon. In The Public Essay! It may be given to mahasweta a chef in a test kitchen and then will undergo sensory testing before the decision is made to produce it on a large scale. #8220;The pastry will be rolled out to 15cm squares.#8221; #8220;It will contain mushrooms, sweetcorn, cheese sauce and chicken.#8221; #8220;It will cost between ?1 and ?1.50p.#8221; Here are some ideas of what to include to produce a successful specification#8230; Describe colour, texture, flavour, aroma etc#8230; Specific dimensions (with a sketch) for instance, weight, size, shape.

Specific qualities of ingredients for example, percentage of fat in meat, size of cherries. Names of Food Essay ingredients with weights and devi proportions to use for example, #8220;200g butter, 450g flaked haddock.#8221; Specific tolerances for example, thickness of pastry, viscosity (runniness) of sauce. The size to causes which ingredients must be cut for example, the mahasweta, exact shape and and Obesity Essay size of pieces of fruit and vegetables, the nozzle size for mincing meat, the slicing grade for mahasweta devi carrots, the grating size for on My Nursing Essay cheese. Types of cooking methods and cooking temperatures with critical control points. Cooling times and methods. Finishing techniques for example, #8220;Brush with whole egg glaze before baking#8221;, #8220;Fill centre of cake with fresh whipped cream to devi a thickness of Nursing Decision Essay 2cm#8221;, #8220;Decorate with six slices of tomato and devi one teaspoonful of Food Addiction Essay mixed herbs before cooking#8221;, #8220;Cover surface of devi biscuit with white rolled icing to a thickness of 0.5cm.#8221; Specific details of louisa ellis packaging requirements for example, microwavable dish with sealed film covering in crushproof sleeve.#8221; Wording for mahasweta the label, which will provide information for the consumer about ingredients, nutrition, the name of the product, storage and cooking/reheating instructions, shelf life, etc. Sometimes a photograph is louisa ellis used to help a manufacturer to meet that specification. This would normally still need additional written information, but is useful in large-scale catering where a meal is being assembled on a plate from bought components. Identifiey potential allergy risks.

Once you have analysed your trial products and have a good idea of what could be developed into a final design you can begin to experiment and develop your ideas further. To gain higher marks you should look to devi develop your idea by looking at:

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Roland Barthes Barthes, Roland (Vol. 83) - Essay. Roland Barthes 1915–1980. (Full name Roland Gerard Barthes) French theorist, critic, essayist, and autobiographer. The following entry provides an overview of mahasweta Barthes's career. For further information on his life and career, see CLC , Vol. 24. One of the seminal figures in the French intellectual movement known as Structuralism, Barthes was a fundamental influence on the practice of modern social and literary criticism.

His most widely studied works are those in which he rigorously applied semiologic principles—derived from Ferdinand de Saussure's structural linguistics and influenced by Jean-Paul Sartre's approach to political engagement—to the practice of what causes breakdowns literary criticism and the analysis of mahasweta modern cultural artifacts. Barthes's theoretical approach developed and changed over Stakes Testing System, time, however, and his later works largely eschew systematic, scientific investigation for more meditative, belletristic considerations. Mahasweta? While some commentators view this evolution negatively as an abandonment of his earlier aspirations toward a scientific theory of narrative and culture, most see it as a refinement of Reflection on My style and perspective. Barthes was born in devi, Cherbourg, France, to middle-class Protestant parents. His father was killed in a naval battle in World War I, and Addiction Essay, Barthes was raised by his mother and devi, maternal grandmother, first in Bayonne and then in Stakes Testing Public School, Paris from the age of nine. In 1935 he began his studies at the Sorbonne, focusing on French, Greek, and Latin. A case of devi tuberculosis that Barthes suffered when he was nineteen left him ineligible for military service during World War II. He taught off and on for a number of years in what breakdowns, Bayonne, Paris, Biarritz, and devi, Bucharest, Romania, although a relapse of his TB in 1941 forced him to spend most of the what causes breakdowns, next six years in sanatoriums. After being pronounced cured of tuberculosis in 1947, Barthes began publishing the essays that would later be collected in his first book, Le degre zero de l'ecriture (1953; Writing Degree Zero ). Devi? From 1952 to 1959, while working as a teaching fellow at louisa ellis, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Barthes published the essays that were later compiled in his famous book, Mythologies (1957; Mythologies ). In 1960 he joined the faculty at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes, serving as director of studies from 1962 until 1977 when he was elected to the chair of devi literary semiology at the College de France. Decision Essay? From the 1960s on, Barthes's reputation as France's foremost literary theorist, social critic, and mahasweta, essayist was confirmed by such works as Systeme de la mode (1967; The Fashion System), S/Z (1970, S/Z), Le plaisir du texte (1973; The Pleasure of the Text ), and Frag- ments d'un discours amoureux (1977; A Lover's Discourse ). Nursing Essay? Commentators have noted that Barthes came to assume the unofficial position—formerly occupied by devi, Jean-Paul Sartre—of the leading French intellectual and preeminent Western thinker.

Barthes remained at the College de France until his death in 1980 from injuries suffered during a traffic accident. Critic Bjornar Olsen has distinguished four stages in Barthes's critical development. He labels Barthes's first three works— Writing Degree Zero, Michelet (1954; Michelet ), and Mythologies —his committed writings in that they reflect the influence of the two dominant ideological systems of their time, Marxism and Sartrean existentialism. Writing Degree Zero examines the distinctions Barthes perceived between language, literary style, and ecriture , the aspect of discourse in which the author's existential situation, or sociohistorical context, imbues writings with unintended meanings that are revealed through close structural analysis. In Michelet he demonstrated the significance of ecriture in the writings of French historian Jules Michelet, analyzing linguistic characteristics and textual structure in order to reveal hidden connotations and meanings. Karl Marx's early writings provided a model for Mythologies , in which Barthes studied aspects of contemporary French culture—such as professional wrestling, strip-tease, travel guides, the advertising of soap and laundry detergent—to illuminate the reactivity series definition, ways in which bourgeois ideology is disseminated and made to seem natural. The second phase of Barthes's career according to Olsen encompasses his most rigorous semiological writings of the 1960s, works that marked the highpoint of Structuralism in France. Devi? In his 1964 essay Elements de semiologie, published in English in Essay, book form as Elements of Semiology , Barthes elaborated on ideas from Saussure, Roman Jakobson, and other noted linguists to mahasweta, distinguish between language, which refers to causes breakdowns, the abstract set of rules and conventions governing verbal and written communication, and speech, which refers to individual instances of the mahasweta devi, actual use of language.

In The Fashion System Barthes's method, according to Mason Cooley, was to study and classify the captions under the photographs in a year's issues of two fashion magazines, examining the theoretical ramifications of louisa ellis such statements as 'Prints win at the races' and 'Slim piping is striking.' Whereas Elements of Semiology laid out the blueprint for devi semiological analysis, The Fashion System demonstrated it. The third phase of who invented Barthes's career—in which he popularized concepts formulated by French literary theorists Jacques Derrida and Julia Kristeva—signalled the general shift in Western critical thinking in the early 1970s from mahasweta devi Structuralism to Post-Structuralism. While his previous writings championed the notion that a text's meaning inheres in the structure of its components and is therefore knowable and fixed, works such as S/Z and The Pleasure of the Text examine the ways in which texts present a plurality of definition shifting connotations that are open to mahasweta devi, numerous interpretations. S/Z is a painstakingly detailed, line-by-line analysis of the what causes, Honore de Balzac novella Sarrasine in mahasweta devi, which Barthes detects five codes—specific kinds of references, meanings, and connotations—that, through their interplay, offer the reader a multiplicity of meanings. In The Pleasure of the louisa ellis, Text , Barthes categorizes all literary works as either texts of pleasure or texts of bliss. He associates the former with classic literary works and those that emulate them, describing texts of pleasure as readerly texts in that they reward traditional forms of interpretation and refer to common areas of knowledge. Texts of bliss he associated with modernist works, describing them as writerly texts in mahasweta, that they require the reader to series definition, complete the text by filling in gaps and making intertextual connections in ways that mainstream literature does not. The final phase of mahasweta devi Barthes's career—typified by such works as Roland Barthes , (1975; Roland Barthes), A Lover's Discourse: Fragments , and Le chambre claire (1980; Camera Lucida )—is frequently described as his hedonist period because his subjects are more purely aesthetic than earlier ones and his style is on My Nursing Decision, meditative and introspective.

Referring to himself in the third person throughout his autobiography, Roland Barthes , Barthes comments on photographs from his childhood and expounds upon matters of personal intellectual interest, presenting a portrait of his mind rather than of his social, emotional, and professional life. The most popular book Barthes ever wrote, A Lover's Discourse: Fragments was a bestseller in France and served as the basis for a play. The work grew out of mahasweta a seminar he taught on amorous discourse in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774; The Sorrows of Food Essay Werther ) and uses monologues by mahasweta, a semi-autobiographical narrator to attempt to explain the meaning of love in a variety of contexts. In the first section of Camera Lucida , he analyzes news photographs and family snapshots and concludes that photography, though it can touch the emotions, is not an art because its close connection to who invented the airbag, reality fixes the interplay of mahasweta connotations and thus leaves little room for interpretation. In the second part Barthes meditates on a photograph of his deceased mother and, writing movingly of his relationship with her, draws a connection between photography and death. Being at the forefront of the new criticism in louisa ellis, France, Barthes's works of the mahasweta, late 1950s through the Stakes in the Public School System, 1960s were frequently criticized by older, university-based academics and critics for being pseudoscientific and jargon-laden.

In two essays later collected in Essais critiques (1964; Critical Essays )—Les deux critiques (The Two Criticisms) and Qu'est-ce que la critique? (What Is Criticism?)—Barthes distinguished between the kind of mahasweta devi criticism practiced in universities; which he disparaged as boring, naively objective, and excessively reliant on what causes nervous breakdowns author biographies for causal explanations; and the structuralist, ideologically aware criticism he espoused. The controversy sparked by mahasweta, these two essays came to a head when Barthes published Sur Racine (1963; On Racine ). This structuralist and psychoanalytic reading of the French dramatist's works was attacked by noted Racine scholar Raymond Picard in an essay entitled Nouvelle critique ou nouvelle imposture? (meaning New Criticism or New Fraud?). Picard's main points were that Barthes's brand of criticism was subjective and did not take history into account. Outside of France, Barthes's works were accorded great critical acclaim and did much to establish Structuralism and, subsequently, Post-Structuralism in the United States. As his work began to focus on issues of pleasure and became increasingly autobiographical, Barthes was attacked by reactivity series definition, some commentators for abandoning his earlier Marxist and Structuralist agendas. However, his work, praised for its uniqueness and instructiveness, is mahasweta, generally regarded as among the most significant contributions to critical theory of the Food Addiction Essay, twentieth century, as much for the qualities of individual works as forthe unique and instructive character of the oeuvre. Devi? As noted Marxist scholar Fredric Jameson noted, Barthes's work is a veritable fever-chart of all the significant intellectual and series definition, critical tendencies since World War II.

Access our Roland Barthes Study Guide for Free. Le degre zero de l'ecriture (criticism) 1953. [ Writing Degree Zero , 1967] Michelet (criticism) 1954. Mythologies (criticism) 1957. [ Mythologies (partial translation), 1972] Sur Racine (criticism) 1963.

Elements de semiologie (essay) 1964. [ Elements of Semiology , 1967] Essais critiques (essays) 1964. [ Critical Essays , 1972] La Tour Eiffel [with Andre Martin] (essay) 1964.

[? The Eiffel Tower, and Other Mythologies , 1979] Critique et verite (criticism). (The entire section is 278 words.) Get Free Access to this Roland Barthes Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. [ Genette is devi, a distinguished French literary theorist, critic, and educator best known in the United States for his Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method (1980), in which he analyzes Marcel Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu ( 1954; Remembrance of Things Past) and proposes general categories for High Public School System the study of narration. Devi? In the following essay, first translated into English in 1982, he analyzes the approach to semiology Barthes delineated in Reflection on My, such early works as Writing Degree Zero, Critical Essays, and Mythologies.] The work of Roland Barthes is apparently highly varied, both in its object (literature, clothes, cinema, painting, advertising, music, news items. (The entire section is 5855 words.) Get Free Access to this Roland Barthes Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Edward W. Said (review date 30 July 1972) [ Said is a Palestinian-born American critic and educator who has written extensively on culture and politics. In the following review, he offers praise for devi Mythologies and Critical Essays and examines the principal tenets of Barthes's early writings .]

Roland Barthes is one of the very few literary critics in any language of whom it can be said that he has never written a bad or uninteresting page…. Barthes is neither an academic critic, nor a reviewer, but strictly an occasional writer: he produces writing for prefaces, commemoratives, conferences, events, seminars, commissions from breakdowns publishers, captions for mahasweta pictures, descriptions of striking objects. Although. (The entire section is 1237 words.) [ De Man was a Belgian-born American literary theorist, critic, and educator. His reputation as a pioneer in establishing the Food Addiction and Obesity, literary theory known as deconstruction—promoted in such works as Blindness and mahasweta devi, Insight: Essays in and Obesity Essay, the Rhetoric of mahasweta devi Contemporary Criticism (1971) , Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and louisa ellis, Proust (1979), and The Resistance to mahasweta devi, Theory (1986)—was tainted by the discovery of reactivity definition anti-Semitic, pro-Nazi articles he wrote while working for mahasweta devi a collaborationist newspaper in who invented the airbag, Belgium in devi, the early 1940s.

In the following essay, posthumously published in 1990, he examines the strengths and what causes nervous breakdowns, weaknesses of Barthes's theoretical positions .] (The entire section is 5173 words.) Frank Kermode (review date 7 August 1977) [ Kermode is an mahasweta English critic and educator. In the following review, he praises the autobiography Roland Barthes and discusses the and Obesity, many paradoxes that define Barthes's literary career .] [ Roland Barthes ] is a sort of serious joke. It first appeared in a series called x par lui-meme —for example, Michelet by devi, Himself , to name the what causes breakdowns, volume for which Barthes happens to have been responsible. So to ask a writer to do his own par lui-meme was part compliment, part gag, and Barthes followed up by reviewing the book himself in mahasweta, the Quinzaine litteraire, under the heading 'Barthes by Barthes' by Barthes. But the joke is serious because there is more to it than literary.

(The entire section is and Obesity Essay, 1249 words.) Geoffrey H. Hartman (essay date 4 February 1979) [ Hartman is an American critic and educator. Devi? In the following essay, he discusses Image—Music—Text, A Lover's Discourse, and Barthes's attempt to construct a unique critical style out of fictional and High Testing System, systematic forms of mahasweta learning .] These are still the Banquet Years in France, though not everyone will savor the feast of books and essays produced there since 1945. One might have thought that Jean-Paul Sartre, Claude Levi-Strauss and Maurice Merleau-Ponty had exhausted a certain vein. Philosophy and literature invaded each other's realm; science mingled with cultural criticism. High Stakes Testing School System Essay? Yet Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes and devi, others are still taking on linguistics. (The entire section is 2194 words.) Susan Sontag (essay date 15 May 1980) [ Sontag is reactivity definition, a distinguished American critic, essayist, and novelist. Devi? In the following essay, occasioned by Barthes's death, she reviews his life as a writer and singles out Addiction and Obesity Essay A Lover's Discourse: Fragments and Roland Barthes as his most wonderful books. ] Roland Barthes was sixty-four when he died last week [26 March 1980], but the career was younger than that age suggests, for he was thirty-seven when he published his first book. After the tardy start there were many books, many subjects.

One felt that he could generate ideas about anything. Put him in front of a cigar box and he would have one, two, many ideas—a little essay. It was not a question of knowledge (he couldn't have. (The entire section is devi, 2469 words.) [ Silverman is an American critic and educator best known for her books The Subject of Semiotics (1983) and The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and the Cinema (1988). In the following excerpt from the former work, which also includes a chapter-length analysis of S/Z, she examines Barthes's notion of who invented the airbag connotation, showing how it evolved from an early formulation in Mythologies to its complex articulation in mahasweta, S/Z.] Because of the nervous, liveliness of his prose, and the sophistication of mahasweta devi his textual interpretations, Barthes has probably done more than any other single theoretician to introduce recent semiotics to American readers. (The entire section is 2232 words.) [ Todorov is an eminent Bulgarian-born French literary theorist, critic, and educator. In the following excerpt from a work first translated in 1987, he discusses the louisa ellis, fictional, or literary, aspects of Barthes's criticism .] A personal relationship linked me with Roland Barthes while he was alive, and devi, it did not end with his death. I cannot claim even the illusion of louisa ellis impartiality if I am to speak of him. Not only mahasweta devi will I be irresistibly tempted to who invented the airbag, suppress anything in him that does not suit me and to valorize the ways in which he is close to me, but I cannot find in myself the necessary strengths that would allow me to see him as a closed entity capable of being completely circumscribed, an.

(The entire section is 3121 words.) [ MacCabe is an English critic and educator who has written extensively on devi literary and film theory. In the following excerpt, he examines S/Z, focusing on the five codes Barthes proposed for the study of narrative texts .] The written trace of a seminar held in the years 1968 and 1969, S/Z is the text which focuses, for me, the strengths and weaknesses of that period in an intellectual form. It is Barthes's choice of Food a story to analyse which determines Balzac's place in the title of this paper [Realism: Balzac and Barthes] but it would be a mistake to mahasweta, think that Barthes's choice was aleatory. If the immediate occasion for the selection of Balzac's story.

(The entire section is Food Addiction Essay, 2995 words.) Peter Fitting (essay date Winter 1988) [ In the following excerpt, Fitting examines Mythologies, showing that semiology and a desire to expose ideology inform the essays that comprise the book, and comments on changes in Barthes's thought later in his career .] In a single day, how many really non-signifying fields do we cross? Very few, sometimes none. Here I am before the sea; it is true that it bears no message. But on the beach, what material for semiology!

Pennants, slogans, signals, signboards, clothes, suntan even, which are so many messages to me. To speak of Roland Barthes's. (The entire section is 3593 words.) Clara Claiborne Park (essay date Autumn 1990) [ Park is an American educator and devi, essayist who has written widely on such diverse topics as English literature and Essay, the nature of mental illness, particularly autism. In the following essay, she describes the intellectual milieu in which Barthes was raised and educated—examining the French system of public education and the cultural importance of the French language to the French people—thereby attempting to account for much that appears unique, difficult, or idiosyncratic in mahasweta devi, not only Barthes's work but most contemporary French critical theory as well. Louisa Ellis? Park concludes by praising Barthes for his commitment to freedom, to multiplicity, and to delight, for his intelligence, and the generosity of his. (The entire section is 8528 words.)

Freedman, Sanford. Roland Barthes: A Bibliographical Reader's Guide . New York: Garland, 1983, 409 p. Extensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources. Brown, Andrew. Roland Barthes: The Figures of Writing . Mahasweta Devi? Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992, 303 p. Detailed analysis of Barthes's works that attempts to chart some of the difficulties inherent in reading Barthes. Calvino, Italo.

In Memory of Roland Barthes. In his The Uses of Literature: Essays , pp. 300-06. San Diego: Harcourt. (The entire section is 1005 words.) Roland Barthes Homework Help Questions. This is part of the general Deconstructive/Post-structuralist project: that is to Food Essay, decenter the source of mahasweta devi meaning, to show the multiplicities of definition meaning and interpretation. For Barthes (or. In The Death of the Author, Barthes writes about Balzac's story Sarrasine and suggests that it is, like all writing, subject to multiple interpretations. Barthes then notes that as soon as a fact.

French philosopher Barthes' essay The Death of the Author is a post-structuralist text that propagates the mahasweta, idea that there can be no essential structure and therefore, reflecting the ideas of. Among other post-structuralists and deconstructionists from the 1960s to the present, Roland Barthes shows that the meaning of a text is not owned or fixed by the author's intent. Barthes is not. Barthes' concept of the death of the who invented the airbag, author embodies, briefly, five important concepts that help to make clear what precisely he means. Mahasweta Devi? Auteur: Barthes does not use the equivalent of the English.

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Performance notes on our piece - John Godbers Teechers. Free essay example: John Godber’s Teechers. Practitioner: John Godber/Hull Truck Theatre Company. Chosen skill: Acting. Part played: Salty who plays the parts off Mr.Nixon, Oggy Moxon, Teacher B, Deanie. Section 1 – clear and concise evidence of detailed exploration of the devi, chosen practitioner and good level of understanding of their theatrical purpose. Justification of play and extract in relation to the practitioner’s work. With only breakdowns, having 3 members in our group, this restricted us into what play we could choose from. After reading a few of the Godber’s texts (e.g. Mahasweta! happy jack) I found that I enjoyed his plays.

He writes from experience and Addiction Essay as he says himself “I think the best kind of writing is something that comes out of yourself, there’s no point writing anything unless it’s felt.” Through his writing I could see the depth of devi, his understanding of the characters and their regional setting (Yorkshire). In the play there is a lot of who invented, mulit roling, for mahasweta example I play the the airbag, part of Salty who plays the part of 4 other different characters just in the sections of the play we have chosen. This then gave me the challenge of having to play 4 different roles and changing characters on stage at some points, this then gave me the challenge of creating different voices, and making them all as distinctive as possible so as soon as you heard the voice you would know what character I was playing. Salty would need to be more naturalistic as he would exaggerate some aspects of the characters he plays in the ‘play within the play’. We all played the parts of devi, directors throughout rehearsals, one of the problems I faced was trying to tell my 2 other members what I think they should do at reactivity series definition certain parts of the play. I found this a problem as it was hard to get across an idea I had in my head of what I pictured how I would play the part. I also wasn’t 100% sure if the idea I had in my head was right and devi so I would sometimes tend not to High Stakes Testing in the System, give an opinion on how I think the part should be played.

In some parts of the play were we were all needed I found it hard to spot the problems we faced as I was not able to fully see how it looked from an audiences point of view, this problem was not faced however when 2 of us were only needed on stage as the other could take the role as the director. At some points we would all have different ideas, some contradicting each other, we would then try out all the different ideas and then choose which one we wanted and then main way this was done was by mahasweta devi, what we wanted the audience’s reaction to be like at this part of the louisa ellis, play. His plays are fast paced and move along quickly. His emphasis is on what the actors do, rather than on sets,costumes or props His characters are stereotypical working-class with humorous traits His characters often directly address the audience His productions feature music to create the necessary atmosphere. Hull Truck’s aspirations for theatre. To make theatre accessible To bring in new audiences from all sections of the community To be a progressive force in theatre To broaden horizons, develop new writing for devi theatre, be imaginative and professional. To help me understand the style of John Godber we went to see a production of weekend breaks . Food Addiction And Obesity! The play had observational comedy similar to teechers . Watching weekend breaks helped me to understand the dynamics of families in northern, working class communities and showed us how to bring the humour out of the text and how to work with the mahasweta devi, audience. We took 2 extracts out who invented, of the play, the first being the start of the play up to devi, a suitable place to stop, we choose this part of the play as it introduces the audience to characters and also gives us the High Testing in the Public School System, challenge of introducing our characters to the audience. Our other section we choose includes a school disco and we wanted to do this as we thought we could really show the comedy side to the play by acting out this part and challenge our physical skills. Word count: 664 (not including headings) Section 2-Outline of dramatic intentions for the audience, in mahasweta relation to the group’s interpretation of the chosen extract and the influence of the chosen practitioner; accurate use of specialist terminology.

Our aims for our production: To make the characters believable and real. To make the Essay, audience relate to the characters To have a good actor/audience relationship To bring the humour out devi, of the script To enjoy the production. As non of us was taking the directing option we all took on the role together. Reactivity Series! After working on our own interpretations we soon realised we all had very similar ideas and began to slowly work our way through the mahasweta, play. Food And Obesity! I am easily distracted but with having such a small group I found it much easier to concentrate and this was mainly because I didn’t want to let me other two classmates down. The first section in our performance is essential as this is where we tell the audience what is happening and what is going to happen. We wanted the audience to be able to relate with the characters and this was helped by the braking of the ‘fourth wall’ at first I just saw it as a way of stepping out the play but I later realised that it was a great opportunity to connect with the audience and build up the relationship.

As an audience member myself I am comfortable when a character breaks the ‘fourth wall’. Godber is clear on this point: “you have to connect, you have to feel, you have to engage sympathy of the audience.” I saw how this tactic generates commitment as it makes the audience feel more involved with the mahasweta devi, characters and their lives. My own acting approach was to try and come across as comfortable as possible to who invented, the audience even if I did not feel comfortable myself. Hull truck productions are fast paced. Mahasweta Devi! We had to ensure that we carried the script along so it would not seem slow, boring and with it being set in a school, scripted. Therefore in our first section when having a conversation between the three of us we tried to make it as natural as possible and series this then helped with the pace of the play. However, there are parts were the devi, pace slows down, for example in the car scene when Mr. Nixon head buts Oggy Moxon there is a long pause after he does so, this adds to the humour of the series definition, play as the audience have a chance to devi, see all three different reactions. When considering our design we went back to our notes on Godber, because of his style we didn’t want to clutter up the stage and only used necessary props and costume. Who Invented The Airbag! To show the audience when the character was changing there would be a clear costume change as we thought this would help the audience notice each change. As per mahasweta Godber, music is who invented the airbag used in our production to show period and create atmosphere, the music also helps to devi, create the disco feel.

Music plays during all the blackouts, this gives the audience an High Stakes in the System idea of what the feel of the mahasweta devi, section is going to Food and Obesity Essay, be like. Word count: 521 (not including headings) Section 3- Assessment of the rehearsal process and of the potential effectiveness of the piece for an audition. Evaluation of the mahasweta, development of the reactivity definition, nominated skill in relation both to the chosen text and to mahasweta devi, the influential practitioner’s ideas; awareness of health and causes safety factors. Godber and Hull Truck believe that that the audience are just as important as the characters of the play. To Godber, a play is non-existent without an actor-audience relationship. Throughout the play ‘teechers’ the characters are always braking the 4 th wall and directly talking to the audience, the problem I faced with this was making it obvious when I was broke out devi, of the reactivity, 4 th wall. One of the obvious things I would do would be to walk towards the audience and talk directly to them, but I also had to change the tone in my voice, when I was talking to the audience to devi, make it obvious I wasn’t still in the play. When we first read the play, we tried it in a Yorkshire accent. I found the High Stakes in the Public School, accent hard.

My main problems: Having more then one Yorkshire accent Making each accent clear and distinctive Putting on a female voice. I over came these problems by: Watching ‘brassed off’ this gave me a feel to the Yorkshire accent and helped me with the pace issue One of my class mates asked a teacher if she was able to devi, read the play and series record it, this way I was able to devi, hear how my lines sounded by someone who spoke with a natural Yorkshire accent Asking my class mate who was also a male to help me with the who invented, female accent as he had a member of the family who was originally from Yorkshire and mahasweta devi so found it much easier then me to put on a female accent. When working on the different physicality’s for Food the different characters, we exaggerate everything about them, for example the character Oggy Moxon (school bully) we tried to show his character just through the mahasweta devi, way he walked and his facial expressions and exaggerating helped this a lot. We firstly stood in a neutral position and then would count down from 3 and Stakes in the School then we would all walk around the mahasweta, room as the nervous breakdowns, character we had chosen, 2 of the members of the group would have to copy the mahasweta devi, other member, this way we would all have the same physicality’s and so when preforming the characters will hopefully be the same. We tried improvisations to help us explore the what causes breakdowns, characters and to see what makes them tick. Mahasweta! I developed the idea Mr. What Nervous! Nixon wanted to be a teacher all his life however his farther is not happy with his decision and wants him to follow the same path that he did.

This was very useful as it helped me understand why Mr. Nixon had the passion he does for teaching. My characters are often breaking the forth wall and I needed to feel comfortable in devi doing so, one of the ways I did this is by picking certain sight when I come forward and speak to the audience, this way I will know exactly where to look and will hopefully cover the whole audience. Health and Safety. When working in the hall and in the studio we made sure that the floor was free of Stakes in the School Essay, anything that we could trip on or injure ourselves with. Our stage was laid down by the caretakers, they also set out the seating and made sure that the mahasweta, safety railing were in place. The lighting was rigged by professionals using g-clamps and safety chains and we made sure the emergency exit lights were working. Word count: 572 (not including headings) This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in louisa ellis our AS and mahasweta A Level Plays section. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related AS and A Level Drama Skills and Knowledge Essays.

Analysis of a physical theatre performance - Under the Influence. Word count: 2803. Review and evaluation on the production of 'Teechers' by John Godber and performed by . Road by Jim Cartwright - Notes on the plot and Subject matter of the Food and Obesity, . Word count: 2752. For my Coursework I studied 'Bouncers - 1990s Remix' by John Godber, and 'Shakers-Restirred' . Word count: 1546. The Good Person of Szechwan, extract pg 105-108: As a director, discuss how you . Word count: 1736. The techniques and strategies used in 'Teechers' by John Godber and devi my own performance . Evaluation of final performance- devised piece. Word count: 2871. Evaluation of John Osborne's Look Back In Anger.

Word count: 2421. Related AS and A Level Plays essays. Evaluation of final performance- devised piece. Moreover when she is a teenager she uses her versatile voice skills, talking quicker, to make her role more believable. However I think that her weakness is acting as a child, her voice is slightly too exaggerated and more humorous than a realistic child, because it is series more higher and mahasweta devi squeaky. The techniques and strategies used in 'Teechers' by John Godber and my own performance . John Godber uses a lot of techniques to allow you to Addiction and Obesity Essay, get more familiar with the characters and the plot as the mahasweta devi, play progresses, some of which I included in my performance. Monologues and the airbag more commonly, thought-tracking are used a lot in 'Teechers' and help one to mahasweta devi, understand characters in louisa ellis the play more.

For my Coursework I studied 'Bouncers - 1990s Remix' by John Godber, and 'Shakers-Restirred' . We wanted to link the scenes together a bit, so tried a few options before deciding on this order: 1. Intro - poem/music 2. Mahasweta! Police conversation 3. Drunk women outside club 4. Louisa Ellis! Anna's monologue about being a woman in mahasweta devi police force 5. Road by Jim Cartwright - Notes on the plot and Subject matter of the . desperately to hold on to his dignity by always holding his head up but by nervous, the end of the scene all his dignity has vanished as he is sat slumped in his chair with his head down and tears rolling down his cheeks. Review and evaluation on the production of 'Teechers' by John Godber and performed by mahasweta, . The costume that the who invented the airbag, actors had was used well; the actor would change one item, to define a different character. The basic costume was a seventies school uniform. Lights were dimmed between some scenes for small set changes or costume changes but were not over the top or used to devi, frequently. Analysis of a physical theatre performance - Under the Influence. The man was on louisa ellis, stage first.

It seemed to the audience that he was rehearsing a play, as someone kept prompting him and he mad a joke about it being to dark to see the script. The woman then came on. Evaluation of John Osborne's Look Back In Anger. The lighting was on full throughout the majority of the performance and mahasweta devi there were no special effects other than a spotlight on Jimmy and Alison in the final scene of the play. There was no particular dramatic effect created by in the School Essay, the lighting. The Good Person of Szechwan, extract pg 105-108: As a director, discuss how you . Upon Shen Teh's conclusion to her speech, I would want the first God to deliver his line 'Speak no further you unhappy creature!', with his head turned away, his eyes tightly shut, and his hand stretched out in front. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work.

Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and mahasweta Get Revising are all trading names of louisa ellis, The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Read the whole essay offline on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Download the PDF today.

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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to mahasweta devi, write and develop. Churches often receive dozens of resumes in their pastoral search process, and reactivity, finding the right candidate is mahasweta a rigorous process. There are several important steps to what causes nervous breakdowns, follow as you prepare for mahasweta devi, writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is a very different document than a secular resume. Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and Addiction and Obesity Essay, developed different from a traditional resume. Because of this structure and the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is mahasweta devi often longer than a traditional resume. On the louisa ellis, first page you should include the mahasweta, most pertinent and Stakes in the School, core information – the mahasweta devi, top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the page. Stakes System Essay. Paul’s first letter to Timothy includes the pastor’s family in the description of the pastor’s qualifications, and as our culture includes the mahasweta devi, pastor’s wife as a representation of the the airbag, ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture.

Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details. Some of mahasweta, these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and even how long you have been married. Especially from a secular point of view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and parenting. Stakes System Essay. Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of mahasweta devi, your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. You should clearly indicate both your degree and definition, the institution you received your degree at. Mahasweta Devi. Especially in louisa ellis ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the mahasweta, quality of your theological training.

Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and Reflection on My Nursing Essay, teaching within the church you are hired at. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is typically your highest degree. The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of devi, lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to High System Essay, list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and devi, activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the the airbag, results of your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and talents. The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on mahasweta devi, a separate page. Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry.

Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching. Louisa Ellis. Philosophy of mahasweta, Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of Decision, your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and mahasweta, frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and Addiction Essay, counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church.

Do not make the mistake of trusting another’s references. Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in mahasweta devi their application. There are a few more details that are important not to Food, overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of details or information. You resume should reflect not only your professional and mahasweta devi, ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. If you print off your resume to send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document.

This is an easy step to in the Public School System Essay, ensure that the pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of your resume, in case the pages of devi, your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in definition your resume. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for mahasweta, resumes. A contemporary trend is to make references available upon request. Causes Breakdowns. These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on your resume and separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references.

If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends. Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and devi, experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally.

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cause of ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Mahasweta. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Who Invented The Airbag. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the mahasweta, war was swift.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the Food and Obesity Essay, war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to devi understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the nervous breakdowns, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Mahasweta Devi. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Reflection On My Nursing Decision. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of devi, their fears and on My Decision, submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of mahasweta, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the nervous, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the mahasweta devi, threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Who Invented. But most of all they feared for mahasweta devi the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and causes breakdowns, Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of devi, 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. The Airbag. In the following months it was ardently courted by mahasweta, France and Britain. Who Invented The Airbag. On 23 May 1915 the devi, Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on on My Nursing Decision, 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about mahasweta devi, which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by what, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Mahasweta. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for Addiction Essay another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Devi. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of what nervous breakdowns, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the mahasweta, United States but also in that of Europe and Reflection Nursing, the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of devi, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the who invented the airbag, conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in mahasweta devi a savage battle of attrition against Reflection Decision Essay the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of mahasweta, machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to who invented defeat France through an enveloping movement round the mahasweta devi, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in reactivity series definition Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the devi, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and Addiction and Obesity Essay, British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of mahasweta devi, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. Stakes In The Public School. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Mahasweta. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Nursing, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and mahasweta devi, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to the airbag themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the devi, war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Food Essay. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of mahasweta, Amiens, on 8 August, the reactivity definition, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the devi, war in the west the louisa ellis, Germans were in retreat. On the devi, Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and who invented the airbag, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the devi, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Definition. This did nothing to mahasweta lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the who invented the airbag, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and mahasweta devi, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war.

Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the High Stakes Testing in the Public System, Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on devi, the German decision to seek a victory in definition the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the mahasweta devi, Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of what nervous, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from devi certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the reactivity, Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at mahasweta, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in Addiction and Obesity the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in devi two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and series definition, then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of devi, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on who invented, the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to devi be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out High Public System, of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by devi, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and causes, disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to mahasweta withdraw at what causes nervous breakdowns, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Mahasweta Devi. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at louisa ellis, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of devi, Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and breakdowns, economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in mahasweta devi March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to what causes nervous breakdowns command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by mahasweta devi, Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and definition, south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of mahasweta devi, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of High Stakes School System Essay, Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and mahasweta, Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in Food and Obesity Essay the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Devi. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to causes the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of devi, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Testing School System Essay. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of devi, power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Addiction And Obesity Essay. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the mahasweta devi, #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. High In The School. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to mahasweta sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.

Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Who Invented. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for mahasweta a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by louisa ellis, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to devi the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by Food Addiction and Obesity Essay, attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.

The preference for mahasweta devi knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the what causes nervous breakdowns, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the mahasweta devi, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the reactivity definition, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in devi fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the louisa ellis, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Mahasweta. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Causes Nervous Breakdowns. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of mahasweta devi, Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in and Obesity Essay a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the devi, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the Testing in the Public System Essay, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.

The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by devi, intrigue and louisa ellis, indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of mahasweta devi, a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. Addiction. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to mahasweta ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to High Testing in the System Essay the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the devi, Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the Food Addiction Essay, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Mahasweta Devi. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. What Causes. They might even have chosen to do this. Devi. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. Reflection Essay. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the mahasweta, economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the who invented, world's shipping was British built and much of mahasweta, it British owned. High Stakes Public School Essay. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on mahasweta devi, the outbreak of war. From about Reflection on My Decision Essay, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Mahasweta. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to Public School System fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.

French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. Mahasweta. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by on My, the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to devi 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the Stakes Testing School System Essay, historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the devi, Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. The Airbag. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Mahasweta Devi. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. High Testing In The System Essay. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to mahasweta devi the American Civil War was the Corps of series definition, Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the devi, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on High Testing School System Essay, 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to devi his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for Food and Obesity Essay defeat. Mahasweta. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the Stakes in the, peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the mahasweta, long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. High Stakes School System Essay. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and mahasweta, resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the louisa ellis, Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Mahasweta. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and High Stakes in the Public Essay, be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to mahasweta devi some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the Stakes in the, German army. Mahasweta. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Food Addiction. These imposed themselves on mahasweta devi, Gallipoli and in on My Nursing Decision Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by devi, simultaneous offensive action on who invented, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and mahasweta, control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of louisa ellis, planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of mahasweta devi, boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the louisa ellis, First World War were the mahasweta devi, product of in the System, a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in mahasweta 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and Stakes Testing Public School System, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to devi be fed and louisa ellis, kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Mahasweta. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the louisa ellis, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the mahasweta, first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to Testing the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the mahasweta, Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is Public difficult to mahasweta say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to Food and Obesity Essay get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of devi, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the the airbag, ability to mahasweta find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to High Stakes Testing in the Public School Essay destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Mahasweta. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the on My Decision Essay, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. Mahasweta Devi. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of louisa ellis, flash-spotting and mahasweta, sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and what causes, according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for mahasweta devi the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the causes breakdowns, infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the devi, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Who Invented The Airbag. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. Mahasweta. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and on My Decision, bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the mahasweta devi, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of reactivity series definition, victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the devi, western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. Who Invented. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on mahasweta devi, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of causes breakdowns, machine-gunners located in mahasweta shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into series definition, the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to mahasweta inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to on My Nursing Essay disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and mahasweta devi, control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into reactivity series definition, the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and devi, much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of the airbag, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. Devi. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to definition produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of mahasweta devi, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in reactivity definition 1915) became central to the war effort of devi, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of louisa ellis, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Mahasweta Devi. Women replaced men in the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to louisa ellis accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the mahasweta devi, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and what causes, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the mahasweta, leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Addiction And Obesity Essay. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to devi maintain commitment to the cause.

Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Causes. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to mahasweta devi food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Food Addiction And Obesity. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in devi Britain, and arguably for women, but the who invented the airbag, working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for mahasweta social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and louisa ellis, collapsed. They were replaced by mahasweta devi, a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Stakes Testing Essay. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the devi, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of who invented, Allied reparations and by mahasweta, inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to School be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Mahasweta Devi. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in Reflection on My Decision Essay India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the devi, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in Stakes in the Public System Essay 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Mahasweta Devi. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Evaluation of personl learning Essay. An evaluation of my personal learning plan along with comments on mahasweta, how I plan to update my subject specialist knowledge, generic knowledge of teaching and learning, using examples from my practice and discussing the what, part my mentor played in my development. The aim of this assignment is to show how my key learning points from mahasweta my personal learning plan have been put into practice and to evaluate these, examples from my practice will also be used. I will explain how I plan to update not only my subject specialist knowledge but also my generic knowledge of series, teaching and learning. Devi. I plan to also explain and Stakes Testing in the Public discuss the part my mentor has played in my development over the two years of mahasweta, cert Ed qualification. Having a personal learning plan is a great way of setting out your future objective, aims and goals. High In The Public School System. Having goals to mahasweta head for gives you motivation and direction and also builds on in the School System Essay, confidence and self esteem.

However it is mahasweta devi, a good idea to plan your own personal learning plan, when you plan your own programme, it is more likely to be relevant to your needs and Public Essay be able to be applied, and be related to, your teaching. Mahasweta Devi. This, then, is more likely to give you motivation for your learning (Reece Walker 2003 pg 400). High Testing Public School System. I plan to review and update my own personal learning plan every six months. However my personal learning is devi, also discussed in Reflection on My Nursing Essay my supervisions at mahasweta devi work which I have every three months, this enables me to discuss any knowledge I myself wish to update and causes nervous breakdowns also any training my manager feels I would benefit from. I feel this is mahasweta devi, good support to reactivity series definition involve my personal learning plan within my supervision, it also shows management that I am committed and taking control of my own learning.

My personal learning plan consists of three main areas these are. Subject specialist development. This is the subject that I teach this includes my practical and theory work. Generic teaching development. This is mahasweta devi, schemes of work and lesson plans how I use differentiation and assessment, along with assignments and research etc. This is my literacy, numeracy and Addiction ICT skills. My subject specialist area has a variety of mahasweta devi, subject sessions these are induction, food hygiene awareness, health and safety, individual service planning (ISP), swallowing disorders, manual handling, infection control and in the System first aid I do continuous refreshers on all sessions within the organisation how ever I do also carry out devi independent reading and research of individual subjects to keep my self updated. Nursing. Especially on change that relate to any regulations that have an mahasweta, impact on my training sessions.

There have been two key personal learning development areas in my subject specialist area the reactivity, first being ISP training. This training session has had a complete overhaul to how it is to mahasweta devi be delivered which has involved a lot of changes to the ISP itself, example how these are set up and completed. For me to deliver this training to my learners I needed to attend a two day training session myself. The sessions involved theory and practical learning giving me the knowledge and the skills to enable me to deliver a practical session to my learners. Example when doing this session my learners will not be just listening and getting involved in group discussions they will be involved in an ongoing practical, At their best, practical’s are an enjoyable and active hands on experience. At their worst they are frustrating episodes where not even the teacher knows what is Reflection Decision, supposed to be happening (Petty 2004 pg 204). Mahasweta Devi. So any practical should be well planned. My learners will be put into pairs one will be the service user and the other the key worker.

They will then be given a number of activities to follow. Using this method they will build and complete an ISP, learners are able to swap roles through out so each learner gets to on My Decision Essay play each role. I have delivered this training session this way on many occasions now and mahasweta devi it is working well, learners are enjoying and putting into practice what they have learnt well, this is evident when looking at ISP, s that they have completed. My second key learning point in my subject specialist area is first aid training. I was unable to deliver this session as I did not have the who invented the airbag, knowledge and qualification to do this. I attended a two day emergency first aid course down Lincoln through NUCO training, having attended this training I now have the confidence and mahasweta subject knowledge to be able to deliver this to my learners. The training consisted of two presentations showing the nervous, teacher my understanding of the subject and showing I was able to present, I was also assessed on practical exercises through out the mahasweta devi, two days, example resuscitation procedure, choking procedure, and the procedure in what breakdowns the event of an emergency situation example car accident. This training was very challenging and intense however it has given me the skills to develop an effective training session for my learners. I have two sessions planned to mahasweta devi deliver in July.

Having being successful in this training I am also able to go and assess other first aid trainers. I plan to update my subject specialist knowledge continuously I will do this by attending refresher training sessions. Reflection Nursing Decision. I am also a member of the Institute for learning where you have to prove you have so many hours of continuous professional development. Mahasweta Devi. I also plan to use E-learning within the Reflection Nursing, organisation for any relevant training sessions, along with my independent learning through reading and research on the internet. My generic knowledge of teaching and learning has developed well through out my two years on cert Ed, my skills in mahasweta devi lesson planning have developed immensely and reactivity series definition I put these into practice on a regular basis. My delivery methods have progressed and become a lot more interactive for my learners, by bringing in differentiation and inclusive learning example hand washing exercise I use a power point slide to mahasweta show a picture of who invented the airbag, hands with bacteria on, we have a discussion on hands, show learners how to wash hands correctly, we then do a hands washing exercise covering visual, audio and kinaesthetic learning styles. My assignments now have structure and flow throughout, my spelling and punctuation has also improved, this has been managed through hard work and practice of proof reading which is mahasweta, a skill in its self, a skill that can always be developed further through practice and gathering information from books and the internet.

I plan to update my generic knowledge of teaching and learning through independent learning by High Stakes in the System using the internet and mahasweta devi reading books, also the E-learning that the organisation encourage us to use have some useful courses on punctuation, organisation skills, planning skills, assessing and evaluation etc which I plan to look at using in louisa ellis the future. I am also attending mentoring training at devi the end of what causes nervous breakdowns, May which I feel will be beneficial to devi myself and what breakdowns my learners. My skills development have improved over my two years in cert end, in the first year of mahasweta, cert ed my personal learning plan identified my need to achieve level two in both English and maths. I have now achieved both qualifications and in particular benefited greatly from the English this has helped me with my assignments, writing letters, creating handouts for my training sessions and knowing and understanding where a sentence begins and ends along with why we have and need to use punctuation. I did have the basic knowledge of English language but did require further development and knowledge.

By attending key skills level two has developed this knowledge which has enabled me to progress in this area of my personal learning. Food And Obesity. However I do believe I will benefit from further development in this area and plan to progress onto mahasweta devi, key skills level three English once I have completed my cert ed year two. My ict skills have improved this is through daily use of a laptop and also attending a two day training course through the organisation. The course consisted of two modules first module was an Stakes School System, introduction to IT file management, this module developed my personal learning in areas such as using windows XP, explain the use of options within my computer, being aware of the principals of using my documents, be able to create, change, delete and move files and folders and identify how and when to mahasweta back data up. Stakes Testing In The Public School. Module two outlook internet/intranet this module has developed my personal learning in areas such as accessing E-learning and being aware of its potential, organising and accessing personal files and to mahasweta become more familiar with the intranet within the organisation and how to use it effectively. I have also had a small session on the use of power point which has been beneficial to me as within my job role, as at reactivity definition times I am required to put a power point presentation together. Devi. I plan to the airbag update my ict skills by attending a further two modules which will be organised through the organisation hopefully in the coming year.

I also believe everyday use will enhance my skills. I also plan to mahasweta devi do a more intense session on power point in the near future. Through my two years of cert Ed I have had a mentor. Louisa Ellis. Mentoring is a relationship between mentor and mentee that encourages growth and development in a respectful and devi collegial environment (Morton-Cooper Palmer, 2000). Causes. The mentoring relationship may be an informal arrangement that happens naturally, or a formal relationship that is organised within the work organisation (Rose, 2005). My job role as training and development officer was a new post for me in 2007 and it was my manager who suggested that I enrol onto the cert Ed course rather than training and development NVQ4. She felt that I would gain more from mahasweta devi this course and it would equip me with the knowledge and confidence to Addiction and Obesity Essay carry my duties out competently. As my manager is an experienced trainer herself it made sense for mahasweta her to also be my mentor as she had faith in me from the very beginning of my training. A mentoring relationship tends to be long term that can be entered into at any stage of one’s career (Northcott, 2000). This statement has been true in my case. The relationship I have with my mentor is the airbag, a good one she has been supportive through out especially when it has come to bringing in mahasweta devi new ideas for training sessions in fact she has used some of the ideas herself.

The process has always been a two way process. My mentor has not been their to tell me what to do, she has guided, encouraged, supported, provided information and Testing Public Essay most of all always listened, especially in moments when I have thought this whole thing is too much for me. Through out my observations my mentor has been encouraging and made feel at ease as she knew how nervous I was on mahasweta, these occasions, feed back from observations were always positive and High in the Public Essay any development points were always taken on board. My mentor has recognised some skills in me that I never realised I had along with helping me developing these skills. Example a year ago my mentor asked me if I would like to do a course that would enable me to deliver first aid training to mahasweta my learners, so I would not need to send them out externally for Reflection on My Decision Essay this training.

I explained to my mentor that I was not keen on doing this and devi felt that this was a course that qualified nurses should do. My mentor did not try to push or persuade me into High Stakes Testing Public Essay, doing this even though it would save the devi, organisation money. I have just done this course last month and it was me who approached my manager/mentor, I really enjoyed it and I am looking forward to delivering it to my learners. It is amazing what a year can do to some ones confidence and Reflection on My Nursing Decision Essay self esteem. If my manager/mentor had made me do this when she wanted me to do it I would not have developed in that area or enjoyed it. My mentor has always allowed me to do things at my own pace and has a great understanding of how we as individuals learn at different levels and pace.

I feel this is a good quality to have when being a mentor. Looking back it was a excellent suggestion from my manager/mentor for me to enrol onto the cert ed, over mahasweta devi, the two years I feel I have grown not only in Reflection Nursing confidence but in both the theory and mahasweta devi the practical side of my teaching and learning. Louisa Ellis. It has been a privilege to have had a mentor who has guided, supported, encouraged and listened through out the two year process. How ever it does not end there as she is also my manager she will be there for the future too. For us to further ourselves I feel it is devi, essential to have objectives, aims and goals. I feel if we do not things do not get done so our goals do not get met. We may have goals in our heads but if they are not planned they tend not to be achieved. For me a personal learning plan is the way forward we can then tick of the goals we have achieved and plan for new goals in the future. Looking back two years ago I would never have dreamt that I would have achieved what I have achieved today, I believe this has been achieved through good planning, good support and hard work by myself. And Obesity Essay. Learning is an mahasweta devi, ongoing process and I look forward to many more years of teaching and nervous breakdowns learning. retrieved 09/05/2009.

Petty,G 2004, A practical guide teaching today, 3rd edn, Nelson Thornes, United Kingdom. Reece, I Walker, S 2003, Teaching, Training and learning a practical guide, 5th edn, Business Education Publishers Limited, Great Briton. retrieved 09/05/2009. Petty,G 2004, A practical guide teaching today, 3rd edn, Nelson Thornes, United Kingdom. Reece, I Walker, S 2003, Teaching, Training and mahasweta learning a practical guide, 5th edn, Business Education Publishers Limited, Great Briton. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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