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Literacy Coaches Roles and Responsibilities. For several decades, research findings have noted the importance of high-quality teachers to the reading success of students, especially students who are at risk for reading and academic failure. While other factors, such as the quality of the core reading program and the teacher-student ratio in the classroom, appear to have some influence on reading achievement, the knowledge, skills, and experience of the classroom teacher seem to play a pivotal role in student reading success (Block, 2000; Bond Dykstra, 1967; Brady Moats, 1997; Darling-Hammond, 1988; Moats Foorman, 2003; Sanders Horn, 1998; Snow, Barnes, Chandler, Goodman, Hemphill, 1997). SEDL program associate Stacey Joyner works with literacy coach Brenda Chavez at answers Bernalillo Middle School. Teaching all students to read is a complex task that requires teachers to have a sophisticated understanding of how students learn to david, read, a thorough understanding of lidl appropriate interventions that can be used to Essay, help struggling readers keep up with their peers, and an ability to use a variety of instructional strategies to meet the needs of all learners (National Reading Panel, 2000). Lidl Interview? It is clear that if schools are to rise to Branch Davidians: Essay, the challenge of leaving no child behind, they must take steps to ensure that all elementary school teachers are well-trained, highly effective reading teachers and that secondary schools develop effective literacy instruction, especially for struggling students who need to acquire strong comprehension skills and build vocabulary. High-quality training for all teachers, however, has been problematic in real school settings. It has been emphasized in a number of studies that the reading instruction training most teachers get is often limited both in time and quality (Dole, 2003; Fullan, 1991; Little, 1993). Training usually comes in interview answers, the form of workshops, lectures, or training academies. Meaning? In such training, teachers may get a little time away from their class for quick training during a professional development day a couple of times a year.
That is not the sort of interview training that results in deep understanding and high levels of instructional skill building (Joyce Showers, 2002). A handful of teachers go above and beyond the Davidians: Essay, most basic training to get richer, more advanced training in reading instruction. Those teachers may become reading specialistshighly trained, often certified professionals (NCES, 2004) who specialize in helping students who are struggling with learning to read in interview answers, the regular classroom. Schools have come to depend upon reading specialists to help struggling readers and are more willing to make substantial investments in the professional growth and development of those reading specialists. Unfortunately, the pullout approach does not appear to Davidians: A Cult, be very effective. In many schools, struggling readers are pulled out of their regular classroom for short, intensive sessions with a reading specialist. Interview? During this pullout time, the reading specialist may adhere to a specific reading program or may simply teach reading skills based on a student's needs or do a little of both. This short-term tutoring approach is used with the belief that struggling readers will learn effective reading skills and strategies from the reading specialist that they can then practice and use to crystal texting, help them when they return to their regular classroom. Unfortunately, the pullout approach does not appear to be very effective.
Walmsley and Allington (1995) reviewed research on lidl answers remedial and authoritarian special education reading programs,* finding that in virtually every study the evidence indicates that some children seem to answers, benefit enormously, but these children are not in the majority. They suggest that once these pullout programs are established for the struggling readers, the v for vendetta analysis, classroom teachers excuse themselves from the responsibility of interview answers making sure these students become good readers. Walmsley and Allington assert that, as a result of these pullout reading interventions, the students in Davidians: Essay, most need of interview instructional support may actually receive less support in the regular classroom where they spend most of their school day. Additionally, the good habits, skills, and who opposed deal strategies taught by the reading specialist may not be supported in the regular classroom, and struggling readers are likely to revert back to lidl interview answers, their old, ineffective reading habits. For example, while a reading specialist may know to direct the student's attention to sounding out unfamiliar words, offering help only when the student has reached a point of frustration, the classroom teacher may allow the student to simply guess at Davidians: Essay words on the page or may be more eager to identify the words for the student, thus teaching the student to depend upon the teacher for answers. As noted by Snow, Burns, and Griffin (1998), It is nothing short of answers foolhardy to make enormous investments in remedial instruction and then return children to classroom instruction that will not serve to maintain the texting, gains they made in the remedial program.
This traditional model of lidl interview depending on a few well-trained teachers to do most of the work with struggling readers is problematic for several other reasons as well. For example, many schools have difficulty coordinating the times that students are pulled from the classroom with the v for character, classroom instruction schedule, and answers there is Meaning of Chinese Proverbs and Idioms Essay also evidence that segregation from the regular classroom stigmatizes children (Leinhardt Pallay, 1982). Considering the tremendous cost of training and supporting a full-time reading specialist who works individually or in small groups with struggling readers, the gains in student achievement are not as substantial or long-lasting as one would hope (Walmsley Allington, 1995). Also, in many schools, there are simply too many struggling readers, and the reading specialist is not able to work with all of interview answers them. Many schools, especially elementary schools, now realize that if every child is to be a successful reader, then every teacher must be a well-trained reading teacher. In secondary schools, teachers often feel unprepared to support and instruct struggling readersthey generally have received considerably less preparation to teach reading than elementary teachers. The responsibility for high-quality reading instruction cannot be left to a few reading specialists; that responsibility must be shared by all teachers. Schools are looking for deal, effective but cost-effective ways to build the capacity of all classroom teachers, and many recognize that their reading specialists are in a good position to share their wealth of knowledge with the rest of the teachers. * Most of these studies were conducted in the 1980s and included works by R. Interview Answers? L. Allington and P. A. Johnston (1989); R. Branch Davidians: Essay? L. Allington and A. McGill-Franzen (1989); L. Carter (1984); L. Lidl? M. Gelzheiser, J. Meyers, and R. M. Proverbs? Pruzek (1992); K. A. Kavale (1988); B. Lidl Interview Answers? Larrivee (1985); G. Leinhardt and A. V For Character Analysis? Pallay (1982); C. A. Lyons (1989); R. E. Slavin (1987); and M. Will (1986), among others.
From Reading Specialist to Literacy Coach. Rather than having the reading specialist work with struggling readers, some schools are now asking their reading specialists to serve as reading coaches or literacy coaches, who provide ongoing, job-embedded training and support for the other teachers in the school to lidl answers, build their capacity and effectiveness as reading teachers. Researchers who examine issues related to v for character, teacher professional development are finding that the best-trained, most knowledgeable teachers (in any domain, not just reading) have had substantial support from a strong mentor or coach who helped them to learn new concepts and practice new skills in the classroom (Darling-Hammond, 2000). These highly skilled teachers get some training through workshops and lectures, but the training that has influenced their instruction the most has been ongoing and job-embedded with the support of a knowledgeable mentor or coach. Three Competencies of Effective Literacy Coaches. From our work and from other literature, we have identified three competencies that seem key to the success of literacy coaches. Effective literacy coaches. They are familiar with reading research, reading standards for their state, and reading assessments. They know what is to be taught at each grade level. Interview? understand pedagogy. They are familiar with best practices in reading instruction, they have a collection of effective strategies to draw upon, and they know how to manage a classroom of diverse learners so that the learning needs of individual students are addressed. They know that students learn in of Chinese Essay, engaging learning environments, and lidl answers they know how to who opposed the new, engage students in appropriate learning. Interview? understand coaching.
They know how to help other teachers learn, experiment, and apply new knowledge. They know how to facilitate meetings, use questioning strategies, and offer support. They do not simply share information with teachers, but instead work collaboratively with teachers to learn new information and strategies together. Shifting the role of reading specialists into a mentoring and coaching role responsible for Gesture, providing other teachers with support and guidance that improves reading instruction can be a powerful step toward improving achievement at low-performing schools. Lidl? Thousands of personality psychology schools are taking this step, in part due to the federal Reading First initiative, which considers coaches an lidl interview, important part of professional development. However, merely staffing a literacy coach will not guarantee substantial increased achievement. In addition to the requisite knowledge and skills about reading instruction, the effectiveness of the literacy coach likely depends on the roles and responsibilities that the coach has to Branch A Cult Essay, fill, the interview answers, level of support the coach has from campus and district leadership, and Davidians: the culture of the school where the lidl interview answers, coach is working. The recent proliferation of literacy coaches in schools across the country (International Reading Association, 2004a) has not been studied very thoroughly or systematically. Technology? There have been, to date, no evidence-based or data-driven empirical studies of the various factors that can influence the effectiveness of literacy coaches. However, there have been a number of less formal case studies of literacy coaches, and a good deal of useful advice can be gathered from recent books, articles, and papers based on the experiences of those who have established coaching programs. Examples of the current literature base include works by the International Reading Association (2004a, 2004b), which published a position statement about the roles and responsibilities of reading coaches and lidl interview included reading specialists and literacy coaches in its Standards for Reading Professionals (2004b).
Other examples include works by Lyons and Pinnell (2001), Dole (2004), and Symonds (2002) who examined the roles literacy coaches can play in literacy improvement and school improvement efforts. Walpole and Blamey (in press) surveyed principals and literacy coaches about their practices and their perceptions about the roles that they play in school improvement efforts. Based on our own work at Gesture Recognition Technology Essay SEDL in school improvement efforts involving literacy coaches and the experiences of others, we have recommendations that schools should consider when staffing a literacy coach. Although there are a variety of interview ways literacy coaching programs may be structured, the elements discussed below should be considered when establishing the coaching position and ensuring campus support of the position. Recommendations for the Literacy Coach's Role. 1. Literacy coaches are resources for the teachers, always trying to deal, provide support in a nonjudgmental way. Most of the examinations of literacy coaching initiatives have indicated that the successful literacy coaches are never put in a position of evaluating the job performance of other teachers. Interview? The principal or some other administrator is who opposed the new deal responsible for evaluating teachers and making decisions that may affect the pay, teaching assignment, or employment of the classroom teachersthe literacy coach should be. represented as someone who serves as a resource for teachers and lidl interview answers who provides support to help teachers improve reading instruction.
The literacy coach should take steps to establish a safe, supportive environment for improving instruction. Davidians:? Certainly the answers, literacy coach should observe instruction and provide feedback for the teachers, but the teachers should understand that the coach's observations are not used for formal evaluations of the teachers' performance. Teachers are less likely to trust a literacy coach who is evaluating their class performance, and in authoritarian, the absence of a trusting environment, they are less likely to take risks and try new approaches and strategies. 2. Most of the literacy coach's time should be spent working with teachers, but the coach's own professional development should also be a priority. Lidl Interview? The literacy coach's professional development should include reading articles, learning new strategies for david texting, instruction and lidl interview professional development, communicating with other reading experts, staying abreast of the research, and gathering information to share with the A Cult, other teachers. Time for the coach's own professional development should be explicitly scheduled and protected. It may be a good idea when first setting up the literacy coach position to specify what percentage of the coach's time will be spent working with teachers and what percentage will be spent on the coach's own professional development. 3. The literacy coach should not work with students unless it is to lidl interview answers, demonstrate lessons to teachers. The literacy coach is not a substitute teacher or a tutor. The time the literacy coach is working with students is not a time for the teacher to grade papers.
The literacy coach exists to provide training and support for other teachers. The coach should visit every classroom regularly (several times a week), and the coach should work with teachers to make clear plans about areas of instruction to work on and practice between visits and meetings. 4. Psychology? The literacy coach should clearly focus on lidl interview five areas of instructional support for v for vendetta character analysis, teachers: theory underlying instruction, demonstration of activities, observation of teachers practicing new lessons, feedback and reflection about instruction, and supporting collaboration among teachers. The coach should use objective and current data to inform the type of instructional support he or she delivers to teachers. For example, if assessments show that students are leaving kindergarten without developing phoneme awareness, the lidl interview answers, coach should emphasize the theory and practice of phoneme awareness instruction for the kindergarten teachers. Similarly, if data indicate that students are failing to develop appropriate fluency skills, the coach should emphasize theory and instructional activities related to vendetta, developing fluency. 5. The coach should facilitate frequent staff meetings devoted to examining samples of student work and assessment data, helping teachers interpret assessment information and use that information to provide more focused instruction based on student needs. These meetings should be designed to encourage questioning, discussion, and dialog.
The coach should also focus on building expertise and leadership within the staff. Recommendations for the School Leadership Support Role. The literacy coach cannot be effective without the consistent support of campus leaders. Initially, some teachers may not be enthusiastic about a literacy coach coming into their classrooms and may not welcome the support the literacy coach provides. Especially in lidl answers, the beginning, the principal and other campus leaders will need to play an active role to support the literacy coach.
1. The principal should communicate through both words and behaviors that the literacy coach is not evaluating the performance of the v for vendetta, teachers. As Cathy Toll (2004) suggests, Coaching is new to the culture of many schools, and staff members often feel suspicious about claims that the coach is there to help. In such situations, when a coach behaves like a supervisor, even subtly, those suspicions flare and the entire coaching endeavor is compromised. To this end, occasional positive comments from the principal can help to earn the teachers' trust and lidl answers help teachers to see the literacy coach as an advocate, a resource, and A Cult someone to help meet their needs. To facilitate this, the literacy coach may share positive comments with the principal who, in turn, may want to lidl interview answers, share the positive feedback with teachers.
This helps to reassure the teachers that the literacy coach is there to encourage and support good instructional practices. It also lets the teachers know that the principal is communicating with the literacy coach and is playing an active role in supporting the literacy coach. 2. The principal plays an important role in holding staff accountable for working with the literacy coach to david, improve instruction. There may be teachers who are reluctant to collaborate with other teachers or to work with the literacy coachit is up to the principal to encourage active participation from all of the staff. This is lidl interview a sensitive area, however, because it may undermine the trust that teachers should have for the literacy coach. Meaning Of Chinese Essay? It is best to begin with a clear expectation that teachers will accept support and will cooperate with the literacy coach to lidl interview answers, improve instruction. The principal should follow up regularly with the personality psychology, teachers and monitor whether the teachers are actually cooperating with the literacy coach. If the teachers are stubbornly reluctant, a direct intervention may be necessary.
But usually, just the consistent monitoring from the principal is sufficient to communicate an expectation for interview answers, collaboration and who opposed deal cooperation among the teachers. 3. The literacy coach and the principal should meet frequently (about once a week) to answers, discuss goals and plans for Davidians: Essay, activities. The principal, as a good instructional leader, should have a clear vision for improving reading achievement in the school, and the principal should work closely with the literacy coach to ensure that they are both working toward the same goals. Lidl? A collaborative relationship between the literacy coach and the principal will prevent the literacy coach's work from being undermined or derailed and will help the principal lead the school toward high levels of student success. 4. The principal should make sure that adequate resources are allocated to support the work of the literacy coach.
Class schedules may need to be changed to allow for common planning periods, or space may need to be designated for meetings or professional resources. Funding may need to who opposed deal, be provided for such professional resources as subscriptions to professional journals, trade books, or conferences. 5. When the interview answers, literacy coach organizes collaborative meetings for david crystal, the staff, the principal should attend as many of those meetings as possible. This helps the lidl, principal understand what is happening in the classroom and what he or she should be looking for when making classroom visits (something principals should be doing every week or so). Crystal Texting? Also, by attending those meetings, the principal may be able to help with decisions that are beyond the control of the literacy coach or any of the teachers present. Furthermore, the principal's presence communicates an expectation that every educator (including the principal) is expected to work with the literacy coach in interview, some capacity. It takes time for the coach, the principal, and character the teachers to lidl interview answers, get comfortable in their roles.
The addition of a literacy coach can be a cornerstone for improving reading achievement for a school, but the school principal and other administrators must clearly, consistently support the coach if he or she is to be effective. Teachers know how important it is for children to become proficient readers and they do not want any of their children to fail to develop this essential skill. It has been our experience that teachers are usually eager to have someone on staff who can support them and who opposed help them improve reading instruction, but they also frequently ask for help from the coach that the lidl interview answers, coach cannot provide (like reduction in class size, retention of students, help with discipline problems). The school leaders must work closely with the coach and the staff to set clear expectations and communicate clear boundaries for the work of the literacy coach. The literacy coach and Meaning of Chinese the principal should also work together to lidl interview, examine ongoing student assessment data and monitor the progress of their school improvement efforts. They should keep in A Cult, mind that the interview answers, gains in reading achievement may not be dramatic in the first year with a new literacy coach. It is not reasonable to expect a school to Meaning of Chinese Proverbs, suddenly turn around in a year or to expect instruction to dramatically change immediately. It takes time for the coach, the principal, and the teachers to get comfortable in their roles. However, with reasonable goals and consistent support over time, a literacy coach can gradually, but consistently, improve the reading instruction of all teachers, and that, in turn, benefits every student in the school. Bean, R. M. Interview Answers? (2004).
The reading specialist: Leadership for the classroom, school, and deal community. Answers? New York: Guilford. Bean, R. M., Cooley, W. W., Eichelberger, R. T., Lazar, M. K. Zigmond, N. (1991). In class or pullout: Effects of setting on the remedial reading program. Journal of Reading Behavior, 23 (4), 445464. The New Deal? Block, C. C. Lidl? (2000). A case for exemplary instruction: Especially for students who begin school without the precursors for literacy success. National reading conference yearbook, 49, 421440. Bond, G., Dykstra, R. (1967).
The cooperative research program in first-grade instruction. David? Reading Research Quarterly, 2, 5142. Brady, S., Moats, L. (1997). Interview? Informed instruction for reading success: Foundations for teacher preparation. [Position Paper]. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association. Darling-Hammond, L. (1988). Teacher quality and Davidians: educational equality. The College Board Review, 148, 1623, 3941.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (1), 142. Answers? Dole, J. A. (2003). Authoritarian Personality Psychology? Professional development in reading comprehension instruction. In A. P. Sweet C. Interview? E. Snow (Eds.), Rethinking reading comprehension (pp. Who Opposed The New Deal? 176191). New York: The Guildford Press. Dole, J. A. (2004). The changing role of the reading specialist in reform. The Reading Teacher, 57 (5), 462471.
Fountain, C., Cosgrove, M., Wiles, D., Wood, J., Senterfitt, H. (2001). The early literacy and learning model (ELLM): A collaborative effort of the interview, Florida Early Literacy and Learning Partnership. Jacksonville, FL: Florida Institute of Education. Retrieved December 10, 2004, from http://www.unf.edu/dept/fie/ellm Fullan, M. G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press. International Reading Association. (2000). Teaching all children to read: The roles of the reading specialist. [Position statement.] Retrieved December 8, 2004, from http://www.reading.org/ resources/issues/positions_specialist.html. International Reading Association (2004a). The role and qualifications of the of Chinese Proverbs Essay, reading coach in the United States. [Position statement.] Retrieved February 25, 2005, from http://www.reading. org/resources/issues/positions_coach.html International Reading Association. (2004b).
Standards for reading professionals. Retrieved April 15, 2005, from http://www.reading.org/ resources/issues/reports/professional_standards. html Joyce, B., Showers, B. (2002). Lidl Answers? Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Vendetta Analysis? Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia. Lidl Interview Answers? Leinhardt, G., Pallay, A. (1982). Restrictive educational settings: Exile or haven?
Review of Meaning Educational Research, 52 (4), 557578. Little, J. W. (1993). Teachers' professional development in a climate of educational reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15, 129151. Lyons, C. A., Pinell, G. Lidl Interview Answers? S. (2001). Systems for change in literacy education.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of personality psychology reading should know and lidl interview answers be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. David Texting? Moats, L. C., Foorman, B. R. (2003). Measuring teachers' content knowledge of language and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 2345.
National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to interview answers, read: An evidenced-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. NIH Publication No. 00-4754. V For Analysis? Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. National Center for Education Statistics (2004). Who teaches reading in public elementary schools? The assignments and educational preparation of reading teachers. NCES Issue Brief 2004034. Lidl Answers? Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences. Pikulski, J. J. (1994). Preventing reading failure: A review of five effective programs. Gesture Recognition Essay? The Reading Teacher, 48, 3039. Sanders, W. L., Horn, S. P. Interview? (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) Database: Implications for educational evaluation and character analysis research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education 12 (3), 247256. Snow, C. E., Barnes, W.S., Chandler, J. Goodman, I.F., Hemphill, L. (1997). Interview Answers? Unfulfilled expectations: Home and school influences on literacy.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. Authoritarian Personality? S., Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Sturtevant, E. G. (2004). The literacy coach: A key to improving teaching and learning in secondary schools. Retrieved January, 21, 2005, from www. all4ed.org/publications/reports/html Symonds, K. Lidl Answers? W. (2002).
Literacy coaching: How school districts can support a long-term strategy in of Chinese Essay, a short-term world. San Francisco: Bay Area School Reform Collaborative. Retrieved December 8, 2004, from http://www.basrc.org/ PubsDocs/LiteracyCoaching.pdf Toll, C. A. (2004). Separating coaching from supervising. English Leadership Quarterly, 26(4), 57 Walmsley, S. A. Allington, R. L. (1995). Redefining and reforming instructional support programs for at-risk students.
In R. Answers? L. Allington S. A. Walmsley (Eds.), No quick fix: Rethinking literacy programs in America's elementary schools (pp. 1944). New York: Teachers College Press. Authoritarian Personality? Walpole, S. and answers Blamey, K. L. (In Press). Building leadership for literacy: Principals and literacy coaches negotiating new roles. Journal of Literacy Research. Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2004). The literacy coach's handbook: A guide to research-based practice.
New York, NY: Guilford Press. Sebastian Wren and Deborah Reed were SEDL program associates who worked with SEDL's Regional Educational Laboratory intensive sites to improve reading instruction and v for vendetta character analysis student achievement. Copyright 2017 American Institutes for Research. All rights reserved.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to lidl interview use. Meaning And Idioms. But wait! I hear you cry. Answers. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isnít the point of the of Chinese Proverbs Essay essay that youíre supposed to be using information from the answers passage in your answer, which you donít know about ahead of texting, time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the authorís argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youíll be able to find in interview, nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in Gesture Technology Essay, your abilities. If you havenít already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now.
This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: Theyíre all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the authorís claim Theyíre all around the same length (650-750 words) Theyíre all meant to be analyzed and lidl answers written about in a relatively short period of Gesture Technology, time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just donít have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of lidl answers, that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatíll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues ówe've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of who opposed the new deal, reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage Ė if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts.
This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. Lidl Answers. So, without further ado, onto our list of Recognition Technology, multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Lidl Interview Answers. Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the Branch Davidians: A Cult Essay most unassailable methods authors can use to build an interview argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and Gesture facts are readily available.
Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an lidl interview answers official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and personality psychology Western Europe, the amount of light in lidl answers, the sky increases an authoritarian personality average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the lidl interview anecdote. Who Opposed. This type of lidl interview answers, evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of v for character, essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence.
Here's an lidl interview example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on crystal texting, the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of lidl, thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as ďAmericaís Serengeti.Ē Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because itís more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts.
People tend to put more faith in david crystal texting, experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of answers, wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an Proverbs and Idioms Essay anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. Lidl Interview Answers. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the david crystal majesty of witnessing the migration of the answers Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the Meaning Essay reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the lidl reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. V For. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but itís not always a major part of how the lidl interview answers author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out vendetta character support for a claim Ė an author may choose to use reasoning to lidl interview explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. Proverbs. One way in which an author might use reasoning to lidl persuade the reader to accept the Gesture Recognition Technology claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim.
Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by lidl Eliana Dockterman: ďYou could say some computer games develop creativity,Ē says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. ďBut I donít see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paintóa lot of really practical and creative endeavors.Ē But itís not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of Meaning Proverbs, view serves to make it seem as if the discussionís going to lidl be more ďfair.Ē This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. Character Analysis. But a true discussion of the lidl answers counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the authoritarian author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the lidl answers Dockterman article, the author not only who opposed deal mentions the opposite point of lidl interview, view but also takes the time to of Chinese Proverbs Essay get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence.
In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is lidl, integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. Itís the ďthinkingĒ ó the logic, the analysis ó that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is v for character analysis, one of the interview trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to Gesture Technology the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Lidl Answers. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MITís Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued studentsí interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.
Unfortunately, the explanation the of Chinese Proverbs Essay Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the lidl answers author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and Proverbs and Idioms the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the authorís argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the lidl answers author). Davidians: A Cult. In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and lidl thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the who opposed the new TV).
This clear pattern of lidl answers, data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the character reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to interview answers improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Branch Davidians: A Cult. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the lidl interview top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that donít seem to have purely functional purposes . Crystal Texting. Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: Öshow that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of interview, light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube.
Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the new deal, the authorís shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from lidl interview answers, Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the Davidians: A Cult audience's indignation at lidl answers the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and authoritarian only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to interview answers the reader. Authoritarian Psychology. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the interview answers previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the Gesture Recognition Technology passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and answers appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to psychology rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to interview fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of of Chinese Proverbs Essay, us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in interview, his speech, is an david crystal alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the answers war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to who opposed the new deal fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon lidl answers, their emotions to get them to agree that the Branch Essay Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for lidl answers, the poor.
Rhetorical questions , on Davidians: A Cult, the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the interview answers Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into personality thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is lidl, because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how youíll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and deal anxiety when the lidl test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to Recognition Technology excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Lidl Interview. Took the who opposed old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whatís changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score?
Check out our guide on how to answers score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Technology, Each SAT Section: Series: How to lidl interview Get to 600 on authoritarian, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!
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essay on dreams dismiss for 28 days 1 year info. [NOTE: This was the last work that Paine ever gave to the press. It appeared in New York in 1807 with the following title: An Examination of the Passages in the New Testament, quoted from the Old and called Prophecies concerning Jesus Christ. To which is answers prefixed an Essay on Dream, showing by what operation of the mind a Dream is produced in Davidians:, sleep, and applying the answers same to david crystal texting, the account of Dreams in the New Testament. Lidl? With an Appendix containing my private thoughts of a Future State. And Remarks on the Contradictory Doctrine in the Books of Matthew and Mark.
By Thomas Paine, New York: Printed for the Author. Davidians: A Cult? pp. 68. This work is made up from the unpublished Part III, of the Age of Reason, and lidl interview answers the answer to the Bishop of Landaff. In the Introductory chapter, on Dream, he would seem to have partly utilized an earlier essay, and crystal this is the only part of the work previously printed. Nearly all of it was printed in Paris, in English, soon after Paine's departure for America. This little pamphlet, of lidl which the only copy I have seen or heard of is in the Bodleian Library, has never been mentioned by Technology any of Paine's editors, and perhaps he himself was not aware of interview answers its having been printed. Its title is: Extract from the M.S. Third Part of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason.
Chapter the Essay Second: Article, Dream. Paris: Printed for M. Chateau, 1803. Interview? It is possible that it was printed for private circulation. I have compared this Paris pamphlet closely with an original copy of Paine's own edition, (New York, 1807) with results indicated in footnotes to david texting, the Essay, Dr. Clair J. Grece, of Redhill, has shown me a copy of the Examination which Paine presented to his (Dr. Grece's) uncle, Daniel Constable, in New York, July 21, 1807, with the prediction, It is too much for the priests, and interview they will not touch it.
It is rudely stitched in brown paper cover, and without the Preface and the Essay on Dream. It would appear from a note, which I quote at the beginning of the Examination, by an early American editor that Paine detached that part as the Essay only fragment he wished to be circulated. This pamphlet, with some omissions, was published in interview, London, 1811, as Part III. of the Age of Reason, by Daniel Isaacs Eaton, for which he was sentenced to eighteen months imprisonment, and to stand in the pillory for one hour in each month. This punishment drew from Shelley his celebrated letter to Lord Ellenborough, who had given a scandalously prejudiced charge to the jury. -- Editor.] IT is the duty of every man, as far as his ability extends, to authoritarian psychology, detect and interview expose delusion and error.
But nature has not given to everyone a talent for Branch A Cult Essay, the purpose; and among those to whom such a talent is given, there is often a want of disposition or of courage to do it. The world, or more properly speaking, that small part of it called christendom, or the christian world, has been amused for more than a thousand years with accounts of lidl interview answers Prophecies in the Old- Testament about the coming of the person called Jesus Christ, and v for vendetta thousands of sermons have been preached, and volumes written, to make man believe it. In the following treatise I have examined all the passages in the New-Testament, quoted from the Old, and called prophecies concerning Jesus Christ, and lidl interview I find no such thing as a prophecy of any such person, and I deny there are any. The passages all relate to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to anything that was or was not to happen in the world several hundred years afterwards; and I have shown what the authoritarian personality circumstances were to which the passages apply or refer. I have given chapter and verse for every thing I have said, and lidl interview have not gone out of the books of the Old and New Testament for evidence that the passages are not prophecies of the person called Jesus Christ. The prejudice of unfounded belief, often degenerates into the prejudice of custom, and becomes at last rank hypocrisy. When men, from custom or fashion or any worldly motive, profess or pretend to believe what they do not believe, nor can give any reason for believing, they unship the helm of their morality, and being no longer honest to their own minds they feel no moral difficulty in being unjust to personality psychology, others. It is from the lidl interview answers influence of this vice, hypocrisy, that we see so many church-and-meeting-going professors and pretenders to religion so full of trick and A Cult deceit in lidl interview answers, their dealings, and the new so loose in lidl answers, the performance of their engagements that they are not to be trusted further than the laws of the Davidians: country will bind them. Morality has no hold on lidl interview answers, their minds, no restraint on their actions.
One set of preachers make salvation to consist in believing. They tell their congregations that if they believe in Gesture Technology Essay, Christ their sins shall be forgiven. This, in the first place, is an encouragement to lidl interview, sin, in a similar manner as when a prodigal young fellow is authoritarian personality told his father will pay all his debts, he runs into debt the faster, and becomes the more extravagant. Daddy, says he, pays all, and on he goes: just so in the other case, Christ pays all, and on goes the sinner. In the next place, the lidl doctrine these men preach is Davidians: not true. The New Testament rests itself for credibility and testimony on what are called prophecies in the Old-Testament of the person called Jesus Christ; and if there are no such things as prophecies of any such person in interview, the Old-Testament, the New-Testament is a forgery of the Councils of Nice and Laodicea, and the faith founded thereon delusion and falsehood. [NOTE by PAINE: The councils of Nice and Laodicea were held about 350 years after the time Christ is said to have lived; and the books that now compose the New Testament, were then voted for by YEAS and NAYS, as we now vote a law.
A great many that were offered had a majority of nays, and were rejected. This is the way the New-Testament came into being. Branch Davidians: A Cult Essay? -- Author.] Another set of preachers tell their congregations that God predestinated and selected, from all eternity, a certain number to be saved, and a certain number to be damned eternally. If this were true, the 'day of Judgment' IS PAST: their preaching is in vain, and answers they had better work at some useful calling for their livelihood. This doctrine, also, like the former, hath a direct tendency to demoralize mankind. David Crystal? Can a bad man be reformed by telling him, that if he is one of those who was decreed to be damned before he was born his reformation will do him no good; and if he was decreed to lidl interview, be saved, he will be saved whether he believes it or not? For this is the result of the doctrine. Such preaching and such preachers do injury to the moral world.
They had better be at the plough. As in my political works my motive and object have been to give man an elevated sense of authoritarian personality psychology his own character, and free him from the lidl interview answers slavish and superstitious absurdity of monarchy and vendetta character analysis hereditary government, so in my publications on religious subjects my endeavors have been directed to bring man to answers, a right use of the reason that God has given him, to impress on him the great principles of divine morality, justice, mercy, and Meaning Proverbs and Idioms Essay a benevolent disposition to all men, and to all creatures, and to inspire in him a spirit of trust, confidence, and consolation in his creator, unshackled by the fables of books pretending to be 'the word of answers God.' In order to understand the nature of Dream, or of who opposed deal that which passes in ideal vision during a state of sleep, it is first necessary to understand the composition and decomposition of the answers human mind. The three great faculties of the mind are IMAGINATION, JUDGMENT, and authoritarian psychology MEMORY. Every action of the mind comes under one or the other of these faculties. [NOTE: This sentence is not in Paris edition. -- Editor.] In a state of wakefulness, as in the day-time, these three faculties are all active; but that is seldom the lidl case in sleep, and never perfectly: and this is the Essay cause that our dreams are not so regular and rational as our waking thoughts. The seat of that collection of powers or faculties that constitute what is called the mind, is in the brain. There is not, and cannot be, any visible demonstration of this anatomically, but accidents happening to living persons shew it to lidl interview answers, be so. An injury done to the brain by a fracture of the skull, will sometimes change a wise man into Proverbs a childish idiot, -- a being without a mind. But so careful has nature been of lidl interview answers that Sanctum Sanctorum of man, the brain, that of all the external accidents to david texting, which humanity is subject, this occurs the most seldom. But we often see it happening by lidl long and habitual intemperance. Whether those three faculties occupy distinct apartments of the vendetta character brain, is known only to that ALMIGHTY POWER that formed and organized it.
We can see the external effects of lidl interview answers muscular motion in all the members of the body, though its premium mobile, or first moving cause, is unknown to man. Our external motions are sometimes the Meaning of Chinese Proverbs and Idioms effect of intention, sometimes not. If we are sitting and intend to rise, or standing and intend to sit or to walk, the limbs obey that intention as if they heard the order given. But we make a thousand motions every day, and that as well waking as sleeping, that have no prior intention to direct them. Each member acts as if it had a will or mind of lidl interview answers its own. Man governs the whole when he pleases to govern, but in Gesture Recognition Technology, the interim the several parts, like little suburbs, govern themselves without consulting the sovereign. And all these motions, whatever be the generating cause, are external and visible. But with respect to the brain, no ocular observation can be made upon it.
All is mystery; all is darkness in answers, that womb of thought. Whether the Branch Davidians: A Cult brain is a mass of lidl interview matter in continual rest whether it has a vibrating pulsative motion, or a heaving and falling motion like matter in fermentation; whether different parts of the brain have different motions according to the faculty that is employed, be it the imagination, the judgment, or the memory, man knows nothing of. A Cult Essay? He knows not the cause of his own wit. His own brain conceals it from him. Comparing invisible by visible things, as metaphysical can sometimes be compared to physical things, the operations of these distinct and several faculties have some resemblance to a watch.
The main spring which puts all in motion corresponds to the imagination; the pendulum which corrects and regulates that motion, corresponds to the judgment; and the hand and dial, like the memory, record the operation. Now in proportion as these several faculties sleep, slumber, or keep awake, during the lidl interview continuance of a dream, in that proportion the dream will be reasonable or frantic, remembered or forgotten. If there is any faculty in mental man that never sleeps, it is that volatile thing the imagination. The case is different with the judgment and memory. The sedate and sober constitution of the judgment easily disposes it to rest; and as to the memory, it records in psychology, silence and is active only interview when it is called upon. That the judgment soon goes to sleep may be perceived by our sometimes beginning to Branch Essay, dream before we are fully asleep ourselves. Some random thought runs in the mind, and we start, as it were, into recollection that we are dreaming between sleeping and waking. [If a pendulum of a watch by any accident becomes displaced, that it can no longer control and regulate the elastic force of the spring, the works are instantly thrown into confusion, and lidl continue so as long as the spring continues to have force. Character Analysis? In like manner] [NOTE: The words within crotchers are only in the Paris edition. In the New York edition (1807) the next word If begins a new paragraph. Interview? -- Editor.] if the judgment sleeps whilst the imagination keeps awake, the dream will be a riotous assemblage of misshapen images and ranting ideas, and the more active the imagination is the wilder the dream will be. Technology Essay? The most inconsistent and the most impossible things will appear right; because that faculty whose province it is to keep order is in a state of absence.
The master of the school is gone out and the boys are in an uproar. If the interview memory sleeps, we shall have no other knowledge of the dream than that we have dreamt, without knowing what it was about. In this case it is Technology sensation rather than recollection that acts. The dream has given us some sense of pain or trouble, and we feel it as a hurt, rather than remember it as vision. If the memory slumbers we shall have a faint remembrance of the interview answers dream, and after a few minutes it will some-times happen that the principal passages of the dream will occur to us more fully. The cause of this is that the memory will sometimes continue slumbering or sleeping after we are awake ourselves, and that so fully, that it may and sometimes does happen, that we do not immediately recollect where we are, nor what we have been about, or have to do. But when the Gesture Technology Essay memory starts into wakefulness it brings the knowledge of these things back upon us like a flood of light, and interview sometimes the dream with it. But the most curious circumstance of the mind in Branch Davidians: Essay, a state of dream, is the power it has to become the agent of every person, character and lidl answers thing of which it dreams. It carries on conversation with several, asks questions, hears answers, gives and receives information, and it acts all these parts itself.
Yet however various and eccentric the imagination may be in the creating of images and ideas, it cannot supply the place of memory with respect to Davidians:, things that are forgotten when we are awake. For example, if we have forgotten the name of a person, and dream of seeing him and asking him his name, he cannot tell it; for it is ourselves asking ourselves the question. But though the imagination cannot supply the place of real memory, it has the wild faculty of interview counterfeiting memory. It dreams of persons it never knew, and talks to david, them as if it remembered them as old acquaintance. It relates circumstances that never happened, and tells them as if they had happened. It goes to places that never existed, and knows where all the lidl streets and houses are, as if we had been there before. The scenes it creates are often as scenes remembered. It will sometimes act a dream within a dream, and, in the delusion of dreaming, tell a dream it never dreamed, and tell it as if it was from memory.
It may also be remarked, that the imagination in A Cult, a dream has no idea of time, as tune. It counts only by circumstances; and if a succession of circumstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to lidl, the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has passed also. As this is the state of the mind in a dream, it may rationally be said that every person is mad once in twenty-four hours, for Technology Essay, were he to act in the day as he dreams in lidl interview, the night, he would be confined for a lunatic. In a state of wakefulness, those three faculties being all active, and acting in unison, constitute the rational man. In dream it is A Cult Essay otherwise, and, therefore, that state which is called insanity appears to be no other than a dismission of those faculties, and a cessation of the interview answers judgment during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep; and idiocity, into which some persons have fallen, is Proverbs Essay that cessation of all the faculties of which we can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory. In this view of the lidl answers mind, how absurd it is to place reliance upon dreams, and how much more absurd to make them a foundation for religion; yet the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, begotten by the Holy Ghost, a being never heard of of Chinese Proverbs and Idioms before, stands on the foolish story of an old man's dream. And behold the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not thou to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. -- Matt.
1. 20. After this we have the childish stories of three or four other dreams: about Joseph going into Egypt; about his coming back again; about this, and about that, and this story of dreams has thrown Europe into a dream for interview, more than a thousand years. All the efforts that nature, reason, and conscience have made to awaken man from it, have been ascribed by priestcraft and Gesture Technology Essay superstition to the working of the lidl devil, and had it not been for the American Revolution, which, by establishing the universal right of conscience, [NOTE: The words right of are not in of Chinese Proverbs, the Paris edition. -- Editor.] first opened the way to free discussion, and for the French Revolution that followed, this Religion of Dreams had continued to be preached, and that after it had ceased to be believed. Those who preached it and did not believe it, still believed the delusion necessary. They were not bold enough to be honest, nor honest enough to be bold. [NOTE: The remainder of this essay, down to the last two paragraphs, though contained in the Paris pamphlet, was struck out of the essay by Paine when he published it in America; it was restored by lidl an American editor who got hold of the original manuscript, with the exception of two sentences which he supposed caused the author to reserve the nine paragraphs containing them. Gesture Recognition Essay? It is probable, however, that this part was omitted as an answers, interruption of the essay on Dream. Personality? The present Editor therefore concludes to insert the passage, without any omission, in this footnote:] Every new religion, like a new play, requires a new apparatus of dresses and lidl interview machinery, to fit the new characters it creates.
The story of Christ in the New Testament brings a new being upon the stage, which it calls the Holy Ghost; and the story of Abraham, the father of the Jews, in the Old Testament, gives existence to a new order of beings it calls Angels. There was no Holy Ghost before the time of Christ, nor Angels before the time of Abraham. We hear nothing of these winged gentlemen, till more than two thousand years, according to v for vendetta character, the Bible chronology, from the time they say the heavens, the earth, and all therein were made. After this, they hop about as thick as birds in lidl, a grove. Vendetta? The first we hear of, pays his addresses to Hagar in the wilderness; then three of them visit Sarah; another wrestles a fall with Jacob; and these birds of passage having found their way to earth and back, are continually coming and going. They eat and drink, and up again to heaven. What they do with the food they carry away in their bellies, the Bible does not tell us. Perhaps they do as the birds do, discharge it as they fly; for neither the scripture nor the church hath told us there are necessary houses for them in heaven.
One would think that a system loaded with such gross and vulgar absurdities as scripture religion is lidl answers could never have obtained credit; yet we have seen what priestcraft and fanaticism could do, and credulity believe. From Angels in the Old Testament we get to prophets, to witches, to seers of authoritarian psychology visions, and dreamers of dreams; and sometimes we are told, as in 1 Sam. ix. Lidl Answers? 15, that God whispers in the ear. At other times we are not told how the impulse was given, or whether sleeping or waking. In 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, it is said, And again the anger of the lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go number Israel and Judah. Essay? And in 1 Chron. Lidl Answers? xxi. I, when the same story is again related, it is said, And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel. Whether this was done sleeping or waking, we are not told, but it seems that David, whom they call a man after God's own heart, did not know by what spirit he was moved; and as to the men called inspired penmen, they agree so well about the matter, that in who opposed the new deal, one book they say that it was God, and in the other that it was the lidl Devil. Yet this is trash that the church imposes upon the world as the WORD OF GOD; this is the Meaning and Idioms Essay collection of lies and contradictions called the HOLY BIBLE! this is the rubbish called REVEALED RELIGION! The idea that writers of the Old Testament had of a God was boisterous, contemptible, and vulgar.
They make him the Mars of the Jews, the fighting God of Israel, the conjuring God of their Priests and answers Prophets. They tell us as many fables of him as the Greeks told of Hercules. They pit him against Pharaoh, as it were to box with him, and Branch Moses carries the challenge. Lidl? They make their God to say insultingly, I will get me honor upon Davidians: A Cult Essay Pharaoh and upon all his Host, upon his chariots and upon lidl his Horsemen. And that he may keep his word, they make him set a trap in the Red Sea, in the dead of the night, for Pharaoh, his host, and his horses, and drown them as a rat-catcher would do so many rats. Great honor indeed! the story of Jack the giant-killer is better told! They match him against the Egyptian magicians to conjure with them, and after hard conjuring on both sides (for where there is no great contest there is no great honor) they bring him off victorious. The first three essays are a dead match: each party turns his rod into a serpent, the Meaning of Chinese and Idioms Essay rivers into blood, and lidl interview creates frogs: but upon the fourth, the Recognition Technology God of the Israelites obtains the laurel, he covers them all over with lice! The Egyptian magicians cannot do the same, and this lousy triumph proclaims the victory! They make their God to rain fire and brimstone upon answers Sodom and Gomorrah and belch fire and smoke upon mount Sinai, as if he was the Pluto of the lower regions. They make him salt up Lot's wife like pickled pork; they make him pass like Shakespeare's Queen Mab into the brain of their priests, prophets, and prophetesses, and tickle them into dreams, [NOTE: Tickling a parson's nose as 'a lies asleep, Then dreams he of another benefice. (Rom. and Jul.) -- Editor.] and after making him play all kinds of tricks they confound him with Satan, and Meaning of Chinese Proverbs and Idioms leave us at interview a loss to know what God they meant!
This is the descriptive God of the Old Testament; and as to the New, though the authors of it have varied the scene, they have continued the Branch Davidians: Essay vulgarity. Is man ever to be the dupe of priestcraft, the slave of superstition? Is he never to interview, have just ideas of his Creator? It is Branch Davidians: A Cult better not to believe there is a God, than to believe of him falsely. When we behold the mighty universe that surrounds us, and dart our contemplation into interview the eternity of space, filled with innumerable orbs revolving in eternal harmony, how paltry must the tales of the Old and New Testaments, profanely called the word of God, appear to thoughtful man! The stupendous wisdom and unerring order that reign and govern throughout this wondrous whole, and call us to reflection, 'put to shame the Bible!' The God of eternity and of all that is real, is A Cult not the God of passing dreams and shadows of man's imagination.
The God of truth is lidl not the God of fable; the belief of a God begotten and a God crucified, is Gesture Recognition Essay a God blasphemed. It is making a profane use of reason. Lidl Interview Answers? -- Author.] I shall conclude this Essay on Dream with the Recognition Essay first two verses of Ecclesiastics xxxiv. one of the books of the Apocrypha. The hopes of interview a man void of understanding are vain and false; and Gesture Recognition Technology dreams lift up fools. Whoso regardeth dreams is like him that catcheth at a shadow, and followeth after the wind.
I now proceed to an examination of the passages in the Bible, called prophecies of the coming of Christ, and to show there are no prophecies of any such person; that the passages clandestinely styled prophecies are not prophecies; and that they refer to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to any distance of future time or person.
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Free 2008 Mumbai India Terrorist Attack Essay Sample. The 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks refer to a series of eleven consecutive attacks that were carried out by unidentified terrorists in lidl interview answers Mumbai City, the largest city in India. The Mumbai attacks occurred on the twenty sixth night of November 2008. The coincidence of the who opposed, number of the attacks with the month it happened gave it the name “26/11” attacks. Interview Answers? The attacks consisted of eleven well coordinated shootings and bombings.
According to a report compiled by BBC News, the terrorists are believed to have Islamic background (Rabasa, 2009). Most of the terrorists were killed in counterattacks by Mumbai police. David Crystal? Only one terrorist was captured alive. It was further reported that the interview, terrorists must have received adequate assistance and support by external forces before executing the shootings and bombings. One of the suspect terrorists, Mr. Ajmal Kasab, who was the only attacker captured alive, confessed to Mumbai police that the terrorists received support from Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI). The 2008 Mumbai attacks were among the numerous terrorist attacks that the city had faced since another bombing of the same severity occurred in March 1993. The Mumbai 2008 attacks occurred on david, the Wednesday night of 26 th November 2008. The attacks were very severe and lasted for more than sixty hours. They involved cruel counter attacks between security agencies, police and the terrorists. Most of the shootings and bombings were carried out in the southern part of answers Mumbai.
The terrorists had primary target places which had huge gathering of of Chinese local citizens as well as foreigners, for instance, the Taj Hotel, Cama Women and Children’s Hospital, Metro Cinema and St. Lidl Interview Answers? Xavier’s College. Another explosion occurred at Mazagon port. The terrorists also managed to attack other secondary target areas. One day after the attacks, all parts of Mumbai that could possibly be targeted by the terrorists were put under tight security and continuous police surveillance. On the third day after the attacks, the National Security Guards (NSG) conducted an operation dubbed Operation Black Tornado to get rid of the attackers. This operation resulted into deaths of most of the attackers who were still at the Taj Hotel. Mr. Ajmal Kasab, who was the Meaning, only attacker captured alive, confessed that the terrorists belonged to a militants’ group called Lashkar-e-Taiba, which is lidl interview, based in Pakistan.
Lashkar-a-Taiba is considered a terrorist organization by the India government. When the Pakistan government was asked about the nationality of Mr. Ajmal, the Prime Minister agreed that he was a Pakistani. Gesture? Mr. Ajamal was later arraigned in court and sentence to death. The 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks resulted into various human impacts. First and foremost, most of the victims who survived have been suffering from trauma for a very long time. They get traumatized by the bombing experience and the scenes that were associated with it, for example, shooting of innocent friends or relatives by the terrorists. Additionally, most survivors suffered from serious body injuries that have rendered them physically disabled. Answers? This has further distressed the victims. The post attack effects were very devastating at Gesture Recognition Technology Essay both personal and lidl, family levels.
According to Kronstadt, the the new deal, terrorist attacks in Mumbai instituted a climate of great fear and terror amongst the people. The attackers took hostages in the target hotels, shoot and interview, killed several people (Kronstadt, 2011). Investigations by the police revealed that they mainly targeted Hindus and foreigners, especially British and American citizens. In addition, the attacks resulted into hatred and rage between America and Pakistan. For instance, in late 2010, various family members and relatives of American victims who died or got injured during the attacks sued Pakistan and the leader of v for vendetta character analysis its Inter-Service Intelligence unit, General Major Ahmed Shuja Pasha for mass killings of blameless persons.
Infrastructure Damage and Losses. The Mumbai bombings also resulted into interview astonishing and shocking destruction of the City’s infrastructure. First, the great and symbolic Taj Hotel was seriously destroyed, burned and reduced to who opposed the new ashes. Kronstadt asserts that the hotel was a great emblem of answers architectural work in India (Kronstadt, 2011). Furthermore, the hotel integrated India’s rich heritage with cultural iconography. Vendetta Analysis? It was an amalgamation of Indian culture, heritage and architecture with business and hospitality attributes of the country. Secondly, another hotel which was destroyed during the attacks was the Oberon-Trident Hotel, which served as luxurious meeting point for the rich and most influential people of interview Indian. Oberon-Trident Hotel also served as a symbol of India’s prestigious hospitality. It was also a sign of Recognition Technology India's growth and prosperity in interview economic activities.
The destruction of Taj and Oberon-Trident hotels was a great setback in the hospital industry of personality India. Thirdly, Chatrapati Shivaji Railway Terminus also suffered infrastructural damage. Chatrpati Terminus was a major railway station in India. Thousands of commuters from both local and international communities used this railway terminus regularly. Lidl Interview? It was ever busy and A Cult Essay, fully crowded. In my view, it was targeted by the attackers so that they could cause massive killing of persons and widespread destruction to humanity.
Its destruction was a severe setback to India’s transport system. Fourthly, in the south of Mumbai was Nariman house which was destroyed probably because it housed many Jewish leaders. Before the attacks, already there were tensions and minor conflicts between Jews and Muslims. In my opinion, therefore, the attackers must have considered it prudent to destroy Nariman house as a revenge attack to the Jewish community. Last but not least, the Mumbai bombings and explosions resulted into destruction of residential places, roads and business premises. Communication channels such as telephone lines were also destroyed. At communal level, the attacks resulted into great terror amongst the citizens of answers India. Various communities were afraid of crystal texting possible future attacks by the either the same terrorist organization or attacks from interview answers other groups related to Lashkar-e-Taiba.
Mumbai terrorist attacks also led to accusations, extreme revulsion and wrath between India and Pakistan. David Crystal? India pointed fierce fingers towards Pakistan government for alleged involvement in the attacks. Pakistan refuted these accusations. However, in February 2009, a minister from lidl Pakistan asserted that parts of the attacks were actually planed and coordinated from Branch Davidians: Pakistan. This further widened the rift, enmity and hostility between the two countries. In July 2006, similar attacks occurred in Suburban Railway in Mumbai where seven bombs were exploded simultaneous killing more than two hundred people. Answers? Investigations by the Mumbai police revealed that the attacks were conducted by Lashkar-e-Taiba in collaboration with Students Islamic Movement of India.
This resulted into negative attitudes towards the Islamic students in India. Muslims were hated and received discriminations from the indigenous community regardless of whether one was involved in authoritarian psychology the bombings or not. It also led to inter-community clashes. Furthermore, the attacks resulted into harsh and unbearable relationships between Pakistan and India. At first, Pakistan denied its involvement in the attacks, but later accepted India’s accusations on her involvement in the Mumbai bombings when she was supplied with adequate information relating the weapons used during the attacks, police interrogations and records of telephone calls that were made during the attacks. Reports compiled by the Indian government after a series of investigations revealed that Pakistan’s intelligence agency, ISI, provided support to the terrorists. Severe tensions rose between India and Pakistan. In addition, local communities condemned India’s political leaders and security forces for their negligence during the lidl interview, attacks. Citizens argued that the leaders did not give adequate protection to the people. On the other hand, the david crystal texting, security agencies were blamed for incompetence and weaknesses in disaster response. This cropped into interview answers poor relationships between the citizens and the new, their leaders.
Last but not least, there were sharp conflicts between Muslims and Hindus. The Islamic religion received global condemnation for causing deaths of innocent persons. The international community also reacted by fierce condemnations of the attacks. Direct and Indirect Loss. In my opinion, some of the direct losses incurred as a result of the attacks include loss of lives, severe injuries to survivors, destruction of both private and public properties such as hotels, business premises, and infrastructures such as railway lines.
It also caused internal displacement of persons as people were moving to areas that were considered safer. On the lidl answers, other hand, indirect losses include poor relationships between India and Pakistan, hatred between followers of Hindu and Islamic religions and reduced economic activities and development in Mumbai. Gross Domestic Product. In addition to the above mentioned effects, the crystal, 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks had stern negative effects on the economy of Mumbai City and India as a whole. Most business organizations responded to the attacks by interview answers, reducing their investments in India. There were observable changes in Davidians: Essay the trade, hospitality and transport industries. Moreover, those businesses that did not close their premises or relocate to other cities had to lidl answers incur additional expenses in acquiring self-defense mechanisms to david shield themselves from lidl interview answers possible future attacks. Businessmen and authoritarian, traders had to dig deeper into their pockets so as to meet such additional costs.
Businesses had to lidl interview spend again the little profits they had earned on david, hiring and improving security. This eventually resulted into reduced economic activities and consequently an enormous decline in India’s gross domestic product (GDP). In my opinion, the attacks greatly affected India’s GDP because Mumbai was the only commercial capital which was well established and prosperous. According to Rabasa, Mumbai was India’s financial soul. It was a city of answers growth and economic development for authoritarian psychology India (Rabasa, 2009). Lidl Interview? It accounted for more than ten percent of India’s tax income and approximately fifteen percent of India’s gross domestic product. Crystal? It was an important financial and commercial hub for India. Besides, the interview answers, places that were targeted by the terrorists were popular tourist attraction sites. This led to decrease in foreign exchange revenue from tourism since many tourists were not willing to visit Mumbai after the attacks. Tourists who had planned to visit Mumbai changed their plans and cancelled the trips.
The international community was scared, and so were the tourists. I may put forward that one of the main goals of the terrorists was to impede and slow down the rising economic growth and development of Mumbai. The key industries of crystal India’s economy were the targets, and thus were rigorously affected. This includes hospitality, tourism and transport industries. These industries continued to experience major economic shocks long after the attacks. Early Warning Signs. The 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks had various warning signs which if they could have been keenly observed, appropriate prevention measures could have been taken to stop it.
First and foremost, there was widespread communal rioting towards the end of 1992 when Hindu nationalists destroyed Babri Masjid in Ajodhya. This led to a massive repercussion of Muslims in Mumbai. Besides, there were killings of several Hindu workers in South Mumbai which resulted into counter-violence by the Hindus. Consequently, Muslims counteracted by bombing several parts of Mumbai in 1993, including the Bombay Stock Exchange. These violent and harsh activities experienced between 1992 and 1993 caused massive migration of people. The local communities were divided along religious lines. Muslims moved to cities where their majorities lived. Hindus too migrated to lidl interview towns where their majorities lived.
In my view, the v for analysis, repeated attacks in interview answers Mumbai City by Muslims exposed and symbolized deep-rooted hatred and Davidians: A Cult, hidden tensions and violence between the lidl, two religious groups. Similar attacks that were alleged to have been conducted by Muslims occurred in a train station in Mumbai in 2006. Davidians: A Cult? The attack was targeting massive killing of Hindus who were bordering a train. It was an attack of revenge meant to claim Hindus’ lives. I suppose that these reiterated attacks were adequate signals of possible future attacks. They indicated that something was wrong between the communities of interview answers Mumbai. I would further assert that the who opposed, 2008 terrorist attacks came at a time when India was already struggling with internal threats from minority terror groups. Furthermore, India has had three ferocious wars with Pakistan in mid 1948, 1965-66 and 1972.
This resulted into interview answers a bitter rivalry between the two nations, and thus a possibility of terrorist attacks from either country. All these were early warning signs of possible terror attacks. Systems of Attacks. The 2008 Mumbai attacks were well planned and coordinated. The callous and coldblooded operations of the terrorists left India stumbling under its impact.
The attacks entailed a mixture of urban warfare techniques and A Cult Essay, terrorism. It employed both traditional methods of answers killing targets by hand-thrown grenades as well as post-modern techniques of using auto-explosive bombs. It also deployed use of high-tech technologies such global positioning systems and satellite phones in communications. The satellite phones were used by the terrorists to communicate with their chief organizers and facilitators in Pakistan. They also employed Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to david crystal texting facilitate their communication and lidl interview, exchange of information. Additionally, it also mixed both land-based and sea-borne terrorism. The attackers first hijacked a ship in texting Arabian Sea, killed its crews before heading to shores of Mumbai. Furthermore, the attacks employed numerous tricks of terrorism such as firing guns, use of explosive grenades and taking people hostages. The terrorists focused at interview answers implanting confusion amongst the people and the security forces.
They later managed to overwhelm the security authorities with their mixed and well calculated tactics. Vendetta Analysis? The security forces were thus unable to respond effectively to the attacks. According to Rabasa, the terrorists attacked a total of lidl ten target places, five of which were major targets. Attacks on these target locations were carefully crafted and meticulously planned (Rabasa, 2009). These target places were of importance to India, and Gesture Technology Essay, thus the terrorists had specific and solid reasons to target them. The Indian government was criticized for its delayed response during the answers, attacks, poor disaster preparedness and delay in arrival of the who opposed the new, National Security Guards. In order to moderate the severity of such attacks in interview future, Indian police must be given adequate funds and proper training to improve its capacity and performance. The government should also acquire state-of-the-art weapons and missiles to replace obsolete weapons currently held at government arsenals. The Indian parliamenterians should also push for who opposed deal proper and interview, full implementation of who opposed the new deal Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendments Bill which would help boost security in the country. The security forces along the answers, coast and at border regions of Indian should be enforced. They should be well equipped.
Additionally, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) from United States of America predicted a possibility of terror attacks in India. However, these warnings were taken less serious. The government of who opposed India did not take any preventive measures either. In my view, therefore, such serious negligence by the government must be avoided in future. Similarly, private partnerships can formulate their own techniques of ensuring high security within their business premises, for lidl instance, through installation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems. The laxity of frontline security at the entrance of Meaning Essay major buildings gave the terrorists chances of entering into the hotel buildings with their grenades and guns without detection by metal detectors at respective hotel entrances. This indicates that private organizations should also tighten security levels in their premises.
Similarly, India should be willing to incorporate external assistance in times of lidl interview answers disasters. For example, in Gesture Recognition the 2008 attacks, little efforts were made to seek external assistance from neighboring countries. In conclusion, the 2008 Mumbai attacks is a good example of how evil terrorism can be. Lidl Interview Answers? It is, therefore, important for a government to provide adequate security to its citizens and be prepared enough for the unseen.